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Assistance Robotics and Biosensors

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ISBN: 9783038973942 9783038973959 Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-395-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-29 11:34:28
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This Special Issue is focused on breakthrough developments in the field of biosensors, as well as on the current scientific progress in biomedical signal processing. The papers address innovative solutions in assistance robotics based on bioelectrical signals, including the following: affordable biosensor technology, affordable assistive-robotics devices, new techniques in myoelectric control, and advances in brain–machine interfacing.

Biofilm-Based Nosocomial Infections

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ISBN: 9783038421351 9783038421368 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-136-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-12 12:14:31
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Microbial biofilms have been implicated in a large number of acute and chronic infections, as well as in the failure of antibiotic treatment, particularly in hospitalized patients. In fact, the well-known persistence in the nosocomial environment of multidrug resistant microorganisms is believed to be highly promoted by the ability of the great majority of the involved bacterial and fungal species to adhere on living or abiotic surfaces, and to grow in sessile mode, to form single- or multi-species biofilms. In these communities, microbes grow encased in a hydrated matrix of extracellular polymeric substances produced by themselves and are well protected from the host immune response and the attack of antimicrobial molecules. Thus, the establishment of microbial biofilm communities on the mucosal and soft tissues of hospitalized patients, as well as on the surfaces of indwelling devices and medical instruments, is expected to have a great influence on the success of the antibiotic therapies against most of the bugs involved in nosocomial infections, being biofilm-growing bacteria and fungi much less susceptible to antibiotics.

Neural Microelectrodes: Design and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039213191 9783039213207 Year: Pages: 378 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-320-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Neural electrodes enable the recording and stimulation of bioelectrical activity in the nervous system. This technology provides neuroscientists with the means to probe the functionality of neural circuitry in both health and disease. In addition, neural electrodes can deliver therapeutic stimulation for the relief of debilitating symptoms associated with neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and may serve as the basis for the restoration of sensory perception through peripheral nerve and brain regions after disease or injury. Lastly, microscale neural electrodes recording signals associated with volitional movement in paralyzed individuals can be decoded for controlling external devices and prosthetic limbs or driving the stimulation of paralyzed muscles for functional movements. In spite of the promise of neural electrodes for a range of applications, chronic performance remains a goal for long-term basic science studies, as well as clinical applications. New perspectives and opportunities from fields including tissue biomechanics, materials science, and biological mechanisms of inflammation and neurodegeneration are critical to advances in neural electrode technology. This Special Issue will address the state-of-the-art knowledge and emerging opportunities for the development and demonstration of advanced neural electrodes.

Keywords

neural interface --- silicon carbide --- robust microelectrode --- microelectrode array --- liquid crystal elastomer --- neuronal recordings --- neural interfacing --- micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies --- microelectromechanical systems --- neuroscientific research --- magnetic coupling --- freely-behaving --- microelectrodes --- in vivo electrophysiology --- neural interfaces --- enteric nervous system --- conscious recording --- electrode implantation --- intracranial electrodes --- foreign body reaction --- electrode degradation --- glial encapsulation --- electrode array --- microelectrodes --- neural recording --- silicon probe --- three-dimensional --- electroless plating --- intracortical implant --- microelectrodes --- stiffness --- immunohistochemistry --- immune response --- neural interface response --- neural interface --- micromachine --- neuroscience --- biocompatibility --- training --- education --- diversity --- bias --- BRAIN Initiative --- multi-disciplinary --- micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) --- n/a --- silicon neural probes --- LED chip --- thermoresistance --- temperature monitoring --- optogenetics --- microfluidic device --- chronic implantation --- gene modification --- neural recording --- neural amplifier --- microelectrode array --- intracortical --- sensor interface --- windowed integration sampling --- mixed-signal feedback --- multiplexing --- amorphous silicon carbide --- neural stimulation and recording --- insertion force --- microelectrodes --- neural interfaces --- intracortical --- microelectrodes --- shape-memory-polymer --- electrophysiology --- electrode --- artifact --- electrophysiology --- electrochemistry --- fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) --- neurotechnology --- neural interface --- neuromodulation --- neuroprosthetics --- brain-machine interfaces --- intracortical implant --- microelectrodes --- softening --- immunohistochemistry --- immune response --- neural interface --- shape memory polymer --- deep brain stimulation --- fast scan cyclic voltammetry --- dopamine --- glassy carbon electrode --- magnetic resonance imaging --- system-on-chip --- neuromodulation --- bidirectional --- closed-loop --- sciatic nerve --- vagus nerve --- precision medicine --- neural probe --- intracortical --- microelectrodes --- bio-inspired --- polymer nanocomposite --- cellulose nanocrystals --- photolithography --- Parylene C --- impedance --- Utah electrode arrays --- electrode–tissue interface --- peripheral nerves --- wireless --- implantable --- microstimulators --- neuromodulation --- peripheral nerve stimulation --- neural prostheses --- microelectrode --- neural interfaces --- dextran --- neural probe --- microfabrication --- foreign body reaction --- immunohistochemistry --- polymer --- chronic --- electrocorticography --- ECoG --- micro-electrocorticography --- µECoG --- neural electrode array --- neural interfaces --- electrophysiology --- brain–computer interface --- in vivo imaging --- tissue response --- graphene --- n/a

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