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Metal Matrix Composites

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ISBN: 9783038970873 9783038970880 Year: Pages: X, 282 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 11:56:53
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Metal matrix composites are a unique class of materials capable of circumventing the disadvantages of each category of materials they are composed of (polymers, metals, and ceramics). They can be designed using at least two categories of materials, harnessing their useful properties according to the designated end applications. In view of the compositional flexibility inherently associated with metal matrix composites, new materials with enhanced properties can be synthesized from practically all the metallic materials that are currently utilized in engineering and biomedical applications. This book, comprising 20 peer-reviewed papers, addresses the recent developments in the designing, processing, characterization, and potential applications of metal-based composites. The research articles cover composites based on light-weight materials (Al, Mg, and Ti) and other metal-based materials (Cu, Ag, and W), such as matrices and reinforcements from nano-length scales (such as ZnO, SiC, Y2O3, CNTs, Sm2O3, graphene oxide) to macro-length scales (such as tungsten fiber nets, saffil fibers etc.). The focus was placed almost equally on solid-state, liquid-state and two-phase synthesis techniques. Similarly, the elastic, mechanical, and thermal properties of the described composites are reported in detail. This compilation of papers will certainly be most useful for students, industrial professionals, and academics interested in learning and expanding their knowledge on metal-based composites.

Carbon Fibers

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ISBN: 9783906980690 9783906980706 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-906980-70-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:30:12
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Remarkably, truly novel structures are still being found for materials made of a single element: carbon. Perhaps there is a ‘revolution’ in carbon-only materials. Indeed, recently, two Nobel prizes were awarded for new forms of carbon: for fullerenes in 1996, and for graphene in 2010. And the magic and beauty of carbon nanotubes has held the attention of the scientific world for more than a decade. Yet, there is still more to discover and to explain. In this Special Issue, the focus is on just one area of carbon research: fibers. Even given this relatively narrow focus there is a diversity of research that is both compelling and frustrating. Compelling as it demonstrates the vitality of the subject, and frustrating as it makes it difficult to organize. The topics covered include new fiber fabrication protocols, the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced polymers, new techniques to study the microstructure of fiber containing composites, new uses of fiber structures, the use of carbon fibers as catalyst supports, and studies regarding the difficulties of machining fiber structures for inclusion in complex structures.

Grain-based Foods: Processing, Properties, and Heath Attributes

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ISBN: 9783038972181 9783038972198 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-219-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Technology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-12 08:51:53
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The Special Issue aims to provide a complete exploration of the scientific principles related to processing, fermentation/malting, and nutrition of cereal grains. It also describes their physical and chemical characteristics and explains how these properties relate to health and nutritional value of the final grain-based products. Indeed, while grains remain the world’s largest food yield—with more than 2.4 billion metric tons produced annually—consumer demands are on the rise for grain products sustainable from an environmental, social and economic viewpoint, in order to meet the growing demand for healthy and nutritious foods.

Titanium Alloys 2017

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ISBN: 9783038973041 9783038973058 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-305-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-18 12:09:00
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Titanium is a good example of a material that is globally recognized for its outstanding properties, making it desirable for a range of industries. Titanium and its alloys are utilized in a wide range of industries, including aerospace, automotive and high performance leisure equipment. This Special Issue of Metals focusing on titanium contains a range of articles based on research into this fascinating material and its wide range of alloys. For applications that can withstand the high basic cost of titanium it is shown that the unique properties of the material have the potential to provide further performance improvements to existing industries, whilst offering new opportunities to emerging markets.

Graphene-Polymer Composites

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ISBN: 9783038970415 9783038970422 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-042-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-13 11:10:39
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Presenting very high surface-to-volume ratio, relatively simple processability and low cost, graphene and graphene-related materials were soon identified as promising nanofillers for polymer matrixes. Reports have shown notorious property enhancements for graphene-polymer composites (GPC) at very low filler loadings. Uses of GPC in varied fields, such as energy, electronics, catalysis, separation and purification, biomedicine, aerospace, tribology, etc., have been demonstrated and, in some cases, put into industrial practice. However, challenges still exist. Platelet agglomeration within the polymer matrix is often seen to hinder performance improvements. Poor interfacial adhesion between filler and matrix is also a limiting factor in many systems, demanding for tuning the surface chemistry to promote physical or chemical interactions with the polymer chains. The range of routes for fabrication of graphene-related materials, leading to different morphologies, oxidation states, and degrees of platelet exfoliation, have an impact on the final properties of the composites that has not yet been fully addressed. Some argue that the potential of graphene, and its advantages in relation to other nanofillers, has not yet been clearly demonstrated for polymer composites. This Special Issue provides a state of the art view on the different facets of graphene-polymer composite materials, showing that this area of research is thriving and relevant advancements are still to be expected.

Towards an Integrated Approach to Measurement, Analysis and Modeling of Cortical Networks

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197620 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-762-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The amount of data being produced by neuroscientists is increasing rapidly, driven by advances in neuroimaging and recording techniques spanning multiple scales of resolution. The availability of such data poses significant challenges for their processing and interpretation. To gain a deeper understanding of the surrounding issues, the Editors of this e-Book reached out to an interdisciplinary community, and formed the Cortical Networks Working Group. The genesis of this e-Book thus began with this Working Group through support from the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis in the USA. The Group consisted of scientists from neuroscience, physics, psychology and computer science, and meetings were held in person (a detailed list of the group members is presented in the Editorial that follows). At the time we started, in 2010, the term “big data” was hardly in existence, though the volume of data we were handling would certainly have qualified. Furthermore, there was significant interest in harnessing the power of supercomputers to perform large scale neuronal simulations, and in creating specialized hardware to mimic neural function. We realized that the various disciplines represented in our Group could and should work together to accelerate progress in Neuroscience. We searched for common threads that could define the foundation for an integrated approach to solve important problems in the field. We adopted a network-centric perspective to address these challenges, as the data are derived from structures that are themselves network-like. We proposed three inter-twined threads, consisting of measurement of neural activity, analysis of network structures deduced from this activity, and modeling of network function, leading to theoretical insights. This approach formed the foundation of our initial call for papers. When we issued the call for papers, we were not sure how many papers would fall into each of these threads. We were pleased that we found significant interest in each thread, and the number of submissions exceeded our expectations. This is an indication that the field of neuroscience is ripe for the type of integration and interchange that we had anticipated. We first published a special topics issue after we received a sufficient number of submissions. This is now being converted to an e-book to strengthen the coherence of its contributions. One of the strong themes emerging in this e-book is that network-based measures capture better the dynamics of brain processes, and provide features with greater discriminative power than point-based measures. Another theme is the importance of network oscillations and synchrony. Current research is shedding light on the principles that govern the establishment and maintenance of network oscillation states. These principles could explain why there is impaired synchronization between different brain areas in schizophrenics and Parkinson’s patients. Such research could ultimately provide the foundation for an understanding of other psychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions. The chapters in this book cover these three main threads related to cortical networks. Some authors have combined two or more threads within a single chapter. We expect the availability of related work appearing in a single e-book to help our readers see the connection between different research efforts, and spur further insights and research.

Experimental Investigations of Deformation Pathways in Nanowires

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783866449053 Year: Volume: 8 Pages: VIII, 202 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000029369 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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This work deals with the experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of nanowires. Experiments are conducted in a dedicated system inside the electron microscope. The mechanical response of various material systems is probed, the underlying deformation mechanisms are elucidated and subsequently put into context with mechanical size effects.

Homogenization of the Linear and Non-linear Mechanical Behavior of Polycrystals

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Kontinuumsmechanik im Maschinenbau / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Technische Mechanik - Bereich Kontinuumsmechanik ISSN: 2192693X ISBN: 9783866449718 Year: Volume: 4 Pages: IX, 192 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000032289 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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This work is dedicated to the numerically efficient simulation of the material response of polycrystalline aggregates. Therefore, crystal plasticity is combined with a new non-linear homogenization scheme, which is based on piecewise constant stress polarizations with respect to a homogeneous reference medium and corresponds to a generalization of the Hashin-Shtrikman scheme. This mean field approach accounts for the one- and two-point statistics of the microstructure.

Materials Processing and Crystal Growth for Thermoelectrics

ISBN: 9783038975885 / 9783038975892 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-589-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-06 10:16:27
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This volume contains recent developments in the field of thermoelectric with a focus on materials research, including inorganic, polymer and composite materials as well as different approaches to materials processing. These studies are representative of some of the continuing technological development in the field of thermoelectrics.

Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038426905 9783038426912 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-691-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-12 11:37:17
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Thermochemical conversion processes convert biomass into gaseous, liquid and solid products named, syngas, bio-oil and char, respectively. Syngas and bio-oil are considered as alternative biofuels to fossil fuels and wide investigations are implemented currently on their production, purification, modification, and applications. Biomass chars have receiving an increasing attention since they lead to carbon sequestration, reduction of the amount of carbon rejected into the atmosphere and represent an friendly carbon source for numerous applications. In particular, biomass chars could be an efficient materials for energy production, syngas production and upgrading, water and air pollutants removal, soil amendment, fuel cells and supercapacitors development, and gas storage. Improving the knowledge of biomass chars elaboration techniques such as pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal carbonization is essential to determine the optimal production strategies for their economic viability. Furthermore, the characterization of the physicochemical, textural, structural and surface chemistry properties of the derived chars guide the selection of the suitable recovery processes in order to maximize their utility and therefore the benefits for the environment as well as for industries and agriculture.

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