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Ethical Programs: Hospitality and the Rhetorics of Software

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ISBN: 9780472072736 9780472052738 9780472900084 9780472121236 Year: Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-01 17:02:26
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Living in a networked world means never really getting to decide in any thoroughgoing way who or what enters your “space” (your laptop, your iPhone, your thermostat…your home). With this as a basic frame-of-reference, James J. Brown’s Ethical Programs examines and explores the rhetorical potential and problems of an hospitality ethos suited to a new era of hosts and guests. Brown reads a range of computational strategies and actors including the general principles underwriting the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which determines how packets of information can travel through the internet, to the Obama election campaign’s use of the power of protocols to reach voters, harvest their data, incentivize and, ultimately, shape their participation in the campaign. In demonstrating the kind of rhetorical spaces networked software establishes and the access it permits, prevents, and molds, Brown makes a major contribution to the emergent discourse of software studies as a major component of efforts in broad fields including media studies, rhetorical studies, and cultural studies.

Novel clinical applications of extracellular vesicles

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196456 Year: Pages: 66 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-645-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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During the last years, the research on extracellular vesicles (EVs) has raised giving new insights into pathophysiology of several diseases. EVs are membrane-bound particles secreted by almost all cell types. Depending on their biogenesis and size they include exosomes, microparticles / microvesicles and apoptotic bodies. Characteristically, EVs carry markers from the source cell membrane and contain genetic material, lipids and proteins inside. They are known to play a role in cell-to-cell communication and to produce genotypic and phenotypic modifications in the target cell including: antigen presentation, apoptosis induction, cellular activation, inhibition or differentiation. In particular, increasing concentrations of EVs have been found in many diseases such as cancer, autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases, among others. Most of the studies in EVs are focused on the characterization of EVs compounds, identifying mechanism of action, their potential use as biomarkers, and few of them investigate a therapeutic usage. However, there are some issues to be achieved on the path to their clinical application. This research topic offers a common place to discuss current and novel clinical applications of EVs pointing on future directions. We encouraged the submission of original articles, reviews, hypothesis, controversies, future perspectives and personal viewpoints on the following topics of interest, but not limited to: • Contribution of EVs to better understand the pathology of immunological diseases. • Standardization of isolation and quantification protocols in the daily clinical practice. • Possible applications of EVs as clinical biomarkers (diagnostic, prognostic and evolution marker). • Therapeutic role of EVs being vehicles of specific cargo: current clinical trials? • Novel immunological functions of EVs.

Mind over brain, brain over mind: cognitive causes and consequences of controlling brain activity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194889 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-488-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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This Research Topic combines articles aiming to gain a better understanding on different factors that determine whether people are successful or not in controlling computerized devices with brain signals. Since decades, technological advancements in neuroscience allow the interpretation of brain signals and their translation into control messages (Brain-computer interface (BCI)). Moreover, the control of brain signals can be used to induce changes in cognition and behavior (Neurofeedback (NF)). However, the break-through of this technology for the broad population in real-world applications has not yet arrived. Various factors have been related to the individual success in controlling computerized devices with brain signals, but to date, no general theoretical framework is available. In this Research Topic, aspects of the training protocol such as instructions, task and feedback as well as cognitive and psychological traits such as motivation, mood, locus of control and empathy are investigated as determinants of BCI or NF performance. Moreover, the mechanisms and networks involved in gaining and maintaining control over brain activity as well as its prediction are addressed. Finally, as the ultimate goal of this research is to use BCI and NF for communication or control and therapy, respectively, novel applications for individuals with disabilities or disorders are discussed.

One Hundred Years of Chemical Warfare: Research, Deployment, Consequences

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783319516639 9783319516646 Year: Pages: 408 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51664-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 14:31:06
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On April 22, 1915, the German military released 150 tons of chlorine gas at Ypres, Belgium. Carried by a long-awaited wind, the chlorine cloud passed within a few minutes through the British and French trenches, leaving behind at least 1,000 dead and 4,000 injured. This chemical attack, which amounted to the first use of a weapon of mass destruction, marks a turning point in world history. The preparation as well as the execution of the gas attack was orchestrated by Fritz Haber, the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Berlin-Dahlem. During World War I, Haber transformed his research institute into a center for the development of chemical weapons (and of the means of protection against them).Bretislav Friedrich and Martin Wolf (Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, the successor institution of Haber’s institute) together with Dieter Hoffmann, Jürgen Renn, and Florian Schmaltz (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science) organized an international symposium to commemorate the centenary of the infamous chemical attack. The symposium examined crucial facets of chemical warfare from the first research on and deployment of chemical weapons in WWI to the development and use of chemical warfare during the century hence. The focus was on scientific, ethical, legal, and political issues of chemical weapons research and deployment — including the issue of dual use — as well as the ongoing effort to control the possession of chemical weapons and to ultimately achieve their elimination.The volume consists of papers presented at the symposium and supplemented by additional articles that together cover key aspects of chemical warfare from 22 April 1915 until the summer of 2015.

Quantum Probability and Randomness

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977148 9783038977155 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-715-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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The last few years have been characterized by a tremendous development of quantum information and probability and their applications, including quantum computing, quantum cryptography, and quantum random generators. In spite of the successful development of quantum technology, its foundational basis is still not concrete and contains a few sandy and shaky slices. Quantum random generators are one of the most promising outputs of the recent quantum information revolution. Therefore, it is very important to reconsider the foundational basis of this project, starting with the notion of irreducible quantum randomness. Quantum probabilities present a powerful tool to model uncertainty. Interpretations of quantum probability and foundational meaning of its basic tools, starting with the Born rule, are among the topics which will be covered by this issue. Recently, quantum probability has started to play an important role in a few areas of research outside quantum physics—in particular, quantum probabilistic treatment of problems of theory of decision making under uncertainty. Such studies are also among the topics of this issue.

Keywords

quantum logic --- groups --- partially defined algebras --- quasigroups --- viable cultures --- quantum information theory --- bit commitment --- protocol --- entropy --- entanglement --- orthogonality --- quantum computation --- Gram–Schmidt process --- quantum probability --- potentiality --- complementarity --- uncertainty relations --- Copenhagen interpretation --- indefiniteness --- indeterminism --- causation --- randomness --- quantum information --- quantum dynamics --- entanglement --- algebra --- causality --- geometry --- probability --- quantum information theory --- realism --- reality --- entropy --- correlations --- qubits --- probability representation --- Bayes’ formula --- quantum entanglement --- three-qubit random states --- entanglement classes --- entanglement polytope --- anisotropic invariants --- quantum random number --- vacuum state --- maximization of quantum conditional min-entropy --- quantum logics --- quantum probability --- holistic semantics --- epistemic operations --- Bell inequalities --- algorithmic complexity --- Borel normality --- Bayesian inference --- model selection --- random numbers --- quantum-like models --- operational approach --- information interpretation of quantum theory --- social laser --- social energy --- quantum information field --- social atom --- Bose–Einstein statistics --- bandwagon effect --- social thermodynamics --- resonator of social laser --- master equation for socio-information excitations --- quantum contextuality --- Kochen–Specker sets --- MMP hypergraphs --- Greechie diagrams --- quantum foundations --- probability --- irreducible randomness --- random number generators --- quantum technology --- entanglement --- quantum-like models for social stochasticity --- contextuality

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