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Psychoanalytical neuroscience: Exploring psychoanalytic concepts with neuroscientific methods

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193776 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-377-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Sigmund Freud was a trained neuroanatomist and wrote his first psychoanalytical theory in neuroscientific terms. Throughout his life, he maintained the belief that at some distant day in the future, all psychoanalytic processes could be tied to a neural basis: “We must recollect that all of our provisional ideas in psychology will presumably one day be based on an organic substructure” (Freud 1914, On Narcissism: An Introduction). Fundamental Freudian concepts reveal their foundation in the physiological science of his time, most importantly among them the concept of libidinous energy and the homeostatic “principle of constancy”. However, the subsequent history of psychoanalysis and neuroscience was mainly characterized by mutual ignorance or even opposition; many scientists accused psychoanalytic viewpoints not to be scientifically testable, and many psychoanalysts claimed that their theories did not need empirical support outside of the therapeutic situation. On this historical background, it may appear surprising that the recent years have seen an increasing interest in re-connecting psychoanalysis and neuroscience in various ways: By studying psychodynamic consequences of brain lesions in neurological patients, by investigating how psychoanalytic therapy affects brain structure and function, or even by operationalizing psychoanalytic concepts in well-controlled experiments and exploring their neural correlates. These empirical studies are accompanied by theoretical work on the philosophical status of the “neuropsychoanalytic” endeavour. In this volume, we attempt to provide a state-of-the-art overview of this new exciting field. All types of submissions are welcome, including research in patient populations, healthy human participants and animals, review articles on some empirical or theoretical aspect, and of course also critical accounts of the new field. Despite this welcome variability, we would like to suggest that all contributions attempt to address one (or both) of two main questions, which should motivate the connection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience and that in our opinion still remain exigent: First, from the neuroscientific side, why should researchers in the neurosciences address psychoanalytic ideas, and what is (or will be) the impact of this connection on current neuroscientific theories? Second, from the psychoanalytic side, why should psychoanalysts care about neuroscientific studies, and (how) can current psychoanalytical theory and practice benefit from their results? Of course, contributors are free to provide a critical viewpoint on these two questions as well.

Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Schizophrenia: How Much Can Be Achieved and How?

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450091 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-009-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The introduction of antipsychotic agents in the 1950’s substantially improved the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, clinical and functional outcomes are still far less than optimal for patients, and have not improved in recent years despite the development of several new antipsychotics. Efficacy rates are further compromised by medication non-adherence, which has been reported to affect more than half of patients. In response to these issues, several non-pharmacological interventions have been developed for the treatment of schizophrenia, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive remediation, social cognition training and metacognitive approaches. Although these interventions have produced promising results, there is still much controversy regarding their usefulness and applicability in clinical practice. A major impeding factor for their dissemination is possibly a lack of sufficient evidence regarding their specific indications, mechanisms of action, adverse effects, but also practical issues concerning the interpretability of respective clinical studies, such as the choice of outcome variables and control of confounding factors. The present Research Topic includes original research articles and reviews addressing these issues.

Dynamic systems theory and embodiment in psychotherapy research. A new look at process and outcome

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197804 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-780-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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In an attempt to cease from reducing the world and its phenomena to linear modeling and analytic dissection, Dynamic Systems Theories (DST) and Embodiment theories and methods aim to account for the complex, dynamic, and non-linear phenomena that we constantly deal with in psychology. For instance, a DST and Embodiment perspective can enrich psychology’s understanding of communicative processes both in clinical and non-clinical settings. In psychotherapy, research has shown that there are a number of common factors contributing to psychotherapy outcome, of which the therapeutic relationship is the most important one. These findings give communication a central role in the psychotherapy process. In the traditional view, the underlying model of understanding psychotherapy processes is that of a number of components summatively coming together enabling us to make a linear causal prediction. Yet, communication is inherently dynamic. A shift to viewing the communication process in psychotherapy as a field dynamic phenomenon helps us to take into account nonlinear phenomena, such as feedback processes within and between persons. We thus propose an embodied enactive dynamic systems view as a new theoretical and methodological perspective that can more realistically capture what happens among and between two persons in psychotherapy. This view is broader than that of most current models in psychotherapy research. DST and Embodied Enactive Approaches can offer solutions to the prevailing neglect of non-linear phenomena in Western science, to better account for the complex dynamics of reality, and to move to a more holistic level of analysis. DST and Embodied Enactive Approaches have developed not in a single discipline but in a joined movement based on various fields such as physics, biology, robotics, anthropology, philosophy, linguistics, neuroscience, and psychology, and have only recently entered clinical theorizing. The two new paradigms are presently triggering a rethinking of the therapeutic process by recognizing the embodied nature of psychological and communicative phenomena. Their integration opens up a promising scenario in the field of psychotherapy research, developing new, profoundly transdisciplinary, theoretical concepts, methodologies, and standards of knowledge. The notion of field dynamics enables us to account for the role of the communicational context in the regulation of intra-psychological processes, while at the same time avoiding the pitfalls of an ontologization of the hierarchy of systemic organization. Moreover, the new approach implements methodological strategies that can transcend the conventional opposition between idiographic and nomothetic sciences.

Advances in Emotion Regulation: From Neuroscience to Psychotherapy

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452439 Year: Pages: 159 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-243-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Emotions are the gift nature gave us to help us connect with others. Emotions do not come from out of nowhere. Rather, they are constantly generated, usually by stimuli in our interpersonal world. They bond us to others, guide us in navigating our social interactions, and help us care for each other. Paraphrasing Shakespeare, “Our relationships are such stuff as emotions are made of”. Emotions express our needs and desires. When problems happen in our relationships, emotions arise to help us fixing those problems. However, when emotions can become dysregulated, pathology begins. Almost all forms of psychopathology are associated with dysregulated emotions or dysregulatory mechanisms. These dysregulated emotions can become regulated when the therapist helps clients express, face and regulate their emotions, and channel them into healthy actions. This research topic gathers contributions from affective neuroscientists and psychotherapists to illustrate how our emotions become dysregulated in life and can become regulated through psychotherapy.

Empathy - An Evidence-based Interdisciplinary Perspective

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ISBN: 9789535134534 9789535134541 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.5772/66004 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Empathy, a basic ability for understanding persons holistically, building supportive relationships, and listening attentively, includes being with suffering persons, healing, and inducing catharsis in them. Therefore, it is necessary within occupations supporting humans: education, clinical psychology, nursing, early childhood care, welfare, and medicine. Conversely, there are individual differences in empathy, and promoting its development is difficult. In this book, we use interdisciplinary approaches to empathy; for example, we discuss a new intervention, physical and cross-cultural understanding of empathy, development of empathy, and applications in general and professional education. The significance of this book is its evidence-based interdisciplinary perspective in understanding empathy.

Young Children and Their Parents

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ISBN: 9781780491431 Year: Pages: 369 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_497778 Language: English
Publisher: Karnac Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 32
Added to DOAB on : 2014-08-26 11:01:11
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The book describes the psychoanalytic perspective of development of theparent-infant relationship in the first three years of life.The importance of the earliest experiences of the child in the interaction with the parents shape sthe emerging personality of the child. The book follows the life of a child from birth to the third year.

Formulation in Action. Applying Psychological Theory to Clinical Practice

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ISBN: 9783110471014 9783110471090 Year: Pages: 228 DOI: 10.1515/9783110471014 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Psychology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-18 17:51:18
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When people seek psychological support, formulation is the theory-driven methodology used by many practitioners to guide identification of the processes, mechanisms, and patterns of behaviour that appear to be contributing to the presenting difficulties. However, the process of formulating – or applying psychological theory to practice – can often seem unclear.In this volume, we present multiple demonstrations of formulation in action – written by applied psychologists embedded in clinical training, research, and practice.The volume covers a range of contemporary approaches to formulation and therapy that have not been considered in extant works, and includes unique sections offering critical counter-perspectives and commentaries on each approach (and its application) by authors working from alternative theoretical positions.

Viktor E. Frankl - Gesammelte Werke: Psychotherapie, Psychiatrie und Religion

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ISBN: 9783205205746 Year: Pages: 318 Seiten Language: English|German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 484
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-15 11:01:49
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The fifth Volume of the Edition of the Collected Works of Viktor Frankls unites Frankl’s writings, notes, lectures and interviews on the border area of psychology, psychiatry, and religion.

Psychische Erkrankungen in der Arbeitswelt

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Book Series: Forschung aus der Hans-Böckler-Stiftung ISBN: 9783839440308 9783837640304 Year: Pages: 344 DOI: 10.14361/9783839440308 Language: German
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-09 11:01:52
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Which work situations are emotionally challenging? How do organizations deal with mental disorders? And how is work made a subject of discussion in therapy? The authors analyze the cases of employees suffering from mental disorders interdisciplinarily and show what options for improvement there are at the interfaces of the health system and the reintegration to the work place.

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