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Micro-, Meso- and Macro-Dynamics of the Brain

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Book Series: Research and Perspectives in Neurosciences ISSN: 0945-6082 ISBN: 9783319288017 9783319288024 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-28802-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-20 11:07:42
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This book brings together leading investigators who represent various aspects of brain dynamics with the goal of presenting state-of-the-art current progress and address future developments. The individual chapters cover several fascinating facets of contemporary neuroscience from elementary computation of neurons, mesoscopic network oscillations, internally generated assembly sequences in the service of cognition, large-scale neuronal interactions within and across systems, the impact of sleep on cognition, memory, motor-sensory integration, spatial navigation, large-scale computation and consciousness. Each of these topics require appropriate levels of analyses with sufficiently high temporal and spatial resolution of neuronal activity in both local and global networks, supplemented by models and theories to explain how different levels of brain dynamics interact with each other and how the failure of such interactions results in neurologic and mental disease. While such complex questions cannot be answered exhaustively by a dozen or so chapters, this volume offers a nice synthesis of current thinking and work-in-progress on micro-, meso- and macro- dynamics of the brain.

The Philosophy of Psychiatry and Biologism

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193547 Year: Pages: 99 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-354-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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There has been an ongoing debate about the capabilities and limits of the bio-natural sciences as sources and the methodological measure in the philosophy of psychiatry for quite some time now. Still, many problems remain unsolved, at least partly for the following reasons: The opposing parties do not tend to speak with each other, exchange their arguments and try to increase mutual understanding. Rather, one gets the impression that they often remain in their “trenches”, busy with confirming each others' opinions and developing their positions in isolation. This leads to several shortcomings: (1) Good arguments and insights from both sides of the debate get less attention they deserve. (2) The further improvement of each position becomes harder without criticism, genuinely motivated by the opposing standpoint. (3) The debate is not going to stop, at least not in the way it would finish after a suggested solution finds broad support; (4) Related to this, insisting on the ultimate aptnessof one side is just plainly wrong in almost every case. Since undeniably, most philosophical positions usually have a grain of truth hidden in them. In sum, many controversies persist with regard to the appropriate methodological, epistemological, and even ontological level for psychiatric explanation and therapies. In a conference which took place in December last year, we tried to contribute to a better understanding about what really is at issue in the philosophy of psychiatry. We asked for a common basis for several sides, for points of divergence and for the practical impact of different solutions on everyday work in psychiatry. Since psychiatry as a whole is a subject that is to wide to be covered in a single meeting, we focused on the following four core topics: 1.Competing accounts of psychiatric biologism, reductionism, and physicalism. 2.Mental disease and brain disease in the light of current neuroscientific and epigenetic findings. 3.Normative suppositions for different accounts of mental disease. 4.Normative implications of different accounts of mental disease. These topics, which have been vigorously as well as fruitfully discussed at our conference, will (ideally) be, too, in the center of our contribution to Frontiers. More precisely, we think of arranging a “research topic” which assembles the issues of the conference. At this point, it seems promising to us to group three or four Target Articles (TA) and let them get criticized by a couple of commentaries from different angles to give the issue a much broader and detailed perspective.

Eating Disorders - A Paradigm of the Biopsychosocial Model of Illness

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ISBN: 9789535128991 9789535129004 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.5772/62610 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Despite the relevance of eating disorders in the past years, the pure core of these mental disorders remains unknown. In this regard, it is not a surprise that the biopsychosocial model is the best way to go forward in order to understand and to improve the different approaches, biological (mainly neurobiological), psychological, and social, in managing these disorders. Eating disorders are frequent pathologies, many times severe and often devastating for patients and their families. Biological, psychological, and social factors are always involved in these disorders, and knowledge about the influence of these factors helps us to better understand eating disorders. This book includes different studies about main topics of eating disorders and is useful for psychologists, doctors and others interested in this disorder.

Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa

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ISBN: 9781789239812 9781789239829 9781839622472 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.77704 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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The prevalence of eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa is growing, and these disorders are affecting adolescents and young adults at increasingly younger ages. This has led to a greater number of patients presenting to health services. Although novel therapeutic approaches have been introduced in recent decades, the mortality rates of patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa remain alarmingly high. The course of anorexia nervosa in particular is often chronic and can lead to persistent disability. This book covers the clinical features and symptoms, neurobiology, pathophysiology, and current and potential future treatment options for both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. It also highlights the important aspects of support for families and their perspectives on these disorders.

Nervenschwäche und Krieg

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ISBN: 3205772148 Year: Pages: 454 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437155 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3578
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:48:53
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Since the 1880s neurasthenia - a term popularised by New York-physician George Beard - was discussed an a phenomenon of modernity, but over a long period of debate, psychiatry were not able to define what this "modern malady" exactly meant nor was it able to find any discernible causes for the epidemic disease. Neurasthenia was not simply a diagnostic term, which was often applied by fin de siècle-physicians to their workaday routine, but a kind of lifestyle, a sign of a certain emotional sensitivity in modern times. In the last decade historical research on neurasthenia has focused on Britain, Germany and the Netherlands. But what happened in Austria-Hungary, especially in Vienna? Focusing on Viennese psychiatry, part one of the book analyses the "invention" of Neurasthenia and the adoption of Beards thesis in Austrian medicine, bringing out various figures and alternative methods of explanations of the disease that was identified as a central, yet unwanted feature of modern manliness. Based on this the outcome of war could be seen as an instance of 'nerve-corrections'. Like many medical professionals in Austria-Hungary, psychiatrists had reacted to the war with nearly unanimous support: patriotic habits went hand in hand with high psychiatric expectations of the powerful mental effects of war. These hopes were badly disappointed. In the more recent literature on the medical and cultural history of the Great War, the phenomenon of the epidemic mental breakdowns of soldiers has been given a prominent place. 'Shellshock' and 'war neurosis' are now key words and frequent metaphors for the shattering effects of an industrialized war. In a sense these psychiatric labels symbolically represent the destructive impact of mechanized weapons on body and soul, the loss of narrative structures and the traumatic after-effects of modern warfare. How can Viennese-centred Austrian psychiatry in the First World War be characterized? With regard to new studies on the history of trauma, war and psychiatry I intend to emphasize two interpretations. Firstly, as in German and other European psychiatric war communities, models of rationalisation and modernisation are of significance when focusing on this topic. Viennese psychiatrists were neither particularly brutal nor especially tolerant in the way they dealt with the situation. Instead, as in other European countries in the Great War, they acted in keeping with military requirements and standards. Secondly, the specific political and cultural context of the Austro-Hungarian situation is of utmost importance as well. Shell-shock was a phenomenon that affected all nations, but reactions differed according to different national traditions and different medical ways of understanding, representing and acting. In a comparative cultural history of World War One, Austria-Hungary is a model of a shattered society, paralysed by ethnic conflicts and cultural differences. In this context, the therapeutic response to war neurosis was affected by language confusion, national stereotypes and malingering. The German-Austrian psychiatrists not only emerged as a group of experts who had taken responsibility for the efficient treatment of war neurosis, but also as a pressure group that intended to keep centrifugal forces of the multinational empire under control.

Im Dienste des Ich

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ISBN: 9783205788966 Year: Pages: 218 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_453614 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4346
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-21 22:37:42
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This publication, which includes contributions from German, French and American academics, pays tribute to the multi faceted researcher Ernst Kris (1900 Vienna -1957 New York) from the perspective of different disciplines. In fact one needs three job descriptions to chart his output: art historian, psychoanalyst and communication scientist. At 22, Kris had concluded his art history studies at Vienna University with a doctoral thesis on the technique of casting from life in the late Renaissance, and had worked as a curator at the Kunsthistorisches Museum. By the middle of the 1920s he had already met Sigmund Freud and started an analysis – which made him slowly turn away from classical art history. In this period he developed his most interesting and fruitful texts, which founded his reputation as an art psychologist: his studies on the early classicist sculptor Franz Xaver Messerschmidt (1932/33), the text “On the psychology of caricature” (1934) and the small book he co-authored with Otto Kurz: “The Legend of the Artist” (1934). In 1938, immediately after the “Anschluss”, Kris followed Freud into exile in London, and in 1940 he moved with his family to New York. Here he initially devoted himself primarily to questions of communication science, setting up working groups to analyse the propaganda of the Axis alliance with astonishing speed. Later he taught at the New York Psychoanalytic Society and Institute, concentrating on child psychology. He set up research units at the Yale Child Study Center and from 1945 he edited the newly founded journal “The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child”. He died in New York, highly respected as an important advocate of Ego-Psychology. Thus Kris developed, partly through choice and partly by force of circumstance, a multi-disciplinary approach which is more in demand than ever today: due to the broadening of art history into a science of images, the questions that a psychologically aware communication science is confronted with today, and the recent understanding of psychoanalysis as a form of cultural investigation. Bearing this view of Kris in mind, the contributions to this publication review his writing in a newly critical way, place it in its historical context and highlight what it predicts. The publication opens up Kris’ work, which is still, unjustly, only known through some key terms in the disciplines he covers.

Causal Explanation in Psychiatry - Beyond Scientism and Scepticism

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452293 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-229-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Investigating the Body in the Victorian Asylum: Doctors, Patients, and Practices

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Book Series: Mental Health in Historical Perspective ISBN: 9783319567136 9783319567143 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56714-3 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-23 18:58:06
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This book explores how the body was investigated in the late nineteenth-century asylum in Britain. As more and more Victorian asylum doctors looked to the bodily fabric to reveal the ‘truth’ of mental disease, a whole host of techniques and technologies were brought to bear upon the patient's body. These practices encompassed the clinical and the pathological, from testing the patient's reflexes to dissecting the brain.Investigating the Body in the Victorian Asylum takes a unique approach to the topic, conducting a chapter-by-chapter dissection of the body. It considers how asylum doctors viewed and investigated the skin, muscles, bones, brain, and bodily fluids. The book demonstrates the importance of the body in nineteenth-century psychiatry as well as how the asylum functioned as a site of research, and will be of value to historians of psychiatry, the body, and scientific practice.

De samhällsbesvärliga

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ISBN: 9789170617614 Year: Pages: 384 DOI: 10.22188/kriterium.15 Language: Swedish
Publisher: Kriterium
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General) --- Social Sciences --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-14 11:21:03
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"In inter-war Sweden, the psychiatric diagnosis of psychopathy served as a controversial but powerful tool for the management of people who failed to live up to contemporary civic ideals. The diagnosis was based on theories of a broad spectrum of biologically-based disorders in the borderland between normality and actual mental illness. The disturbances were assumed to manifest themselves as, for example, homosexuality, hysterical attacks, emotional coldness, mythomania, or restlessness.&#xD;Another controversial diagnosis was paranoia querulans or querulous paranoia, a disease that was linked to the emergence of the modern state and its rule of law, and thought to manifest itself mainly in hyperbolic complaints against supposed wrongdoings. Thus, the disorder implicated an excessive use of one's civil rights. A particular dilemma related to this disease was that the kind of behaviour that had usually led to the diagnosis and subsequent psychiatric confinement, namely a ardent manner of writing letters to public authorities, was precisely what was required for discharge.&#xD;In De samhällsbesvärliga (The Social Troublemakers), historian of science and ideas Annika Berg examines how patients described as psychopaths or querulants could negotiate for discharge with doctors and authorities in 1930s and 40s Sweden. This was a period in time when the system of psychiatric care in Sweden was greatly expanded in answer to a perceived shortage, but was also transformed into a somewhat more open apparatus with possibilities to apply for preliminary discharge and other forms of outpatient solutions. It was also a time when psychiatry was under attack from different quarters, and psychiatrists were accused of using flexible diagnoses such as psychopathy to confine people wrongly. Against this backdrop, how did the management of psychopaths and querulants fit with contemporary ideals of citizenship and democracy? How did the patients view themselves? And how were negotiations in individual cases affected by notions of, for example, class, gender and sexuality?"&#xD;

Third-Generation Neuroimaging: Translating Research into Clinical Utility

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450442 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-044-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Psychiatric imaging needs to move away from simple investigations of the neurobiology underling the early phases of psychiatric diseases to translate imaging findings in the clinical field targeting clinical outcomes including transition, remission and response to preventative interventions. This research topic aims to bring psychiatric neuroimaging studies towards translational impacts in clinical practice, suggesting that brain abnormalities may be of potential use for detecting clinical outcomes as treatment response. First-generation psychiatric neuroimaging focused on simple structural brain alterations associated with the neurobiology of the illness. These early studies adopted imaging methods mainly including computerized tomography (CT) to investigate brain size. Second-generation psychiatric neuroimaging studies benefited from more sophisticated techniques which included structural methods (sMRI) coupled with whole-brain automated methods (voxel based morphometry, VBM), white-matter methods (diffusion tensor imaging, DTI and tractography), functional methods (functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) and advanced neurochemical imaging (PET techniques addressing receptor bindings and pre/post synaptic functions, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, MRS) and sophisticated meta-analytical imaging methods. However, no consistent or reliable anatomical or functional brain alterations have been univocally associated with any psychiatric disorder and no clinical applications have been developed in psychiatric neuroimaging. There is thus urgent need of psychiatric imaging to move towards third-generation paradigms. In this research topic, these novel neuroimaging studies here requested to move away from simple investigations of the neurobiology to translate imaging findings in the clinical field targeting longitudinal outcomes including transition, remission and response to preventative interventions. With respect to methods, the most recent neuroimaging approaches (e.g. structural and functional MRI, EEG, DTI, spectroscopy, PET) are welcome. Third generation psychiatric imaging studies including multimodal approaches, multi-center analyses, mega-analyses, effective connectivity, dynamic causal modelling, support vector machines, structural equation modelling, or graph theory analysis are highly appreciated. Furthermore, these third-generation imaging studies may benefit from the incorporation of new sources of neurobiological information such as whole genome sequencing, proteomic, lipidomic and expression profiles and cellular models derived from recent induced pluripotent stem cells research. We collect Original Research, Reviews, Mini-Reviews, Book Review, Clinical Case Study, Clinical Trial, Editorial, General Commentary, Hypothesis & Theory, Methods, Mini Opinion, Perspective, and Technology Report from international researcher and clinicians in this field. The purpose of this research topic is intended to provide the field with current third-generation neuroimaging approaches in translational psychiatry that is hoped to improve and create therapeutic options for psychiatric diseases.

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