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An Atlas on Global Water Cycle

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ISBN: 9781921536892 Year: Pages: 293 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_458809 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2012-06-14 11:46:24
License: ANU Press

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What do climate models predict for the rainfall where you live? What about evaporation or runoff? Should your local community consider constructing new dams or do the existing water storages appear adequate? What about the availability of water for irrigation farming? Do the predictions differ between different climate models or do all the models basically predict the same changes in water availability where you live? These are all simple questions but it is surprisingly hard for an individual, whether they be a farmer, water resources engineer, teacher or interested citizen, to answer them. As researchers active in the field we could not answer the questions either. In fact, we had never seen a compilation of the rainfall, evaporation and runoff predictions made by all the different climate models. The Atlas contains maps and tables that document model predictions contributed by international climate modelling groups to the 2007 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The predictions are made available here via the wonders of the internet and ongoing cooperation by the international climate modelling community who routinely archive their results. The maps and tables in the Atlas document rainfall, evaporation and runoff estimates for the 20th century along with predictions of the same quantities at the end of the 21st century. Whatever your interest, we hope you find the Atlas as helpful as we do.

Keywords

rain --- water supply --- rainfall

Advances in Hydro-Meteorological Monitoring

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038429777 9783038429784 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-978-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-09 08:55:30
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Basin hydrology is related to the soil–atmosphere interaction driven by several blended processes constrained by the space–time variability of precipitation and soil moisture, along with overland flow and flood routing in natural channels. The emerging technologies for the monitoring and prediction of the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall and soil moisture over a catchment, as well as the hillslope and river runoff, are of considerable interest to predict the hydrological responses of a catchment. In this context, this Special Issue, with its eleven theoretical and applied contributions, aims to shed light on the more recent advances in ground observations and remote sensing products, as well as on the benefits resulting from the integration of technological innovation and the development of new ideas in hydrology science. To this purpose, the accepted articles, written by leading researchers in their field, are intended to present and discuss experimental analyses at the catchment scale in terms of: a) intensive measurement campaigns of soil moisture by in situ sensors, remote sensing and modelling approaches; b) discharge monitoring also for high floods, by leveraging advanced technology for ground surface velocity measurements and spaceborne observations of water surface elevation, river width and slope; c) solid precipitation-measuring methods and the selection of snow gauge stations by merging meteorological, hydrological and remote sensing datasets; d) changes in daily precipitation of different intensities over large river basins along with the identification of the space–time rainfall field for different climatic regions ; and finally e) spatial evaporation patterns in different climate regions and assessment of the dominant climate factors affecting the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. Hopefully this Special Issue provides different useful insights into advancements in emerging technologies for the monitoring of key hydrological variables and will support the design of a scalable system of operational tools leading to suitable flood mitigation measures and reliable real-time warning systems.

Applications of Remote Sensing/ GIS in Water Resources and Flooding Risk Managements

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ISBN: 9783038429821 9783038429814 Year: Pages: VIII, 222 Language: englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-21 16:57:04
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Remote sensing and GIS play critical roles in water resource and flood inundation mapping and risk management. Remote sensing provides data sources for mapping water resources (snow and glaciers, water bodies, soil moisture and groundwater), measuring hydrological fluxes (ET, precipitation and river discharge), and monitoring drought and flooding inundation, while GIS provides the best tools for water resources, drought and flooding risk management and for setting up hydrologic models, inputting data processing and output analyses and visualizations. This Special Issue Book presents the best practices, cutting-edge technologies and applications of remote sensing, GIS and hydrologic models for water resources mapping, satellite rainfall measurements, runoff simulation, water body and flood inundation mapping and risk management. The latest technologies applied include 3D model analysis and visualization of glaciers, UAV video image classification for turf grass mapping and irrigation planning, ground penetration radar for soil moisture estimates, TRMM and GPM satellite rainfall measurements, storm hyetograph analysis, rainfall runoff and urban flooding simulation, satellite radar and optical image classification for urban water bodies and flooding inundation. The application of these technologies is expected to greatly relieve the pressures on water resources and assist in better mitigating and adapting to the impact of drought and flooding.

Remote Sensing of Precipitation: Volume 1

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ISBN: 9783039212859 9783039212866 Year: Pages: 480 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-286-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Precipitation is a well-recognized pillar in global water and energy balances. An accurate and timely understanding of its characteristics at the global, regional, and local scales is indispensable for a clearer understanding of the mechanisms underlying the Earth’s atmosphere–ocean complex system. Precipitation is one of the elements that is documented to be greatly affected by climate change. In its various forms, precipitation comprises a primary source of freshwater, which is vital for the sustainability of almost all human activities. Its socio-economic significance is fundamental in managing this natural resource effectively, in applications ranging from irrigation to industrial and household usage. Remote sensing of precipitation is pursued through a broad spectrum of continuously enriched and upgraded instrumentation, embracing sensors which can be ground-based (e.g., weather radars), satellite-borne (e.g., passive or active space-borne sensors), underwater (e.g., hydrophones), aerial, or ship-borne.

Keywords

GPM --- IMERG --- satellite precipitation adjustment --- numerical weather prediction --- heavy precipitation --- flood-inducing storm --- complex terrain --- precipitation --- geostationary microwave sensors --- polar systems --- synoptic weather types --- drop size distribution (DSD) --- microstructure of rain --- disdrometer --- radar reflectivity–rain rate relationship --- CHIRPS --- CMORPH --- TMPA --- MSWEP --- statistical evaluation --- VIC model --- hydrological simulation --- precipitation --- satellite --- GPM --- TRMM --- CFSR --- PERSIANN --- MSWEP --- streamflow simulation --- lumped models --- Peninsular Spain --- GPM IMERG v5 --- TRMM 3B42 v7 --- precipitation --- evaluation --- Huaihe River basin --- precipitation --- radar --- radiometer --- T-Matrix --- microwave scattering --- quantitative precipitation estimates --- validation --- PERSIANN-CCS --- meteorological radar --- satellite rainfall estimates --- satellite precipitation retrieval --- neural networks --- GPM --- GMI --- remote sensing --- hurricane Harvey --- GPM satellite --- IMERG --- tropical storm rainfall --- gridded radar precipitation --- precipitation --- satellites --- climate models --- regional climate models --- X-band radar --- dual-polarization --- precipitation --- complex terrain --- runoff simulations --- snowfall detection --- snow water path retrieval --- supercooled droplets detection --- GPM Microwave Imager --- Satellite Precipitation Estimates --- GPM --- TRMM --- IMERG --- GSMaP --- TMPA --- CMORPH --- assessment --- Pakistan --- heavy rainfall prediction --- satellite radiance --- data assimilation --- RMAPS --- harmonie model --- radar data assimilation --- pre-processing --- mesoscale precipitation patterns --- GNSS meteorology --- GPS --- Zenith Tropospheric Delay --- precipitable water vapor --- SEID --- single frequency GNSS --- Precise Point Positioning --- low-cost receivers --- goGPS --- GPM --- IMERG --- TRMM --- precipitation --- Cyprus --- satellite precipitation product --- Tianshan Mountains --- GPM --- TRMM --- CMORPH --- heavy precipitation --- rainfall retrieval techniques --- forecast model --- Red–Thai Binh River Basin --- TMPA 3B42V7 --- TMPA 3B42RT --- rainfall --- bias correction --- linear-scaling approach --- climatology --- topography --- precipitation --- remote sensing --- CloudSat --- CMIP --- high latitude --- mineral dust --- wet deposition --- cloud scavenging --- dust washout process --- Saharan dust transportation --- precipitation rate --- precipitating hydrometeor --- hydrometeor classification --- cloud radar --- Ka-band --- thunderstorm --- thundercloud --- vertical air velocity --- terminal velocity --- Milešovka observatory --- rain gauges --- radar --- quality indexes --- satellite rainfall retrievals --- validation --- surface rain intensity --- kriging with external drift --- PEMW --- MSG --- SEVIRI --- downscaling --- tropical cyclone --- rain rate --- precipitation --- remote sensing --- radiometer --- retrieval algorithm --- GPM --- DPR --- validation network --- volume matching --- reflectivity --- rainfall rate --- TRMM-era TMPA --- GPM-era IMERG --- satellite rainfall estimate --- Mainland China --- satellite precipitation --- Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) --- IMERG --- TRMM-TMPA --- Ensemble Precipitation (EP) algorithm --- topographical and seasonal evaluation --- daily rainfall estimations --- TRMM 3B42 v7 --- rain gauges --- Amazon Basin --- regional rainfall regimes --- regional rainfall sub-regimes --- TRMM 3B42 V7 --- CMORPH_CRT --- PERSIANN_CDR --- GR models --- hydrological simulation --- Red River Basin --- satellite precipitation --- Tibetan Plateau --- GPM --- IMERG --- GSMaP --- precipitation --- weather --- radar --- GPM --- RADOLAN --- QPE --- TRMM --- TMPA --- 3B42 --- validation --- rainfall --- telemetric rain gauge --- Lai Nullah --- Pakistan --- XPOL radar --- GPM/IMERG --- WRF-Hydro --- CHAOS --- hydrometeorology --- flash flood --- Mandra --- typhoon --- IMERG --- GSMaP --- Southern China --- precipitation --- satellite remote sensing --- error analysis --- triple collocation --- precipitation --- TRMM --- GPM --- IMERG --- weather radar --- precipitable water vapor --- precipitation retrieval --- rain rate --- QPE

Remote Sensing of Precipitation: Volume 2

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ISBN: 9783039212873 9783039212880 Year: Pages: 318 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-288-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Abstract

Precipitation is a well-recognized pillar in global water and energy balances. An accurate and timely understanding of its characteristics at the global, regional, and local scales is indispensable for a clearer understanding of the mechanisms underlying the Earth’s atmosphere–ocean complex system. Precipitation is one of the elements that is documented to be greatly affected by climate change. In its various forms, precipitation comprises a primary source of freshwater, which is vital for the sustainability of almost all human activities. Its socio-economic significance is fundamental in managing this natural resource effectively, in applications ranging from irrigation to industrial and household usage. Remote sensing of precipitation is pursued through a broad spectrum of continuously enriched and upgraded instrumentation, embracing sensors which can be ground-based (e.g., weather radars), satellite-borne (e.g., passive or active space-borne sensors), underwater (e.g., hydrophones), aerial, or ship-borne.

Keywords

GPM --- IMERG --- satellite precipitation adjustment --- numerical weather prediction --- heavy precipitation --- flood-inducing storm --- complex terrain --- precipitation --- geostationary microwave sensors --- polar systems --- synoptic weather types --- drop size distribution (DSD) --- microstructure of rain --- disdrometer --- radar reflectivity–rain rate relationship --- CHIRPS --- CMORPH --- TMPA --- MSWEP --- statistical evaluation --- VIC model --- hydrological simulation --- precipitation --- satellite --- GPM --- TRMM --- CFSR --- PERSIANN --- MSWEP --- streamflow simulation --- lumped models --- Peninsular Spain --- GPM IMERG v5 --- TRMM 3B42 v7 --- precipitation --- evaluation --- Huaihe River basin --- precipitation --- radar --- radiometer --- T-Matrix --- microwave scattering --- quantitative precipitation estimates --- validation --- PERSIANN-CCS --- meteorological radar --- satellite rainfall estimates --- satellite precipitation retrieval --- neural networks --- GPM --- GMI --- remote sensing --- hurricane Harvey --- GPM satellite --- IMERG --- tropical storm rainfall --- gridded radar precipitation --- precipitation --- satellites --- climate models --- regional climate models --- X-band radar --- dual-polarization --- precipitation --- complex terrain --- runoff simulations --- snowfall detection --- snow water path retrieval --- supercooled droplets detection --- GPM Microwave Imager --- Satellite Precipitation Estimates --- GPM --- TRMM --- IMERG --- GSMaP --- TMPA --- CMORPH --- assessment --- Pakistan --- heavy rainfall prediction --- satellite radiance --- data assimilation --- RMAPS --- harmonie model --- radar data assimilation --- pre-processing --- mesoscale precipitation patterns --- GNSS meteorology --- GPS --- Zenith Tropospheric Delay --- precipitable water vapor --- SEID --- single frequency GNSS --- Precise Point Positioning --- low-cost receivers --- goGPS --- GPM --- IMERG --- TRMM --- precipitation --- Cyprus --- satellite precipitation product --- Tianshan Mountains --- GPM --- TRMM --- CMORPH --- heavy precipitation --- rainfall retrieval techniques --- forecast model --- Red–Thai Binh River Basin --- TMPA 3B42V7 --- TMPA 3B42RT --- rainfall --- bias correction --- linear-scaling approach --- climatology --- topography --- precipitation --- remote sensing --- CloudSat --- CMIP --- high latitude --- mineral dust --- wet deposition --- cloud scavenging --- dust washout process --- Saharan dust transportation --- precipitation rate --- precipitating hydrometeor --- hydrometeor classification --- cloud radar --- Ka-band --- thunderstorm --- thundercloud --- vertical air velocity --- terminal velocity --- Milešovka observatory --- rain gauges --- radar --- quality indexes --- satellite rainfall retrievals --- validation --- surface rain intensity --- kriging with external drift --- PEMW --- MSG --- SEVIRI --- downscaling --- tropical cyclone --- rain rate --- precipitation --- remote sensing --- radiometer --- retrieval algorithm --- GPM --- DPR --- validation network --- volume matching --- reflectivity --- rainfall rate --- TRMM-era TMPA --- GPM-era IMERG --- satellite rainfall estimate --- Mainland China --- satellite precipitation --- Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) --- IMERG --- TRMM-TMPA --- Ensemble Precipitation (EP) algorithm --- topographical and seasonal evaluation --- daily rainfall estimations --- TRMM 3B42 v7 --- rain gauges --- Amazon Basin --- regional rainfall regimes --- regional rainfall sub-regimes --- TRMM 3B42 V7 --- CMORPH_CRT --- PERSIANN_CDR --- GR models --- hydrological simulation --- Red River Basin --- satellite precipitation --- Tibetan Plateau --- GPM --- IMERG --- GSMaP --- precipitation --- weather --- radar --- GPM --- RADOLAN --- QPE --- TRMM --- TMPA --- 3B42 --- validation --- rainfall --- telemetric rain gauge --- Lai Nullah --- Pakistan --- XPOL radar --- GPM/IMERG --- WRF-Hydro --- CHAOS --- hydrometeorology --- flash flood --- Mandra --- typhoon --- IMERG --- GSMaP --- Southern China --- precipitation --- satellite remote sensing --- error analysis --- triple collocation --- precipitation --- TRMM --- GPM --- IMERG --- weather radar --- precipitable water vapor --- precipitation retrieval --- rain rate --- QPE

Statistical Analysis and Stochastic Modelling of Hydrological Extremes

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ISBN: 9783039216642 9783039216659 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-665-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Meteorology and Climatology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Hydrological extremes have become a major concern because of their devastating consequences and their increased risk as a result of climate change and the growing concentration of people and infrastructure in high-risk zones. The analysis of hydrological extremes is challenging due to their rarity and small sample size, and the interconnections between different types of extremes and becomes further complicated by the untrustworthy representation of meso-scale processes involved in extreme events by coarse spatial and temporal scale models as well as biased or missing observations due to technical difficulties during extreme conditions. The complexity of analyzing hydrological extremes calls for robust statistical methods for the treatment of such events. This Special Issue is motivated by the need to apply and develop innovative stochastic and statistical approaches to analyze hydrological extremes under current and future climate conditions. The papers of this Special Issue focus on six topics associated with hydrological extremes: Historical changes in hydrological extremes; Projected changes in hydrological extremes; Downscaling of hydrological extremes; Early warning and forecasting systems for drought and flood; Interconnections of hydrological extremes; Applicability of satellite data for hydrological studies.

Keywords

rainfall --- monsoon --- high resolution --- TRMM --- drought prediction --- APCC Multi-Model Ensemble --- seasonal climate forecast --- machine learning --- sparse monitoring network --- Fiji --- drought analysis --- ANN model --- drought indices --- meteorological drought --- SIAP --- SWSI --- hydrological drought --- discrete wavelet --- global warming --- statistical downscaling --- HBV model --- flow regime --- uncertainty --- reservoir inflow forecasting --- artificial neural network --- wavelet artificial neural network --- weighted mean analogue --- variation analogue --- streamflow --- artificial neural network --- simulation --- forecasting --- support vector machine --- evolutionary strategy --- heavy storm --- hyetograph --- temperature --- clausius-clapeyron scaling --- climate change --- the Cauca River --- climate variability --- ENSO --- extreme rainfall --- trends --- statistical downscaling --- random forest --- least square support vector regression --- extreme rainfall --- polynomial normal transform --- multivariate modeling --- sampling errors --- non-normality --- extreme rainfall analysis --- statistical analysis --- hydrological extremes --- stretched Gaussian distribution --- Hurst exponent --- INDC pledge --- precipitation --- extreme events --- extreme precipitation exposure --- non-stationary --- extreme value theory --- uncertainty --- flood regime --- flood management --- Kabul river basin --- Pakistan --- extreme events --- innovative methods --- downscaling --- forecasting --- compound events --- satellite data

Assimilation of Remote Sensing Data into Earth System Models

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039216406 9783039216413 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-641-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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In the Earth sciences, a transition is currently occurring in multiple fields towards an integrated Earth system approach, with applications including numerical weather prediction, hydrological forecasting, climate impact studies, ocean dynamics estimation and monitoring, and carbon cycle monitoring. These approaches rely on coupled modeling techniques using Earth system models that account for an increased level of complexity of the processes and interactions between atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and terrestrial surfaces. A crucial component of Earth system approaches is the development of coupled data assimilation of satellite observations to ensure consistent initialization at the interface between the different subsystems. Going towards strongly coupled data assimilation involving all Earth system components is a subject of active research. A lot of progress is being made in the ocean–atmosphere domain, but also over land. As atmospheric models now tend to address subkilometric scales, assimilating high spatial resolution satellite data in the land surface models used in atmospheric models is critical. This evolution is also challenging for hydrological modeling. This book gathers papers reporting research on various aspects of coupled data assimilation in Earth system models. It includes contributions presenting recent progress in ocean–atmosphere, land–atmosphere, and soil–vegetation data assimilation.

Advancing Earth Surface Representation via Enhanced Use of Earth Observations in Monitoring and Forecasting Applications

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039210640 9783039210657 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-065-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The representation of the Earth's surface in global monitoring and forecasting applications is moving towards capturing more of the relevant processes, while maintaining elevated computational efficiency and therefore a moderate complexity. These schemes are developed and continuously improved thanks to well instrumented field-sites that can observe coupled processes occurring at the surface–atmosphere interface (e.g., forest, grassland, cropland areas and diverse climate zones). Approaching global kilometer-scale resolutions, in situ observations alone cannot fulfil the modelling needs, and the use of satellite observation becomes essential to guide modelling innovation and to calibrate and validate new parameterization schemes that can support data assimilation applications. In this book, we review some of the recent contributions, highlighting how satellite data are used to inform Earth surface model development (vegetation state and seasonality, soil moisture conditions, surface temperature and turbulent fluxes, land-use change detection, agricultural indicators and irrigation) when moving towards global km-scale resolutions.

Applications of Photogrammetry for Environmental Research

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ISBN: 9783039281800 9783039281817 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-181-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The book presents a collection of papers focused on recent progress in key areas of photogrammetry for environmental research. Applications oriented to the understanding of natural phenomena and quantitative processes using dataset from photogrammetry (from satellite to unmanned aerial vehicle images) and terrestrial laser scanning, also by a diachronic approach, are reported. The book covers topics of interest of many disciplines from geography, geomorphology, engineering geology, geotechnology, including landscape description and coastal studies. Mains issues faced by the book are related to applications on coastal monitoring, using multitemporal aerial images, and investigations on geomorphological hazard by the joint use of proximal photogrammetry, terrestrial and aerial laser scanning aimed to the reconstruction of detailed surface topography and successive 2D/3D numerical simulations for rock slope stability analyses. Results reported in the book bring into evidence the fundamental role of multitemporal surveys and reliable reconstruction of morphologies from photogrammetry and laser scanning as support to environmental researches.

Entropy Applications in Environmental and Water Engineering

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038972228 Year: Pages: 512 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-223-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Entropy theory has wide applications to a range of problems in the fields of environmental and water engineering, including river hydraulic geometry, fluvial hydraulics, water monitoring network design, river flow forecasting, floods and droughts, river network analysis, infiltration, soil moisture, sediment transport, surface water and groundwater quality modeling, ecosystems modeling, water distribution networks, environmental and water resources management, and parameter estimation. Such applications have used several different entropy formulations, such as Shannon, Tsallis, Reacutenyi Burg, Kolmogorov, Kapur, configurational, and relative entropies, which can be derived in time, space, or frequency domains. More recently, entropy-based concepts have been coupled with other theories, including copula and wavelets, to study various issues associated with environmental and water resources systems. Recent studies indicate the enormous scope and potential of entropy theory in advancing research in the fields of environmental and water engineering, including establishing and explaining physical connections between theory and reality. The objective of this Special Issue is to provide a platform for compiling important recent and current research on the applications of entropy theory in environmental and water engineering. The contributions to this Special Issue have addressed many aspects associated with entropy theory applications and have shown the enormous scope and potential of entropy theory in advancing research in the fields of environmental and water engineering.

Keywords

complexity --- streamflow --- water level --- composite multiscale sample entropy --- trend --- Poyang Lake basin --- four-parameter exponential gamma distribution --- principle of maximum entropy --- precipitation frequency analysis --- methods of moments --- maximum likelihood estimation --- flood frequency analysis --- generalized gamma (GG) distribution --- principle of maximum entropy (POME) --- entropy theory --- principle of maximum entropy (POME) --- GB2 distribution --- flood frequency analysis --- non-point source pollution --- ANN --- entropy weighting method --- data-scarce --- multi-events --- spatio-temporal variability --- soil water content --- entropy --- arid region --- joint entropy --- NDVI --- temperature --- precipitation --- groundwater depth --- Hei River basin --- turbulent flow --- canopy flow --- randomness --- coherent structures --- Shannon entropy --- Kolmogorov complexity --- entropy --- information transfer --- optimization --- radar --- rainfall network --- water resource carrying capacity --- forewarning model --- entropy of information --- fuzzy analytic hierarchy process --- projection pursuit --- accelerating genetic algorithm --- entropy production --- conditional entropy production --- stochastic processes --- scaling --- climacogram --- turbulence --- water resources vulnerability --- connection entropy --- changing environment --- set pair analysis --- Anhui Province --- cross-entropy minimization --- land suitability evaluation --- spatial optimization --- monthly streamflow forecasting --- Burg entropy --- configurational entropy --- entropy spectral analysis time series analysis --- entropy --- water monitoring --- network design --- hydrometric network --- information theory --- entropy applications --- hydrological risk analysis --- maximum entropy-copula method --- uncertainty --- Loess Plateau --- entropy --- water engineering --- Tsallis entropy --- principle of maximum entropy --- Lagrangian function --- probability distribution function --- flux concentration relation --- uncertainty --- information --- informational entropy --- variation of information --- continuous probability distribution functions --- confidence intervals --- precipitation --- variability --- marginal entropy --- crop yield --- Hexi corridor --- flow duration curve --- Shannon entropy --- entropy parameter --- modeling --- spatial and dynamics characteristic --- hydrology --- tropical rainfall --- statistical scaling --- Tsallis entropy --- multiplicative cascades --- Beta-Lognormal model --- rainfall forecast --- cross entropy --- ant colony fuzzy clustering --- combined forecast --- information entropy --- mutual information --- kernel density estimation --- ENSO --- nonlinear relation --- scaling laws --- power laws --- water distribution networks --- robustness --- flow entropy --- entropy theory --- frequency analysis --- hydrometeorological extremes --- Bayesian technique --- rainfall --- entropy ensemble filter --- ensemble model simulation criterion --- EEF method --- bootstrap aggregating --- bagging --- bootstrap neural networks --- El Niño --- ENSO --- neural network forecast --- sea surface temperature --- tropical Pacific --- entropy --- cross elasticity --- mean annual runoff --- water resources --- resilience --- quaternary catchment --- complement --- substitute --- entropy theory --- complex systems --- hydraulics --- hydrology --- water engineering --- environmental engineering

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