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Protein Phosphorylation in Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199006 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-900-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Protein phosphorylation is one of the most abundant reversible post-translational modifications in eukaryotes. It is involved in virtually all cellular processes by regulating protein function, localization and stability and by mediating protein-protein interactions. Furthermore, aberrant protein phosphorylation is implicated in the onset and progression of human diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. In the last years, tens of thousands of in vivo phosphorylation events have been identified by large-scale quantitative phospho-proteomics experiment suggesting that a large fraction of the proteome might be regulated by phosphorylation. This data explosion is increasingly enabling the development of computational approaches, often combined with experimental validation, aiming at prioritizing phosphosites and assessing their functional relevance. Some computational approaches also address the inference of specificity determinants of protein kinases/phosphatases and the identification of phosphoresidue recognition domains. In this context, several challenging issues are still open regarding phosphorylation, including a better understanding of the interplay between phosphorylation and allosteric regulation, agents and mechanisms disrupting or promoting abnormal phosphorylation in diseases, the identification and modulation of novel phosphorylation inhibitors, and so forth. Furthermore, the determinants of kinase and phosphatase recognition and binding specificity are still unknown in several cases, as well as the impact of disease mutations on phosphorylation-mediated signaling. The articles included in this Research Topic illustrate the very diverse aspects of phosphorylation, ranging from structural changes induced by phosphorylation to the peculiarities of phosphosite evolution. Some also provide a glimpse into the huge complexity of phosphorylation networks and pathways in health and disease, and underscore that a deeper knowledge of such processes is essential to identify disease biomarkers, on one hand, and design more effective therapeutic strategies, on the other.

Role of Silicon in Plants

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453528 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-352-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Silicon (Si) is gaining increased attention in the farming sector because of its beneficial effects observed in several crop species, particularly under stress conditions. The magnitude of benefits is predominantly observed in plant species that can accumulate Si above a certain threshold. Therefore, deciphering the molecular mechanisms and genetic factors conferring a plant ability to take up silicon is necessary. Along these lines, several efforts have been made to identify the specific genes regulating Si uptake and distribution in plant tissues. This information finds its usefulness in identifying Si-competent species, and could eventually lead to improving this ability in low-accumulating species. The successful exploitation of Si in agriculture depends highly on the understanding of different Si properties including plant-available Si from the soil, transport within tissues, deposition in planta, and Si effect on different metabolic and physiological processes. In addition, a better comprehension of external factors influencing Si uptake and deposition in plant tissue remains important. A plant can take up Si efficiently only in the form of silicic acid and most soils, despite containing high concentrations of Si, are deficient in plant-available Si. Consequently, soil amendment with fertilizers rich in plant-available Si is now viewed as an affordable option to protect plants from the biotic and abiotic stresses and achieve more sustainable cropping management worldwide. Articles compiled in the present research topic touch upon several aspects of Si properties and functionality in plants. The information will be helpful to further our understanding of the role of Si and contribute to exploit the benefits plants derive from it.

Function and Flexibility: Friend or Foe?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199723 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-972-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Louis Sullivan (1856 - 1924) revolutionized architecture by designing the first skyscraper and he became famous by proclaiming that “form follows function”. When x-ray crystallographers visualized the structures of proteins for the first time, the structural biology field embraced the view that “function follows form” as the 3D-architecture of proteins could unveil various aspects of their function. Despite the original “1 gene - 1 protein structure - 1 function” relationship, nowadays a far more complicated picture emerges where the flexibility and dynamics of a protein can play a central role in a multitude of functions. The ultimate form(s) that a protein adopt when interacting with (a) partner molecule(s) are the most biologically relevant and in this context Sullivan’s quote is still appropriate: the conformation that the protein adopts follows from the function of that protein. Despite the fact that many well-characterized proteins have a well-folded structure, there is a growing interest in the conformational flexibility within proteins. This flexibility is also a balanced phenomenon: excess of flexibility can be detrimental for protein behaviour, as well as the lack thereof. Notwithstanding its importance, studying intrinsically disordered protein regions or conformational rearrangements can be a very challenging. Therefore, flexibility can be perceived as a friend or a foe, depending on the context. This e-book showcases the impact of the study of protein flexibility on the structural biology field and presents protein flexibility in the context of disease as well as its benign aspects. As detailed knowledge of the structural aspects of polypeptides remains essential to comprehend protein function, one of the future challenges for structural biology also lies with large macromolecular protein complexes. Also there the dynamics and flexibility are essential for proper functioning and molecular movement, which is an important aspect of living matter. This challenge stimulated the development of advanced techniques to study protein flexibility and the use of those techniques to address fundamental biological and biomedical problems. Those innovations should help us to unravel the intimate link between protein function and flexibility and explore new horizons.

In-Cell NMR Spectroscopy: Biomolecular Structure and Function

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ISBN: 9783039282548 / 9783039282555 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-255-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This Special Issue examines state-of-the-art in-cell NMR spectroscopy as it relates to biological systems of increasing complexity. The compendia of research and recent innovations from prominent laboratories in the field of solid state and solution in-cell NMR spectroscopy, metabolomics and technology development are presented. The work establishes in-cell NMR spectroscopy as the premier method for determining the structures and interaction capabilities of biological molecules at high resolution within the delicately intricate interior of living cells, and the means of utilizing cells as living laboratories to directly assess the effects of exogenous and endogenous stimuli on cell physiology.]

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