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Bad Bugs in the XXIst Century: Resistance Mediated by Multi-Drug Efflux Pumps in Gram-Negative Bacteria

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199310 Year: Pages: 193 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-931-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The discovery of antibiotics represented a key milestone in the history of medicine. However, with the rise of these life-saving drugs came the awareness that bacteria deploy defence mechanisms to resist these antibiotics, and they are good at it. Today, we appear at a crossroads between discovery of new potent drugs and omni-resistant superbugs. Moreover, the misuse of antibiotics in different industries has increased the rate of resistance development by providing permanent selective pressure and, subsequently, enrichment of multidrug resistant pathogens. As a result, antimicrobial resistance has now become an urgent threat to public health worldwide (http://www.who.int/drugresistance/documents/surveillancereport/en/). The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in an increasing number of pathogens, including Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Burkholderia, and other Gram-negative bacteria is a most severe issue. Membrane efflux pump complexes of the Resistance-Nodulation-cell Division (RND) superfamily play a key role in the development of MDR in these bacteria. RND pumps, together with other transporters, contribute to intrinsic and acquired resistance to most, if not all, of the antimicrobial compounds available in our drug arsenal. Given the enormous drug polyspecificity of MDR efflux pumps, studies on their mechanism of action are extremely challenging, and this has negatively impacted both the development of new antibiotics that are able to evade these efflux pumps as well as the design of pump inhibitors. The collection of articles in this eBook, published as a Research Topic in Frontiers in Microbiology, section of Antimicrobials, Resistance, and Chemotherapy, aims to update the reader about the latest advances on the structure and function of RND efflux transporters, their roles in the overall multidrug resistance phenotype of Gram-negative pathogens, and on strategies to inhibit their activities. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which RND efflux pumps, alone or synergistically with other efflux pumps, are able to limit the concentration of antimicrobial compounds inside the bacterial cell, may pave the way for new, more directed, inhibitor and antibiotic design to ultimately overcome antimicrobial resistance by Gram-negatives.

Engineering Fluid Dynamics

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ISBN: 9783038426684 9783038426691 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-669-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-31 13:09:30
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This book contains the successful submissions to a Special Issue of Energies on the subject area of “Engineering Fluid Dynamics”. The topic of engineering fluid dynamics includes both experimental as well as computational studies. Of special interest were submissions from the fields of mechanical, chemical, marine, safety, and energy engineering. We welcomed both original research articles as well as review articles. After one year, 22 papers were submitted and 12 were accepted for publication. The average processing time was 65.2 days. The authors had the following geographical distribution: China (four); Italy (two); Korea (one); Germany (one); UK (one); Ireland (one); Australia (one); Sweden (one); Japan (one); Spain (one); Norway (one).Papers covered topics such as heat transfer in shell and helically coiled tube heat exchangers, the multiphase modeling of sprays, flashing flows, as well as mixing in a bubbling fluidized bed. Two papers related to heating ventilation and air condition (HVAC) are included, namely evaporation and condensation in the underfloor space of detached houses and air distribution in a railway vehicle. Three papers dealt with various aspects of pumps and turbines: a performance prediction method for pumps as turbines; noise radiation in a centrifugal pump; periodic fluctuations in energy efficiency in centrifugal pumps; and study of a high-pressure external gear pump. One paper used both laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) and CFD in the study of flow behind a semi-circular step cylinder. Finally, a paper investigated the influence of the equivalence ratio (ER) and feedstock particle size on birch wood gasification.

Advanced Applications for Smart Energy Systems Considering Grid-Interactive Demand Response

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ISBN: 9783039219988 / 9783039219995 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-999-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This book covers applied research on smart energy systems, smart grids, smart energy homes, smart energy products and services, and the advanced applications thereof, in the context of demand response and grid interactions. In particular, this book is focused on interdisciplinary research results that combine technical, social, environmental, and economic aspects of smart energy systems and smart energy products. Moreover, several chapters are based on the evaluation of real life cases, energy pilots, prototypes of smart energy products, and end user surveys and interviews.

Selected Problems in Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer

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ISBN: 9783039214273 / 9783039214280 Year: Pages: 460 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-428-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Fluid flow and heat transfer processes play an important role in many areas of science and engineering, from the planetary scale (e.g., influencing weather and climate) to the microscopic scales of enhancing heat transfer by the use of nanofluids; understood in the broadest possible sense, they also underpin the performance of many energy systems. This topical Special Issue of Energies is dedicated to the recent advances in this very broad field. This book will be of interest to readers not only in the fields of mechanical, aerospace, chemical, process and petroleum, energy, earth, civil ,and flow instrumentation engineering but, equally, biological and medical sciences, as well as physics and mathematics; that is, anywhere that “fluid flow and heat transfer” phenomena may play an important role or be a subject of worthy research pursuits.

Keywords

performance characteristics --- Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) elements --- heat transfer --- thermal performance --- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation --- air heater --- impingement heat transfer enhancement --- orthogonal jet --- turbulence --- flat plate --- Colebrook equation --- Colebrook-White --- flow friction --- iterative procedure --- logarithms --- Padé polynomials --- hydraulic resistances --- turbulent flow --- pipes --- computational burden --- thermodynamic --- numerical simulation --- thermal effect --- axial piston pumps --- microbubble pump --- bubble generation --- pump efficiency --- bubble size --- concentration --- particle counter --- flow-induced motion --- sharp sections --- T-section prism --- load resistances --- section aspect ratios --- energy conversion --- thermosyphon --- phase change --- two-phase flow --- visualization --- superheated steam --- triaxial stress --- thermogravimetry --- X-ray microtomography --- thermal cracking --- microbubbles --- fluidics --- flow oscillation --- oscillators --- energetics --- pressure loss --- pressure drop --- friction factor --- multiphase flow --- flow rate --- flow regime --- POD --- entropy generation --- boundary layer --- laminar separation bubble --- two-phase flow --- pump performance --- computational fluid dynamics --- centrifugal pump --- flow behavior --- magnetic field --- ferrofluid --- porous cavity --- heat transfer --- mass transfer --- numerical modeling --- numerical modeling --- surrogate model --- correlation --- fin-tube --- spiral fin-tube --- CFD --- ( A g ? F e 3 O 4 / H 2 O ) hybrid nanofluid --- nonlinear thermal radiation --- heat transfer --- chemical reaction --- mass transfer --- method of moment --- numerical results --- transient analysis --- pumps --- moment of inertia --- water hammer --- pipe flow --- wind turbine --- downwind --- tower shadow --- load --- tower --- BEM --- actuator disc --- CANDU-6 --- PHWR --- moderator --- turbulence --- OpenFOAM --- printed circuit heat exchanger --- supercritical LNG --- zigzag type --- heat transfer performance --- gas turbine engine --- particle deposition --- capture efficiency --- multiphase flow --- tip leakage flow --- detached-eddy simulation --- vortex breakdown --- transonic compressor --- POD --- tip leakage flow --- decomposition region --- decomposition dimensionalities --- vortex identification --- SPIV --- fire-spreading characteristics --- real vehicle experiments --- toxic gases --- temperature distributions --- unsteady heat release rate --- thermal energy recovery --- flue gas --- dew point temperature --- condensation --- Aspen® --- thermoacoustic electricity generator --- multi-stage --- traveling-wave heat engine --- push-pull --- inertance-compliance --- acoustic streaming --- n/a

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