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Animal allergens: Common protein characteristics featuring their allergenicity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196203 Year: Pages: 88 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-620-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Among the many molecules present in our environment, some have the property to induce allergic sensitization and IgE-mediated reactions. The analysis of known major animal allergens has shown that most belong to single protein families: lipocalins and serum albumins for inhalant allergens, EF-hand proteins, tropomyosins and caseins for the digestive allergens. The finding that allergens are often clustered in large families may be related to the fact that common structural, biochemical or functional features contribute to their allergenicity, in addition to external adjuvant factors. Currently, there is no curative treatment for animal allergy available. In order to lower allergic reactions to respiratory allergens in daily life and to food allergens upon accidental exposure, it is important to desensitize concerned patients. Tolerance induction by allergen-specific immunotherapy is in the current focus of an ambitious research. This Research Topic aims to provide a comprehensive view of the basic and recent insights on the allergenicity of animal allergens in view of their structural and functional aspects as well as allergen-specific immunotherapy.

Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038426905 9783038426912 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-691-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-12 11:37:17
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Thermochemical conversion processes convert biomass into gaseous, liquid and solid products named, syngas, bio-oil and char, respectively. Syngas and bio-oil are considered as alternative biofuels to fossil fuels and wide investigations are implemented currently on their production, purification, modification, and applications. Biomass chars have receiving an increasing attention since they lead to carbon sequestration, reduction of the amount of carbon rejected into the atmosphere and represent an friendly carbon source for numerous applications. In particular, biomass chars could be an efficient materials for energy production, syngas production and upgrading, water and air pollutants removal, soil amendment, fuel cells and supercapacitors development, and gas storage. Improving the knowledge of biomass chars elaboration techniques such as pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal carbonization is essential to determine the optimal production strategies for their economic viability. Furthermore, the characterization of the physicochemical, textural, structural and surface chemistry properties of the derived chars guide the selection of the suitable recovery processes in order to maximize their utility and therefore the benefits for the environment as well as for industries and agriculture.

Rare Earth and Actinide Complexes

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ISBN: 9783038423294 9783038423287 Year: Pages: X, 254 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Organic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-20 08:39:06
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As the fields of organometallic and coordination chemistry of the transition metals has grown more mature, the under-explored chemistry of the rare-earths and actinides has drawn the attention of research groups from across the globe looking for new fundamental discoveries and access to compounds with unique properties. The rare-earths—the group 3 metals and the 4f lanthanide series—have long shown many interesting properties in the solid state which exploit their unique electronic configurations. However, it is the molecular chemistry of these metals that has expanded dramatically in recent years as researchers identify the differences between—and unique features of—their molecular compounds. Recent highlights include the identification of new oxidation states and patterns of reactivity as well as applications in medical imaging and health care which represent new and exciting areas of research. The actinides show a wide range of different properties as a consequence of their radioactivity and radiochemistry, but this has not stopped recent rapid progress into the exploration of their unique chemistry. Uranium, in particular, shows huge potential with its transition metal-like range of oxidation states (+2 to +6), and in specialised laboratories, the heavier actinides are also beginning to show their unique chemistry. This Special Issue aims to bring together these strands of research in an openly-accessible way to allow better communication of these advances to a wider audience. This is necessary as, despite these exciting advances, the rare-earths and actinides are still much neglected topics in both school and undergraduate curriculums. Contributions in the above-mentioned areas will allow new research in the rare-earths and actinides to inform and influence the next generation of scientists and keep the field as vibrant as it is today.

Thioredoxin and Glutaredoxin Systems

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ISBN: 9783038978367 / 9783038978374 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-837-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This Special Issue features recent data concerning thioredoxins and glutaredoxins from various biological systems, including bacteria, mammals, and plants. Four of the sixteen articles are review papers that deal with the regulation of development of the effect of hydrogen peroxide and the interactions between oxidants and reductants, the description of methionine sulfoxide reductases, detoxification enzymes that require thioredoxin or glutaredoxin, and the response of plants to cold stress, respectively. This is followed by eleven research articles that focus on a reductant of thioredoxin in bacteria, a thioredoxin reductase, and a variety of plant and bacterial thioredoxins, including the m, f, o, and h isoforms and their targets. Various parameters are studied, including genetic, structural, and physiological properties of these systems. The redox regulation of monodehydroascorbate reductase, aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, and cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase could have very important consequences in plant metabolism. Also, the properties of the mitochondrial o-type thioredoxins and their unexpected capacity to bind iron–sulfur center (ISC) structures open new developments concerning the redox mitochondrial function and possibly ISC assembly in mitochondria. The final paper discusses interesting biotechnological applications of thioredoxin for breadmaking.

Keywords

methionine --- methionine sulfoxide --- methionine sulfoxide reductase --- physiological function --- protein --- plant --- repair --- redox homeostasis --- signaling --- stress --- mitochondria --- thioredoxin --- iron–sulfur cluster --- redox regulation --- ALAD --- tetrapyrrole biosynthesis --- redox control --- thioredoxins --- posttranslational modification --- chlorophyll --- redox regulation --- thioredoxin --- ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase --- chloroplast --- H2O2 --- redox signalling --- development --- regeneration --- adult stem cells --- metazoan --- cyanobacteria --- thioredoxin --- photosynthesis --- redox active site --- thioredoxin --- disulfide --- flavin --- NADPH --- X-ray crystallography --- SAXS --- methanoarchaea --- chilling stress --- cold temperature --- posttranslational modification --- regulation --- ROS --- thiol redox network --- thioredoxin --- thioredoxin --- Calvin-Benson cycle --- photosynthesis --- carbon fixation --- chloroplast --- macromolecular crystallography --- protein-protein recognition --- electrostatic surface --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- thioredoxin --- glutaredoxin --- legume plant --- symbiosis --- redox homeostasis --- stress --- thioredoxin --- monodehydroascorbate reductase --- water stress --- protein oxidation --- antioxidants --- ascorbate --- glutathione --- wheat --- thioredoxin --- thioredoxin reductase --- baking --- redox --- dough rheology --- protein oxidation --- methionine oxidation --- methionine sulfoxide reductases --- oxidized protein repair --- ageing --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- cysteine alkylation --- cysteine reactivity --- MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry --- thioredoxin --- X-ray crystallography --- Isocitrate dehydrogenase --- glutathionylation --- nitrosylation --- glutaredoxin --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- thioredoxins --- plastidial --- specificity --- function --- proteomic --- photosynthesis --- Calvin cycle --- n/a

Ironmaking and Steelmaking

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ISBN: 9783039213290 / 9783039213306 Year: Pages: 464 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-330-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Steel is a critical material in our societies and will remain an important one for a long time into the future. In the last two decades, the world steel industry has gone through drastic changes and this is predicted to continue in the future. The Asian countries (e.g. China, India) have been dominant in the production of steel creating global over-capacity, while the steel industry in the developed countries have made tremendous efforts to reinforce its global leadership in process technology and product development, and remain sustainable and competitive. The global steel industry is also facing various grand challenges in strict environmental regulation, new energy and materials sources, and ever-increasing customer requirements for high quality steel products, which has been addressed accordingly by the global iron and steel community. This Special Issue, “Ironmaking and Steelmaking”, released by the journal Metals, published 33 high quality articles from the international iron and steel community, covering the state-of-the-art of the ironmaking and steelmaking processes. This includes fundamental understanding, experimental investigation, pilot plant trials, industrial applications and big data utilization in the improvement and optimization of existing processes, and research and development in transformative technologies. It is hoped that the creation of this special issue as a scientific platform will help drive the iron and steel community to build a sustainable steel industry.

Keywords

ironmaking --- microwaves --- carbothermal reduction --- iron oxides --- emission spectrum --- ore-carbon briquette --- CO–CO2 atmosphere --- simulation --- re-oxidation --- reduction --- electroslag cladding --- high speed steel --- ductile cast iron --- composite roll --- bonding interface --- high-phosphorus iron ore --- fluorapatite --- carbothermal reduction --- vaporization dephosphorization --- iron ore pellets --- compressive strength (CS) --- prediction model --- artificial neural network --- principal component analysis --- crystallization behaviors --- crystallization rate --- anosovite crystals --- silicate crystals --- titanium slag --- blast furnace --- copper stave --- hydrogen attack --- slag crust --- heat-affected zone --- high heat input welding --- Ca deoxidation --- inclusion control --- intragranular acicular ferrite --- concentrate --- iron ore --- agglomerate --- structure --- phase analysis --- Mg deoxidation --- inclusions --- Al addition --- high-heat-input welding --- heat-affected zone --- toughness --- shot peening --- Barkhausen noise --- crystallite size --- carbon composite pellet --- direct reduction --- shrinkage --- kinetics --- rotary hearth furnace --- hydrogen plasma --- smelting reduction --- HPSR --- iron oxide --- plasma arc --- ionization degree --- sulfur distribution ratio --- liquid area --- carbon-saturated iron --- phosphate capacity --- sulfide capacity --- phosphorus distribution ratio --- sulfur distribution ratio --- evaluation of coupling relationship --- secondary refining process, CaO–based slags --- iron sulfate --- TG analysis --- thermal treatment --- iron oxide --- kinetics --- activation energy --- high-aluminum iron ore --- synergistic reduction --- high-manganese iron ore --- hercynite --- fayalite --- flow velocity --- casting speed --- gas flow rate --- flow pattern --- continuous casting --- Cr recovery --- self-reduction briquette --- reaction mechanism --- mold flux --- low fluorine --- internal crack --- surface roughness --- slag film --- vanadium titano-magnetite --- gas-based reduction --- carbon monoxide --- hydrogen --- and nitrogen --- kinetics --- pellet size --- liquid steel --- non-contact measurement --- oxides --- steel-making --- blast furnace --- solid flow --- cold experiment --- direct element method --- Wilcox–Swailes coefficient --- viscosity --- BaO --- CaO/Al2O3 ratio --- modified NPL model --- ultrafine particles exposure --- steelmaking factory --- chemical composition --- devolatilization --- torrefied biomass --- bio-coal --- volatile matter --- iso-conversional method --- Al-TRIP steel --- surface depression --- cracks --- non-metallic inclusion --- mold flux --- reactivity --- hot metal pre-treatment --- desiliconisation --- dephosphorisation --- solid and gaseous oxygen --- fork --- flat steel --- inclusions --- 33MnCrTiB --- slag --- carbon dioxide --- injection --- blast furnace --- converter --- combustion --- oxygen steelmaking --- refining kinetics --- slag formation --- penetration theory --- oxygen blast furnace --- COREX --- static process model --- integrated steel plant --- material flow --- energy consumption --- CO2 emissions --- oil-pipeline steel --- Ca-treatment --- non-metallic inclusions --- electrolytic extraction --- corrosion --- n/a

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