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Perspectives for the Next Generation of Virus Research: Spearheading the Use of Innovative Technologies and Methodologies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452156 Year: Pages: 191 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-215-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Abstract

Infectious diseases are associated with approximately 20% of global mortality, with viral diseases causing about one third of these deaths. Besides newly emerging and re-emerging viral infections will continue to pose a threat to human survival globally. In this case scientific advances have greatly been increased to defend against those pathogens. For example, rapid genomic sequencing, proteomics, epigenomics, nanotechnology, and other advanced tools are being applied to detect viruses at the point of care and to track their spread within human populations as well as to understand virus-host interaction and virus induced pathogenesis. From rapid identification of new viruses to prevention with vaccination and treatment with effective therapeutics, biomedical research has continuously provided tools to meet the constant threat of emerging viral pathogens. Despite these advances, each new disease brings unique challenges to scientists every year. So we must stay at the cutting edge of scientific discovery, working energetically to develop new tools to combat the ever-changing threats they pose. Our research topic highlights such advanced and new technology based virus research which definitely bolsters the researcher's ability to tackle emerging, re-emerging and stable viral pathogens. We are credulous that the papers including in the e-books will be beneficial to the experts in the field to understand the molecular, immunological, ecological and clinical aspects of the next generation researches for the prevention and control of infectious diseases caused by viruses.

Plant Proteomic Research

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ISBN: 9783038424291 9783038424284 Year: Pages: XII, 318 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-30 09:33:27
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Plants, being sessile in nature, are constantly exposed to environmental challenges resulting in substantial yield loss. To cope with harsh environments, plants have developed a wide range of adaptation strategies involving morpho-anatomical, physiological, and biochemical traits. In recent years, there has been phenomenal progress in the understanding of plant responses to environmental cues at the protein level. This progress has been fueled by the advancement in mass spectrometry techniques, complemented with genome-sequence data and modern bioinformatics analysis with improved sample preparation and fractionation strategies. As proteins ultimately regulate cellular functions, it is perhaps of greater importance to understand the changes that occur at the protein-abundance level, rather than the modulation of mRNA expression. This Special Issue on "Plant Proteomic Research" brings together a selection of insightful papers that address some of these issues related to applications of proteomic techniques in elucidating master regulator proteins and the pathways associated with plant development and stress responses. This Issue includes four reviews and 13 original articles primarily on environmental proteomic studies.

Plant Protein and Proteome Altlas--Integrated Omics Analyses of Plants under Abiotic Stresses

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039219605 / 9783039219612 Year: Pages: 558 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-961-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Integrative omics of plants in response to stress conditions play more crucial roles in the post-genomic era. High-quality genomic data provide more deeper understanding of how plants to survive under environmental stresses. This book is focused on concluding the recent progress in the Protein and Proteome Atlas in plants under different stresses. It covers various aspects of plant protein ranging from agricultural proteomics, structure and function of proteins, and approaches for protein identification and quantification.

Keywords

proteomic --- postharvest freshness --- ATP synthase --- ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit (chloroplast) --- chlorophyll fluorescence parameters --- photosynthetic parameters --- drought stress --- Triticum aestivum L. --- comparative proteomic analysis --- iTRAQ --- VIGS --- Jatropha curcas --- phosphoproteomics --- seedling --- chilling stress --- regulated mechanism --- Alternanthera philoxeroides --- proteomic --- stem --- potassium --- stress --- Salinity stress --- Dunaliella salina --- isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation --- differentially abundant proteins --- proteomics --- arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi --- salt stress --- E. angustifolia --- proteomics --- wheat --- root --- wood vinegar --- drought stress --- ROS --- ABA --- proteome --- maize --- AGPase --- phosphorylation --- brittle-2 --- phos-tagTM --- MIPS --- exon-intron structure diversity --- Gossypium hirsutum --- loss-of-function mutant --- root cell elongation --- CHA-SQ-1 --- cytomorphology --- pollen abortion --- proteomics --- wheat --- cotton --- somatic embryogenesis --- transdifferentiation --- quantitative proteomics --- regulation and metabolism --- molecular basis --- concerted network --- maize --- phosphoproteomics --- salt tolerance --- label-free quantification --- root and shoot --- sugar beet --- salt stress --- S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase --- ROS --- antioxidant enzyme --- cotton --- somatic embryogenesis --- transdifferentiation --- widely targeted metabolomics --- purine metabolism --- flavonoid biosynthesis --- molecular and biochemical basis --- transcript-metabolite network --- leaf sheath --- maturation --- transcriptional dynamics --- transcriptome --- abiotic stress --- silicate limitation --- diatom --- iTRAQ --- proteomics --- photosynthesis --- carbon fixation --- natural rubber biosynthesis --- mass spectrometry --- rubber grass --- rubber latex --- shotgun proteomics --- Taraxacum kok-saghyz --- two-dimensional gel electrophoresis --- visual proteome map --- proteomics --- wheat --- drought --- leaf --- iTRAQ --- micro-exons --- constitutive splicing --- alternative splicing --- ancient genes --- domain --- radish --- heat stress --- transcriptome sequencing --- lncRNA --- miRNA --- physiological response --- Millettia pinnata --- woody oilseed plants --- seed development --- miRNA --- nitrogen fertilizer --- rice --- proteome --- cultivars --- nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) --- Nelumbo nucifera --- phylogeny --- genomics --- molecular mechanisms --- model plant --- proteomes --- iTRAQ --- filling kernel --- drought stress --- heat shock proteins --- Zea mays L. --- wucai --- low-temperature stress --- high-temperature stress --- proteomics --- redox homeostasis --- GLU1 --- glutathione --- heat response --- heat-sensitive spinach variety --- proteomics --- ROS scavenging --- inositol --- phosphatidylinositol --- phosphatase --- stress --- signaling pathway --- integrated omics --- plants under stress --- post-genomics era --- proteome atlas --- quantitative proteomics

Thioredoxin and Glutaredoxin Systems

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ISBN: 9783038978367 9783038978374 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-837-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This Special Issue features recent data concerning thioredoxins and glutaredoxins from various biological systems, including bacteria, mammals, and plants. Four of the sixteen articles are review papers that deal with the regulation of development of the effect of hydrogen peroxide and the interactions between oxidants and reductants, the description of methionine sulfoxide reductases, detoxification enzymes that require thioredoxin or glutaredoxin, and the response of plants to cold stress, respectively. This is followed by eleven research articles that focus on a reductant of thioredoxin in bacteria, a thioredoxin reductase, and a variety of plant and bacterial thioredoxins, including the m, f, o, and h isoforms and their targets. Various parameters are studied, including genetic, structural, and physiological properties of these systems. The redox regulation of monodehydroascorbate reductase, aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, and cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase could have very important consequences in plant metabolism. Also, the properties of the mitochondrial o-type thioredoxins and their unexpected capacity to bind iron–sulfur center (ISC) structures open new developments concerning the redox mitochondrial function and possibly ISC assembly in mitochondria. The final paper discusses interesting biotechnological applications of thioredoxin for breadmaking.

Keywords

methionine --- methionine sulfoxide --- methionine sulfoxide reductase --- physiological function --- protein --- plant --- repair --- redox homeostasis --- signaling --- stress --- mitochondria --- thioredoxin --- iron–sulfur cluster --- redox regulation --- ALAD --- tetrapyrrole biosynthesis --- redox control --- thioredoxins --- posttranslational modification --- chlorophyll --- redox regulation --- thioredoxin --- ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase --- chloroplast --- H2O2 --- redox signalling --- development --- regeneration --- adult stem cells --- metazoan --- cyanobacteria --- thioredoxin --- photosynthesis --- redox active site --- thioredoxin --- disulfide --- flavin --- NADPH --- X-ray crystallography --- SAXS --- methanoarchaea --- chilling stress --- cold temperature --- posttranslational modification --- regulation --- ROS --- thiol redox network --- thioredoxin --- thioredoxin --- Calvin-Benson cycle --- photosynthesis --- carbon fixation --- chloroplast --- macromolecular crystallography --- protein-protein recognition --- electrostatic surface --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- thioredoxin --- glutaredoxin --- legume plant --- symbiosis --- redox homeostasis --- stress --- thioredoxin --- monodehydroascorbate reductase --- water stress --- protein oxidation --- antioxidants --- ascorbate --- glutathione --- wheat --- thioredoxin --- thioredoxin reductase --- baking --- redox --- dough rheology --- protein oxidation --- methionine oxidation --- methionine sulfoxide reductases --- oxidized protein repair --- ageing --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- cysteine alkylation --- cysteine reactivity --- MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry --- thioredoxin --- X-ray crystallography --- Isocitrate dehydrogenase --- glutathionylation --- nitrosylation --- glutaredoxin --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- thioredoxins --- plastidial --- specificity --- function --- proteomic --- photosynthesis --- Calvin cycle --- n/a

Stem Cell and Biologic Scaffold Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039214976 9783039214983 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-498-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving research field which effectively combines stem cells and biologic scaffolds in order to replace damaged tissues. Biologic scaffolds can be produced through the removal of resident cellular populations using several tissue engineering approaches, such as the decellularization method. Indeed, the decellularization method aims to develop a cell-free biologic scaffold while keeping the extracellular matrix (ECM) intact. Furthermore, biologic scaffolds have been investigated for their in vitro potential for whole organ development. Currently, clinical products composed of decellularized matrices, such as pericardium, urinary bladder, small intestine, heart valves, nerve conduits, trachea, and vessels, are being evaluated for use in human clinical trials. Tissue engineering strategies require the interaction of biologic scaffolds with cellular populations. Among them, stem cells are characterized by unlimited cell division, self-renewal, and differentiation potential, distinguishing themselves as a frontline source for the repopulation of decellularized matrices and scaffolds. Under this scheme, stem cells can be isolated from patients, expanded under good manufacturing practices (GMPs), used for the repopulation of biologic scaffolds and, finally, returned to the patient. The interaction between scaffolds and stem cells is thought to be crucial for their infiltration, adhesion, and differentiation into specific cell types. In addition, biomedical devices such as bioreactors contribute to the uniform repopulation of scaffolds. Until now, remarkable efforts have been made by the scientific society in order to establish the proper repopulation conditions of decellularized matrices and scaffolds. However, parameters such as stem cell number, in vitro cultivation conditions, and specific growth media composition need further evaluation. The ultimate goal is the development of “artificial” tissues similar to native ones, which is achieved by properly combining stem cells and biologic scaffolds and thus bringing them one step closer to personalized medicine. The original research articles and comprehensive reviews in this Special Issue deal with the use of stem cells and biologic scaffolds that utilize state-of-the-art tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches.

Systems Analytics and Integration of Big Omics Data

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ISBN: 9783039287444 / 9783039287451 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-745-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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A “genotype"" is essentially an organism's full hereditary information which is obtained from its parents. A ""phenotype"" is an organism's actual observed physical and behavioral properties. These may include traits such as morphology, size, height, eye color, metabolism, etc. One of the pressing challenges in computational and systems biology is genotype-to-phenotype prediction. This is challenging given the amount of data generated by modern Omics technologies. This “Big Data” is so large and complex that traditional data processing applications are not up to the task. Challenges arise in collection, analysis, mining, sharing, transfer, visualization, archiving, and integration of these data. In this Special Issue, there is a focus on the systems-level analysis of Omics data, recent developments in gene ontology annotation, and advances in biological pathways and network biology. The integration of Omics data with clinical and biomedical data using machine learning is explored. This Special Issue covers new methodologies in the context of gene–environment interactions, tissue-specific gene expression, and how external factors or host genetics impact the microbiome.

Keywords

tissue-specific expressed genes --- transcriptome --- tissue classification --- support vector machine --- feature selection --- bioinformatics pipelines --- algorithm development for network integration --- miRNA–gene expression networks --- multiomics integration --- network topology analysis --- candidate genes --- gene–environment interactions --- logic forest --- systemic lupus erythematosus --- Gene Ontology --- KEGG pathways --- enrichment analysis --- proteomic analysis --- plot visualization --- Alzheimer’s disease --- dementia --- cognitive impairment --- neurodegeneration --- Gene Ontology --- annotation --- biocuration --- amyloid-beta --- microtubule-associated protein tau --- artificial intelligence --- genotype --- phenotype --- deep phenotype --- data integration --- genomics --- phenomics --- precision medicine informatics --- epigenetics --- chromatin modification --- sequencing --- regulatory genomics --- disease variants --- machine learning --- multi-omics --- data integration --- curse of dimensionality --- heterogeneous data --- missing data --- class imbalance --- scalability --- genomics --- pharmacogenomics --- cell lines --- database --- drug sensitivity --- data integration --- omics data --- genomics --- RNA expression --- non-omics data --- clinical data --- epidemiological data --- challenges --- integrative analytics --- joint modeling --- multivariate analysis --- multivariate causal mediation --- distance correlation --- direct effect --- indirect effect --- causal inference --- n/a

Adipokines 2.0

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ISBN: 9783039285860 / 9783039285877 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-587-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Once viewed solely as fat storage cells, adipocytes and their adipokines have now been proven to be central for human health. Understanding that overweight and obesity may increase the risk for various diseases requires detailed characterization of adipokine function. Weight gain, weight regain, and fasting affect adipocyte health and accordingly their secretome. Different adipose tissue deposits exist and they vary in cellular composition and function. The evidence is strong of a role of adipokines in cancer, reproductive function, neurological diseases, cardiovascular diseases ,and rheumatoid arthritis. Adipokines are considered useful biomarkers for adipose tissue and metabolic health, and may be used as diagnostic tools in rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, or sepsis. This book contains 10 original articles and 9 review articles focusing on these bioactive peptides. Several articles deal with chemerin, an adipokine discovered more than 20 years ago. Data so far have resulted in promising insights related to its biological function. We are only beginning to understand the multiple roles of chemerin, the mechanisms regulating its activity, and the signaling pathways used by this chemokine. Adipokine receptor agonists and antagonists may result in the formulation of novel drugs and ultimately may lead to new therapeutic targets to be used in clinical practice.

Keywords

adipokines --- secreted frizzled-related protein 5 --- leptin --- ghrelin --- excessive gestational weight gain --- neonatal anthropometry --- obesity --- proteolysis --- Tango bioassay --- biologic activity --- chemerin receptors --- excessive gestational weight gain --- neonatal anthropometry --- leptin --- ghrelin --- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease --- fatty liver --- free fatty acids --- label-free proteomic profiling --- adipokine --- obesity --- visceral fat --- sick fat --- annexins --- adipose tissue --- adiponectin --- cholesterol --- glucose homeostasis --- inflammation --- insulin --- lipid metabolism --- obesity --- triglycerides --- adipokine --- chemerin --- leukocyte --- cancer --- adipokines --- PCOS --- polycystic ovary morphology --- follicular fluid --- human granulosa cells --- chemerin --- chemerin receptors --- hypothalamus --- oestrous cycle --- early pregnancy --- pig --- alpha-fetoprotein --- liver steatosis --- hypertension --- adipokines --- SGBS adipocytes --- glucose restriction --- in vitro fat regain --- weight regain --- complement factors --- cathepsins --- extracellular remodeling --- adipokine --- rheumatic diseases --- inflammation --- osteoarthritis --- rheumatoid arthritis --- ovary --- testis --- adipose tissue --- polycystic ovary syndrome --- preeclempsia --- gestational diabetes --- testicular pathologies --- rheumatoid arthritis --- tocilizumab --- lipids --- adipokines --- adiponectin --- resistin --- leptin --- cancer --- obesity --- adipokine --- chemerin --- chemokine-like receptor 1 --- G protein-coupled receptor 1 --- C-C chemokine receptor-like 2 --- critical illness --- sepsis --- adipokines --- biomarker --- prognosis --- ICU --- adipokine --- adipose-brain axis --- brain health --- neurodegeneration --- depression --- energy metabolism --- inflammation --- hypothalamus --- microglia --- adiponectin --- adipokine --- myokine --- fitness --- metabolically healthy obese --- early-life programming --- epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) --- prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) --- EP3 receptor --- EP4 receptor --- exchange protein directly activated by cAMP isoform 2 (EPAC2) --- stimulating growth factor 2 (ST2) --- interleukin(IL)-33 --- Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) --- fat mass --- n/a

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