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Microbial Exopolymers: Sources, Chemico-Physiological Properties, and Ecosystem Effects in the Marine Environment

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456024 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-602-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, microeukaryotes) in marine environments secrete a diverse array of exopolymeric substances that facilitate attachment to surfaces, the formation of organic colloids and larger aggregations of cells (marine snow), and that can influence many ocean, as well as global, processes. The aim of this Research Topic is to highlight recent advances in the sources, chemistry and function of these microbial-produced macromolecules. We encouraged original research and reviews on exopolymeric substances, from their sources, chemico-physiological properties, functions and ecosystem effects, and including their role in the Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster.

Engineering Fluid Dynamics

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ISBN: 9783038426684 9783038426691 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-669-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-31 13:09:30
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This book contains the successful submissions to a Special Issue of Energies on the subject area of “Engineering Fluid Dynamics”. The topic of engineering fluid dynamics includes both experimental as well as computational studies. Of special interest were submissions from the fields of mechanical, chemical, marine, safety, and energy engineering. We welcomed both original research articles as well as review articles. After one year, 22 papers were submitted and 12 were accepted for publication. The average processing time was 65.2 days. The authors had the following geographical distribution: China (four); Italy (two); Korea (one); Germany (one); UK (one); Ireland (one); Australia (one); Sweden (one); Japan (one); Spain (one); Norway (one).Papers covered topics such as heat transfer in shell and helically coiled tube heat exchangers, the multiphase modeling of sprays, flashing flows, as well as mixing in a bubbling fluidized bed. Two papers related to heating ventilation and air condition (HVAC) are included, namely evaporation and condensation in the underfloor space of detached houses and air distribution in a railway vehicle. Three papers dealt with various aspects of pumps and turbines: a performance prediction method for pumps as turbines; noise radiation in a centrifugal pump; periodic fluctuations in energy efficiency in centrifugal pumps; and study of a high-pressure external gear pump. One paper used both laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) and CFD in the study of flow behind a semi-circular step cylinder. Finally, a paper investigated the influence of the equivalence ratio (ER) and feedstock particle size on birch wood gasification.

Advances in Water Distribution Networks

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ISBN: 9783038975564 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-557-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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The Special Issue on Advances in Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) explores four important topics of research in the framework of WDNs, namely simulation and optimization modelling, topology and partitioning, water quality, and service effectiveness. With regard to the first topic, the following aspects are addressed: pressure-driven formulations, algorithms for the optimal location of control valves to minimize leakage, the benefits of water discharge prediction for the remote real time control of valves, and transients generated by pumps operating as turbines. In the context of the second topic, a topological taxonomy of WDNs is presented, and partitioning methods for the creation of district metered areas are compared. In relation to the third topic, the vulnerability to trihalomethane is assessed, and a statistical optimization model to minimize heavy metal releases is presented. Finally, the fourth topic focusses on the estimation of non-revenue water, including leakage and unauthorized consumption, and on the assessment of service under intermittent supply conditions.

Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism

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ISBN: 9783038978008 9783038978015 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-801-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes present in all kingdoms of life, as they equilibrate the reaction between three simple but essential chemical species: CO2, bicarbonate, and protons. Discovered more than 80 years ago, in 1933, these enzymes have been extensively investigated due to the biomedical application of their inhibitors, but also because they are an extraordinary example of convergent evolution, with seven genetically distinct CA families that evolved independently in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. CAs are also among the most efficient enzymes known in nature, due to the fact that the uncatalyzed hydration of CO2 is a very slow process and the physiological demands for its conversion to ionic, soluble species is very high. Inhibition of the CAs has pharmacological applications in many fields, such as antiglaucoma, anticonvulsant, antiobesity, and anticancer agents/diagnostic tools, but is also emerging for designing anti-infectives, i.e., antifungal, antibacterial, and antiprotozoan agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mitochondrial CAs are implicated in de novo lipogenesis, and thus selective inhibitors of such enzymes may be useful for the development of new antiobesity drugs. As tumor metabolism is diverse compared to that of normal cells, ultimately, relevant contributions on the role of the tumor-associated isoforms CA IX and XII in these phenomena have been published and the two isoforms have been validated as novel antitumor/antimetastatic drug targets, with antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors in various stages of clinical development. CAs also play a crucial role in other metabolic processes connected with urea biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, and so on, since many carboxylation reactions catalyzed by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase or pyruvate carboxylase use bicarbonate, not CO2, as a substrate. In organisms other than mammals, e.g., plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, CAs are involved in photosynthesis, whereas in many parasites (fungi, protozoa), they are involved in the de novo synthesis of important metabolites (lipids, nucleic acids, etc.). The metabolic effects related to interference with CA activity, however, have been scarcely investigated. The present Special Issue of Metabolites aims to fill this gap by presenting the latest developments in the field of CAs and their role in metabolism.

AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signalling

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038976622 Year: Pages: 452 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-663-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 14:08:22
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Starting from a kinase of interest, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has gone far beyond an average biomolecule. Being expressed in all mammalian cell types and probably having a counterpart in every eukaryotic cell, AMPK has attracted interest in virtually all areas of biological research. Structural and biophysical insights have greatly contributed to a molecular understanding of this kinase. From good old protein biochemistry to modern approaches, such as systems biology and advanced microscopy, all disciplines have provided important information. Thus, multiple links to cellular events and subcellular localizations have been established. Moreover, the crucial involvement of AMPK in human health and disease has been evidenced. AMPK accordingly has moved from an interesting enzyme to a pharmacological target. However, despite our extensive current knowledge about AMPK, the growing community is busier than ever. This book provides a snapshot of recent and current AMPK research with an emphasis on work providing molecular insight, including but not limited to novel physiological and pathological functions, or regulatory mechanisms. Up-to-date reviews and research articles are included.

Keywords

exercise --- glucose uptake --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- TBC1D4 --- AS160 --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) --- hypertension --- kidney disease --- nutrient-sensing signals --- oxidative stress --- renin-angiotensin system --- AMPK --- autophagy --- co-expression --- microarrays --- 3T3-L1 --- adipocyte --- differentiation --- AMPK --- tight junctions --- epithelial cells --- ZO-1 --- par complex --- MDCK --- nectin-afadin --- adherent junctions --- TAK1 --- AMPK --- phosphorylation --- AMPK kinase --- endothelial nitric-oxide synthase --- vasodilation --- phenylephrine --- vasoconstriction --- endothelial cells --- ionomycin --- AMPK --- liver --- lipid metabolism --- fatty acid oxidation --- indirect calorimetry --- atrophy --- regrowth --- sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) --- peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-? (PGC1?) --- heat shock protein --- fiber-type --- AMPK --- monocytes --- macrophages --- differentiation --- autophagy --- AML --- MDS --- CML --- CMML --- pregnancy --- catechol-O-methyltransferase --- 2-methoxyestradiol --- preeclampsia --- gestational diabetes mellitus --- AMPK --- IL-1? --- NLRP3 --- nutrition --- dietary fatty acids --- metabolic-inflammation --- nutrigenomics --- AMPK --- LKB1 --- autophagy --- proteasome --- hypertrophy --- atrophy --- skeletal muscle --- AICAR --- mTOR --- protein synthesis --- AMPK --- epigenetics --- chromatin remodeling --- histone modification --- DNA methylation --- medulloblastoma --- sonic hedgehog --- AMPK --- AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) --- spermatozoa --- motility --- mitochondria --- membranes --- signaling --- stress --- assisted reproduction techniques --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- epigenetics --- protein acetylation --- KATs --- HDACs --- acetyl-CoA --- NAD+ --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- glycogen --- exercise --- metabolism --- cellular energy sensing --- energy utilization --- liver --- skeletal muscle --- metabolic disease --- glycogen storage disease --- resveratrol --- AMPK --- hepatocyte --- liver --- steatosis --- transporter --- carrier --- pump --- membrane --- energy deficiency --- AMPK --- infection --- mycobacteria --- host defense --- energy metabolism --- AMPK --- activation loop --- AID --- ?-linker --- ?-linker --- CBS --- LKB1 --- CaMKK2 --- ?RIM --- hypothalamus --- adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase --- adipose tissue --- food intake --- adaptive thermogenesis --- beiging --- AMPK --- HDAC4/5 --- p70S6K --- MyHC I(?), motor endplate remodeling --- soleus muscle --- mechanical unloading --- hindlimb suspension --- AMPK --- synaptic activation --- PKA --- CREB --- soluble Adenylyl cyclase --- Immediate early genes --- transcription --- AMPK --- autophagy --- metabolism --- mTOR --- ULK --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- protein kinase B --- Akt --- insulin signalling --- A769662 --- endothelial function --- n/a

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