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Cognition across the psychiatric disorder spectrum: From mental health to clinical diagnosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196531 Year: Pages: 93 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-653-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Psychiatric symptoms are considered to be distributed along a continuum, from good mental health to a diagnosable psychiatric disorder. In the case of psychosis, subclinical psychotic experiences, which can include odd behaviors, strange speech, unusual perceptual experiences and social/emotional withdrawal, are often referred to as schizotypy. Research examining schizotypal traits in non-clinical populations is rapidly expanding. The exploration of schizotypy allows us to identify areas of overlap with psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia and related disorders) at genetic, biological, environmental and psychosocial levels, thus identifying putative risk factors, as well as exploring potentially protective factors. Schizotypy is also a valuable model for exploring cognition as performance is not confounded by issues often present in schizophrenia samples, such as long-term antipsychotic medication usage, social isolation, and recurrent hospitalizations. Investigating cognition is a particularly important area of research as cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia, such as impaired attention, reduced memory and difficulties with executive functions, are a core feature of schizophrenia and strongly related to quality of life and functional outcomes, yet generally respond poorly to current treatment options. The aim of this special Research Topic is to explore the relationship between cognition, schizotypy and the schizophrenia spectrum. The articles in this e-book draw on a variety of perspectives and represent an interesting array of opinions, reviews and empirical studies that begin to answer questions about the similarities and overlaps between schizotypy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, contributing to our understanding of potential risk factors. Equally important is research that highlights differences between schizotypy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders that may enhance our understanding of potentially protective or adaptive features of schizotypy. Collectively, these articles highlight the exploratory potential of the study of schizotypy, particularly in relation to better understanding cognition across the schizophrenia spectrum.

Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Schizophrenia: How Much Can Be Achieved and How?

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450091 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-009-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The introduction of antipsychotic agents in the 1950’s substantially improved the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, clinical and functional outcomes are still far less than optimal for patients, and have not improved in recent years despite the development of several new antipsychotics. Efficacy rates are further compromised by medication non-adherence, which has been reported to affect more than half of patients. In response to these issues, several non-pharmacological interventions have been developed for the treatment of schizophrenia, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive remediation, social cognition training and metacognitive approaches. Although these interventions have produced promising results, there is still much controversy regarding their usefulness and applicability in clinical practice. A major impeding factor for their dissemination is possibly a lack of sufficient evidence regarding their specific indications, mechanisms of action, adverse effects, but also practical issues concerning the interpretability of respective clinical studies, such as the choice of outcome variables and control of confounding factors. The present Research Topic includes original research articles and reviews addressing these issues.

Neuropsychopharmacology of Psychosis: Relation of Brain Signals, Cognition and Chemistry

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193356 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-335-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Previous research over the past decades has identified diverse neurobiological underpinnings of psychosis. In particular, by combining a variety of different neuroimaging modalities, it has been shown that psychotic states and the actual transition phase from a clinical high-risk state to established psychosis is characterized by structural, functional and neurochemical changes across different brain regions.Further evidence revealed that maybe not only focal brain abnormalities are characteristic for psychosis but specifically also an abnormal functional integration among various brain areas. Some evidence also suggests that dysfunctional brain connectivity proceeds during the development of psychosis when subjects perform a cognitive task. Notably, altered brain connectivity during cognitive challenges was often found to be associated with psychopathological measures, suggesting a mechanistic relation between functional network integrity and the clinical expression of psychosis.Several works proposed that disordered brain connectivity in psychosis results from abnormal N-methyl- D -aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity, which can be mediated by other neurotransmitter systems such as dopamine or serotonin. Specific chemically mediated changes in synaptic plasticity may contribute to abnormal functional integration among brain regions and in consequence to impaired learning performances and inferences. Model-based connectivity investigations on synaptic signalling demonstrated for example that manipulation of the NMDA or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor system altered synaptic plasticity in healthy volunteers, which was predictive for subjects’ cognitive performance and psychopathology. In patients with psychosis, the activity in the prefrontal cortex during the processing of prediction errors, a specific form of learning, which is conveyed via synaptic connections, was linked with individuals’ formation of delusions. These results fit well with many works suggesting that psychotic symptoms or also drug-induced psychosis-like experiences can be explained by disturbances within a hierarchically organized neuronal network, leading to maladaptive integrations of new incoming evidence and thereby to false formations of prediction errors and false beliefs.In this research topic, we like to cover the most recent neurobiological correlates for early stage psychosis and in particular for the prediction of psychosis by using different neurophysiological measures (e.g. structural and functional MRI, EEG, DTI or PET). Studies exploring effective connectivity or complex brain networks such as small-world properties with techniques like dynamic causal modelling, structural equation modelling, or graph theory analysis are highly appreciated. Very welcome are studies proving a link between clinical features such as psychopathology and cognition, brain signals, and chemistry (also in regard of antipsychotic treatments or substance-induced psychotic states). Moreover, environmental factors that may influence psychosis onset or its’ developmental processes will be brought together with a diversity of different research modalities. We also collect critical reviews, mini-reviews or theoretical reflections from leading international researcher and clinicians in this field. The purpose of our research topic is intended to provide a state-of-the-art cognitive perspective to consider developing psychosis, which might shed more lights into the pathophysiological and neurobiological mechanisms of psychosis.

Madness and Creativity: Yes, No or Maybe?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196708 Year: Pages: 85 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-670-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-04 13:33:42
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The pervasive idea that madness and creativity are intricately linked is one that holds tremendous fascination for both scientists and the general public alike. Although this view was at first largely driven by anecdotal evidence showcasing the manifestation of mental illness in individuals who exhibited extraordinary levels of creativity in various spheres of life, it initiated a strong impetus to empirically investigate the association between mental health and creativity.A variety of approaches (and combinations of approaches) have been adopted to address this association including clinical, personality, psychometric, behavioral, cognitive, historiometric and neuroscientific. Despite the ever accumulating body of evidence over the past six decades investigating this link, what is lacking is a comprehensive overview of the disparate findings from these different approaches that will enable us to address the question of whether there is an empirically founded relationship between creativity and mental illness. And if such a link does exist, what is the nature of this association? The purpose of this Research Topic was to motivate theorists and researchers to answer this question (or at least attempt to do so) given the available evidence thus far. The themes of interest that were open to exploration in view of this topic included:(a) Which mental disorders are positively associated with creativity?(b) Which mental disorders are negatively associated with creativity?(c) The dynamics of information processing biases (positive versus negative) associated with psychiatric and high-risk populations(d) Theories regarding the madness-creativity link(e) Personality-based studies on creativity(f) Creativity, mental illness and the brain(g) Genes and creativity(h) How can studies on neurological populations inform this debate?(i) What are the areas of impact with regard to real world applications and practice?(j) Historical timeline of this question(k) Evolutionary perspectives on the madness-creativity link(l) Methodological problems associated with this field(m) Philosophical issues to bear in mind when investigating this domain(n) The usefulness of the “troubled genius” concept The invitation to contribute was open to all interested academics regardless of whether they were seasoned explorers within this field of study or just beginning to get their feet wet in its murky waters. As a result of adopting this inclusive approach, the contributions showcase a wide variety of perspectives from academic departments and institutions the world over. What is most encouraging is that so many were willing to openly take on the challenge of tackling this difficult question head on. We hope future discussions that follow through as a result of this collective effort will prove to be just as fruitful.

Clearing the smokescreen: The current evidence on cannabis use

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195275 Year: Pages: 171 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-527-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Cannabis remains the most commonly used illicit substance world-wide, with international estimates indicating that 2.8%-4.5% of the global population use cannabis each year. This prevalence rate has not changed substantially in the past decade and there is no indication that it will do so in the next decade. In line with this, many prominent organizations and individuals have acknowledged that the “war on drugs” has failed and are now calling for a rethink on drug-related policy and legal frameworks. With a growing number of jurisdictions across the world heeding this call and introducing legislation to decriminalize or legalize cannabis use, it is essential that any changes to legal frameworks and public health policies are based on the best available scientific evidence. To facilitate the adoption of an evidence-based approach to cannabis policy, the aim of this Research Topic was to gather a comprehensive body of research to clarify the current state of evidence relating to cannabis use. Of interest were articles addressing the following questions: • How do we study cannabis use? (e.g., recruitment; measuring dose/use; assessing dependence/problematic use; confounding; translation of findings from animal studies) • What do we know about cannabis use? (e.g., patterns, contexts, methods of use) • What do we know about people who use cannabis? (e.g., who uses cannabis and why) • What are the social settings, norms and cultural values that go along with cannabis use? • How is problematic cannabis use, as opposed to mere use, defined, judged and constructed in different societies? • What do we know about the effects/outcomes of cannabis use? (e.g., acute, short- and long-term; harms/ benefits) • What do we know about the factors associated with the initiation, continuance and cessation of cannabis use? • What do we know about the medicinal use of cannabis? (e.g., who uses medicinally and why; efficacy/effectiveness in different clinical populations; comparison with other medications) • What do we know about treatment for people who engage in problematic cannabis use? (e.g., who seeks/is referred to treatment and why; efficacy and effectiveness) • What do we know about cannabis? (e.g., pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetics of different strains, cultivation, preparation and consumption methods) • How do policy and legal frameworks impact on the people who use cannabis? • What is the future for cannabis research? (e.g., potential avenues for future research; aspects needing more attention; innovative approaches; political/funding issues affecting cannabis research)

AVATAR Therapy for Refractory Auditory Hallucinations (Book chapter)

Book title: Brief Interventions for Psychosis

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319305196 Year: Pages: 13 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-30521-9_4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Wellcome Trust - 098272
Subject: Psychiatry --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-17 11:26:14
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AVATAR therapy is part of a new and exciting wave of therapies which adopt an explicitly
relational and dialogic approach to working with the distressing voices. To understand
the AVATAR approach, it is important to consider its position in the evolution
of psychological interventions for distressing voices.

Brief Interventions for Psychosis

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319305196 Year: DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-30521-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Wellcome Trust - 098272
Subject: Psychiatry --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-16 00:07:58
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This book offers a clinical guide that brings together a broad range of brief interventions and their applications in treating psychosis. It describes two core approaches that can narrow the current, substantial gap between the need for psychotherapeutic interventions for all individuals suffering from psychosis, and the limited mental health resources available. The first approach involves utilizing the standard therapeutic modalities in the context of routine clinical interactions after adapting them into brief and effective formats. To that end, the book brings in experts on various psychotherapeutic modalities, who discuss how their particular modality could be adapted to more effectively fit into the existing system of care delivery.
The second approach, addressed in detail, is to extend the availability of these brief interventions by utilizing the circle of providers as well as the social circle of the clients so that these interventions can be provided in a coordinated and complementary manner by psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, case managers, peer support specialists and other providers on the one hand, and by family members, friends, social and religious institutions on the other.

Trauma; Psychosis and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453603 Year: Pages: 217 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-360-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry --- Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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There is abundant evidence showing a strong association between trauma exposure, psychotic symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Early trauma exposure contributes to the formation of psychotic symptoms and the development of psychotic disorders or severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and treatment-refractory major depression. Furthermore, among persons with psychotic disorders, multiple traumatization over the lifetime is common, due to factors such as social stigma, the criminalization of severe mental illness, and increased vulnerability to interpersonal victimization. In addition to these factors is the traumatic nature of experiencing psychotic symptoms and coercive treatments such as involuntary hospitalization and being placed in seclusion or restraints. Not surprisingly, these high rates of trauma lead to high rates of PTSD in people with psychotic disorders, which are associated with more severe symptoms, worse functioning, and greater use of acute care services. In addition to the impact of trauma on the development of psychotic disorders and comorbid PTSD, traumatic experiences such as childhood sexual and physical abuse can shape the nature of prominent psychotic symptoms such as the content of auditory hallucinations and delusional beliefs. Additionally, traumatic experiences have been implicated in the role of ‘stress responsivity’ and increased risk for transition to psychosis in those identified as being at clinical high risk of developing psychosis. Finally, although the diagnostic criteria for PTSD primarily emphasize the effects of trauma on anxiety, avoidance, physiological over-arousal, and negative thoughts, it is well established that PTSD is frequently accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions that cannot be attributed to another DSM-V Axis I disorder such as psychotic depression or schizophrenia. Understanding the contribution of traumatic experiences to the etiology of psychosis and other symptoms can inform the provision of cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis, including the development of a shared formulation of the events leading up to the onset of the disorder, as well as other trauma-informed treatments that address distressing and disabling symptoms associated with trauma and psychosis. Until recently the trauma treatment needs of this population have been neglected, despite the high rates of trauma and PTSD in persons with psychotic disorders, and in spite of substantial gains made in the treatment of PTSD in the general population. Fortunately, progress in recent years has provided encouraging evidence that PTSD can be effectively treated in people with psychotic disorders using interventions adapted from PTSD treatments developed for the general population. In contrast to clinician fears about the untoward effects of trauma-focused treatments on persons with a psychotic disorder, research indicates that post-traumatic disorders can be safely treated, and that participants frequently experience symptom relief and improved functioning. There is a need to develop a better understanding of the interface between trauma, psychosis, and post-traumatic disorder. This Frontiers Research Topic is devoted to research addressing this interface.

Updates in Pediatric Sleep and Child Psychiatry

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038979388 / 9783038979395 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-939-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Sleep-related symptoms are common in the majority of psychiatric diagnostic categories. The overlap of sleep and psychiatric disorders have been demonstrated in numerous studies. The understanding of sleep and child psychiatry has progressively evolved in the last decade and newer insights have developed regarding the complex interaction between sleep and psychopathology. This collection of articles represents updates on sleep and psychiatric disorders with medical and neurological co-morbidities in children and adolescents.

Extraintestinal Manifestations of Coeliac Disease

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977988 9783038977995 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-799-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Coeliac Disease (CD) affects at least 1% of the population. “Classical” CD refers to gastrointestinal presentations with anaemia and gastrointestinal symptoms. CD can, however, present with extraintestinal manifestations, the commonest of which are dermatitis herpetiformis and neurological presentations (e.g., ataxia, neuropathy, encephalopathy). Recognition and research into the pathophysiology of such manifestations is likely to enhance our understanding of this complex autoimmune disorder.

Keywords

dermatitis herpetiformis --- coeliac disease --- fracture --- bone health --- quality of life --- Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) --- children and adults --- motor and vocal/phonic tics --- obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) --- non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) --- gluten-free diet --- one-year adherence --- dermatitis herpetiformis --- coeliac disease --- prevalence --- epidermal transglutaminase --- gluten-free diet --- long-term prognosis --- dermatitis herpetiformis --- coeliac disease --- gluten-free diet --- small bowel --- villous atrophy --- prognosis --- gluten neuropathy --- coeliac disease --- gluten free diet --- quality of life --- male --- extra-intestinal --- gastrointestinal --- celiac disease --- celiac disease --- dermatitis herpetiformis --- urticaria --- atopic dermatitis --- psoriasis --- recurrent aphtous ulceration --- rosacea --- alopecia areata --- cutaneous vasculitis --- gluten-free diet --- celiac disease --- glandular autoimmunity --- autoimmune thyroid disease --- type 1 diabetes --- polyglandular autoimmune syndrome --- coeliac disease --- osteoporosis --- fractures --- celiac disease --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- psychiatric disorders --- depression --- anxiety disorders --- eating disorders --- ADHD --- autism --- psychosis --- autoimmunity --- celiac hepatitis --- gut–liver axis --- liver immunity --- non-alcoholic fatty liver disease --- tolerance --- intestinal barrier --- celiac disease --- extraintestinal --- recognition --- diagnosis --- clinical presentation --- gluten-free diet --- prognosis --- movement disorders --- coeliac disease --- gluten --- gluten free diet --- celiac disease --- gluten --- gliadin --- autoantibody --- B cell --- T cell --- transglutaminase --- synapsin --- ganglioside --- gluten sensitivity --- gastrointestinal symptoms --- molecular mimicry --- intermolecular help --- biomarker --- autoimmune pancreatitis --- coeliac disease --- pancreatic disorders --- screening --- Gluten ataxia --- antigliadin antibodies --- coeliac disease --- MR spectroscopy --- gluten sensitive enteropathy --- antigliadin antibody titre --- gluten sensitivity --- coeliac disease --- gluten free diet --- migraine --- headache --- fatigue --- energy --- celiac disease --- extra-intestinal manifestations --- gluten --- latent celiac disease --- potential celiac disease --- extra-intestinal manifestations --- mild enteropathy --- early developing celiac disease --- genetic gluten intolerance --- natural history --- celiac trait --- celiac disease --- gluten neuropathy --- gluten ataxia --- prevalence --- incidence --- gluten-free diet

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