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Melatonin in Plants

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453115 Year: Pages: 297 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-311-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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This topic focuses on distribution, synthesis, metabolism, and the in vivo roles of melatonin in plants, with 1 editorial, 3 reviews, 21 original research studies and 1 corrigendum.

The role of arginase in endothelial dysfunction

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194407 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-440-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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In recent years, an increasing number of manuscripts have been published addressing the deleterious role of arginase in endothelial dysfunction. ROS have been shown to play a crucial role in arginase activation, which in turn leads to eNOS dysfunction.

Origin and spatiotemporal dynamics of the peroxisomal endomembrane system

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194643 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-464-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The peroxisome is an organelle with essential roles in lipid metabolism, maintenance of reactive oxygen species homeostasis, and anaplerotic replenishment of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates destined for mitochondria. Peroxisomes constitute a dynamic endomembrane system. The homeostatic state of this system is upheld via two pathways for assembling and maintaining the diverse peroxisomal compartments constituting it; the relative contribution of each pathway to preserving such system may vary in different organisms and under various physiological conditions. One pathway begins with the targeting of certain peroxisomal membrane proteins to an endoplasmic reticulum template and their exit from the template via pre-peroxisomal carriers; these carriers mature into metabolically active peroxisomes containing the entire complement of membrane and matrix proteins. Another pathway operates via growth and maturation of pre-existing peroxisomal precursors that do not originate from the endoplasmic reticulum; mature peroxisomes proliferate by undergoing fission. Recent studies have uncovered new roles for the peroxisomal endomembrane system in orchestrating important developmental decisions and defining organismal longevity. This Frontiers Special Topic Issue is focused on the advances in our understanding of how evolutionarily distant organisms coordinate the formation, maturation, proliferation, maintenance, inheritance and quality control of the peroxisomal endomembrane system and how peroxisomal endomembranes communicate with other cellular compartments to orchestrate complex biological processes and various developmental programs from inside the cell.

ROS Regulation during Plant Abiotic Stress Responses

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450541 Year: Pages: 306 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-054-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Plants are continuously exposed to a wide range of environmental conditions, including cold, drought, salt, heat, which have major impact on plant growth and development. To survive, plants have evolved complex physiological and biochemical adaptations to cope with a variety of adverse environmental stresses. Among them, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key regulators and play pivotal roles during plant stress responses, which are thought to function as early signals during plant abiotic stress responses. ROS were long regarded as unwanted and toxic by-products of physiological metabolism. However, ROS are now recognized as central players in the complex signaling network of cells. Therefore, a fine-tuning control between ROS production and scavenging pathways is essential to maintain non-toxic levels in planta under stressful conditions through enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. We focus on the roles of ROS during plant abiotic stress responses in this Research Topic. Plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses and effects of hormones and chemicals on plant stress responses have been carefully studies. Although functions of several stress responsive genes have been characterized and possible interactions between hormones and ROS are discussed, future researches are needed to functionally characterize ROS regulatory and signaling transduction pathways.Plants are continuously exposed to a wide range of environmental conditions, including cold, drought, salt, heat, which have major impact on plant growth and development. To survive, plants have evolved complex physiological and biochemical adaptations to cope with a variety of adverse environmental stresses. Among them, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key regulators and play pivotal roles during plant stress responses, which are thought to function as early signals during plant abiotic stress responses. ROS were long regarded as unwanted and toxic by-products of physiological metabolism. However, ROS are now recognized as central players in the complex signaling network of cells. Therefore, a fine-tuning control between ROS production and scavenging pathways is essential to maintain non-toxic levels in planta under stressful conditions through enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. We focus on the roles of ROS during plant abiotic stress responses in this Research Topic. Plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses and effects of hormones and chemicals on plant stress responses have been carefully studies. Although functions of several stress responsive genes have been characterized and possible interactions between hormones and ROS are discussed, future researches are needed to functionally characterize ROS regulatory and signaling transduction pathways.

Interplay between NO Signalling, ROS, and the Antioxidant System in Plants

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450695 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-069-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Over the last decades, nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as an essential player in redox signalling. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) also act as signals throughout all stages of plant life. Because they are potentially harmful for cellular integrity, ROS and NO levels must be tightly controlled, especially by the classical antioxidant system and additional redox-active metabolites and proteins. Recent work provided evidence that NO and ROS influence each other’s biosynthesis and removal. Moreover, novel signalling molecules resulting from the chemical reaction between NO, ROS and plant metabolites have been highlighted, including N2O3, ONOO-, NO2, S-nitrosoglutathione and 8-NO2 cGMP. They are involved in diverse plant physiological processes, the best characterized being stomata regulation and stress defense. Taken together, these new data demonstrate the complex interactions between NO, ROS signalling and the antioxidant system. This Frontiers in Plant Science Research Topic aims to provide an updated and complete overview of this important and rapidly expanding area through original article and detailed reviews.

Chloroplast

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ISBN: 9783038973362 / 9783038973379 Year: Pages: 474 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-337-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-18 09:52:18
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Chloroplasts are at the front line of many advancements in molecular biology, ranging from evolutionary biology to the mechanism of energy transduction, also including stress responses and programmed leaf death. In addition to the relevance of basic knowledge, advances are unveiling promising insights to improve plant productivity, disease resistance, and environmental control. The production of secondary metabolites and proteins by transformed chloroplasts adds further excitement to applied investigations on chloroplasts.The comparison of the sequences of the chloroplast DNA of different plants provides valuable information on gene content, reordering in the circular chloroplast DNA, and mutational genetic-derive, relevant to the evolution of the chloroplast. Increasing facilities for intense genome sequencing have prompted many laboratories to focus on the chloroplast DNA. Reflecting these efforts, more than half of the articles in this book deal with functional or evolutionary investigations based on sequence analyses of chloroplast DNA. Additional topics treated in the issue include post-transcriptional control, the processing of nuclear encoded preproteins of chloroplasts, the response of photosynthetic machinery to water deficit, turn-over of chloroplast proteins, mechanism of chloroplast division, and chloroplast movements.

Salicylic Acid Signaling Networks

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198276 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-827-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The small phenolic compound salicylic acid (SA) is critical for plant defense against a broad spectrum of pathogens. SA is also involved in multi-layered defense responses, from pathogen-associated molecular pattern triggered basal defense, resistance gene-mediated defense, to systemic acquired resistance. Recent decades have witnessed tremendous progress towards our understanding of SA-mediated signaling networks. Many genes have been identified to have direct or indirect effect on SA biosynthesis or to regulate SA accumulation. Several SA receptors have been identified and characterization of these receptors has shed light on the mechanisms of SA-mediated defense signaling, which encompass chromosomal remodeling, DNA repair, epigenetics, to transcriptional reprogramming. Molecules from plant-associated microbes have been identified, which manipulate SA levels and/or SA signaling. SA does not act alone. It engages in crosstalk with other signaling pathways, such as those mediated by other phytohormones, in an agonistic or antagonistic manner, depending on hormones and pathosystems. Besides affecting plant innate immunity, SA has also been implicated in other cellular processes, such as flowering time determination, lipid metabolism, circadian clock control, and abiotic stress responses, possibly contributing to the regulation of plant development. The multifaceted function of SA makes it critically important to further identify genes involved in SA signaling networks, understand their modes of action, and delineate interactions among the components of SA signaling networks. In addition, genetic manipulation of genes involved in SA signaling networks has also provided a promising approach to enhance disease resistance in economically important plants. This ebook collects articles in the Research Topic "Salicylic Acid Signaling Networks". For this collection we solicited reviews, perspectives, and original research articles that highlight recent exciting progress on the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying SA-mediated defense, SA-crosstalk with other pathways and how microbes impact these events.

Impact of Lipid Peroxidation on the Physiology and Pathophysiology of Cell Membranes

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450824 Year: Pages: 88 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-082-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The general process of lipid peroxidation consists of three stages: initiation, propagation, and termination. The initiation phase of lipid peroxidation includes hydrogen atom abstraction. Several species can abstract the first hydrogen atom and include the radicals: hydroxyl, alkoxyl, peroxyl, and possibly HO* 2. The membrane lipids, mainly phospholipids, containing polyunsaturated fatty acids are predominantly susceptible to peroxidation because abstraction from a methylene group of a hydrogen atom, which contains only one electron, leaves at the back an unpaired electron on the carbon. The initial reaction of *OH with polyunsaturated fatty acids produces a lipid radical (L*), which in turn reacts with molecular oxygen to form a lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH). Further, the LOOH formed can suffer reductive cleavage by reduced metals, such as Fe++, producing lipid alkoxyl radical (LO*). Peroxidation of lipids can disturb the assembly of the membrane, causing changes in fluidity and permeability, alterations of ion transport and inhibition of metabolic processes. In addition, LOOH can break down, frequently in the presence of reduced metals or ascorbate, to reactive aldehyde products, including malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (4-HHE) and acrolein. Lipid peroxidation is one of the major outcomes of free radical-mediated injury to tissue mainly because it can greatly alter the physicochemical properties of membrane lipid bilayers, resulting in severe cellular dysfunction. In addition, a variety of lipid by-products are produced as a consequence of lipid peroxidation, some of which can exert beneficial biological effects under normal physiological conditions. Intensive research performed over the last decades have also revealed that by-products of lipid peroxidation are also involved in cellular signalling and transduction pathways under physiological conditions, and regulate a variety of cellular functions, including normal aging. In the present collection of articles, both aspects (adverse and benefitial) of lipid peroxidation are illustrated in different biological paradigms. We expect this eBook may encourage readers to expand the current knowledge on the complexity of physiological and pathophysiological roles of lipid peroxidation.

Signal Transduction in Stomatal Guard Cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451678 Year: Pages: 105 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-167-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Stomata, the tiny pores on leaf surface, are the gateways for CO2 uptake during photosynthesis as well as water loss in transpiration. Further, plants use stomatal closure as a defensive response, often triggered by elicitors, to prevent the entry of pathogens. The guard cells are popular model systems to study the signalling mechanism in plant cells. The messengers that mediate closure upon perception of elicitors or microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) are quite similar to those during ABA effects. These components include reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), cytosolic pH and intracellular Ca2+. The main components are ROS, NO and cytosolic free Ca2+. The list extends to others, such as G-proteins, protein phosphatases, protein kinases, phospholipids and ion channels. The sequence of these signalling components and their interaction during stomatal signalling are complex and quite interesting. The present e-Book provides a set of authoritative articles from ‘Special Research Topic’ on selected areas of stomatal guard cells. In the first set of two articles, an overview of ABA and MAMPs as signals is presented. The next set of 4 articles, emphasize the role of ROS, NO, Ca2+ as well as pH, as secondary messengers. The next group of 3 articles highlight the recent advances on post-translational modification of guard cell proteins, with emphasis on 14-3-3 proteins and MAPK cascades. The last article described the method to isolate epidermis of grass species and monitor stomatal responses to different signals. Our e-Book is a valuable and excellent source of information for all those interested in guard cell function as well as signal transduction in plant cells.

Peroxiredoxin 6 as a Unique Member of the Peroxiredoxin Family

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ISBN: 9783038979340 / 9783038979357 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-935-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The peroxiredoxin family was discovered approximately 30 years ago and is now recognized as one of the most important families of enzymes related to antioxidant defense and cellular signaling. Peroxiredoxin 6 shares the basic enzymatic functions that characterize this family, but also exhibits several unique and crucial activities. These include the ability to reduce phospholipid hydroperoxides, phospholipase A2 activity, and an acyl transferase activity that is important in phospholipid remodeling. This book describes the available models for investigating the unique functions of PRDX6 and its role in normal physiological function, as well its roles in the pathophysiology of diseases including cancer, diseases of the eye, and male fertility.

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