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Analogy and Exemplary Reasoning in Legal Discourse

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ISBN: 9789462985902 Year: DOI: 10.5117/9789462985902 Language: English
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-07 11:01:52
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This book brings together contributions from leading figures in legal studies on analogy and related forms of reasoning in the law. Analogical reasoning-which relies on the concept of two different things being in some way like each other-is hugely important not just in the practice of law, but it is nonetheless strongly contested.

The Rise of Informal Logic

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Book Series: Windsor Studies in Argumentation ISBN: 9780920233719 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 259 Language: English
Publisher: Centre for Research in Reasoning, Argumentation and Rhetoric (CRRAR): Windsor Studies in Argumentation
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2014-08-15 19:09:33
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We are pleased to release this digital edition of Ralph Johnson’s The Rise of Informal Logic as Volume 2 in the series Windsor Studies in Argumentation. This edition is a reprint of the previous Vale Press edition with some minor corrections.We have decided to make this the second volume in the series because it is such a compelling account of the formation of informal logic as a discipline, written by one of the founders of the field. The book includes essential chapters on the history and development of informal logic. Other chapters are key reflections on the theoretical issues raised by the attempt to understand informal argument. Many of the papers were previously published in important journals. A number of them were co-authored with J. Anthony Blair. Three of them have appeared only in the present book.

Educational Neuroscience, Constructivist Learning, and the Mediation of Learning and Creativity in the 21st Century

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195190 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-519-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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The advent of educational neuroscience, a transdisciplinary exercise emerging from cognitive neuroscience and educational psychology, is the examination of physiological processes that undermine, support, and enhance the capacities to learn and create. The physiological underpinnings of learning and creativity each impact human ability and performance and mediate the processes of becoming educated, expert, and valued. Evidence of learning provides support to an ongoing canon, process, system, field or domain, while evidence of creativity results in an elaboration or departure from an ongoing canon, process, system, field, or domain. Educational neuroscience extends a challenge to scholars from multiple contexts to engage in the characterization and exploration of human ability and performance in these realms. The role of context, both environmental and interoceptive, is an integral part of efforts in educational neuroscience and in theories of constructivist learning to contribute ecologically valid insight to the pragmatic processes of learning and creativity. Examination at this level of specificity is vital to our ability to educate and support human potential in the 21st century. This Research Topic examines the neural basis of cognitive states and processes that influence knowledge and skill acquisition tied to the demonstration of human ability and performance across individual differences and in multiple contexts including STEM learning and the arts.

The Reasoning Brain: The Interplay between Cognitive Neuroscience and Theories of Reasoning

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451180 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-118-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Despite the centrality of rationality to our identity as a species (let alone the scientific endeavour), and the fact that it has been studied for several millennia, the present state of our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying logical reasoning remains highly fragmented. For example, a recent review concluded that none of the extant (12!) theories provide an adequate account (Khemlani & Johnson- Laird, 2011), while other authors argue that we are on the brink of a paradigm change, where the old binary logic framework will be washed away and replaced by more modern (and correct) probabilistic and Bayesian approaches (see for example Elqayam & Over, 2012; Oaksford & Chater, 2009; Over, 2009). Over the past 15 years neuroscience brain imaging techniques and patient studies have been used to map out the functional neuroanatomy of reasoning processes. The aim of this research topic is to discuss whether this line of research has facilitated, hindered, or has been largely irrelevant for understanding of reasoning processes. The answer is neither obvious nor uncontroversial. We would like to engage both the cognitive and the neuroscience community in this discussion. Some of the questions of interest are: How have the data generated by the patient and neuroimaging studies: • influenced our thinking about modularity of deductive reasoning • impacted the debate between mental logic theory, mental model theory and the dual mechanism accounts • affected our thinking about dual mechanism theories • informed discussion of the relationship between induction and deduction • illuminated the relationship between language, visual spatial processing and reasoning • affected our thinking about the unity of deductive reasoning processes Have any of the cognitive theories of reasoning helped us explain deficits in certain patient populations? Do certain theories do a better job of this than others? Is there any value to localizing cognitive processes and identifying dissociations (for reasoning and other cognitive processes)? What challenges have neuroimaging data raised for cognitive theories of reasoning? How can cognitive theory inform interpretation of patient data or neuroimaging data? How can patient data or neuroimaging data best inform cognitive theory? This list of questions is not exhaustive. Manuscripts addressing other related questions are welcome. We are interested in hearing from skeptics, agnostics and believers, and welcome original research contributions as well as reviews, methods, hypothesis & theory papers that contribute to the discussion of the current state of our knowledge of how neuroscience is (or is not) helping us to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying logical reasoning processes.

ECAI 2006 – 17th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence

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Book Series: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications ISSN: 0922-6389 1879-8314 ISBN: 9781586036423 9781607501893 Year: Volume: 141 Pages: 892 Language: English
Publisher: IOS Press
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-04 16:03:44
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In the summer of 1956, John McCarthy organized the famous Dartmouth Conference which is now commonly viewed as the founding event for the field of Artificial Intelligence. During the last 50 years, AI has seen a tremendous development and is now a well-established scientific discipline all over the world. Also in Europe AI is in excellent shape, as witnessed by the large number of high quality papers in this publication. In comparison with ECAI 2004, there’s a strong increase in the relative number of submissions from Distributed AI / Agents and Cognitive Modelling. Knowledge Representation & Reasoning is traditionally strong in Europe and remains the biggest area of ECAI-06. One reason the figures for Case-Based Reasoning are rather low is that much of the high quality work in this area has found its way into prestigious applications and is thus represented under the heading of PAIS.

Impossible Worlds

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ISBN: 9780198812791 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.1093/0198812795.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 681404
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-12 09:24:02
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The latter half of the 20th Century witnessed an ‘intensional revolution’: a great collective effort to analyse notions which are absolutely fundamental to our understanding of the world and of ourselves – from meaning and information to knowledge, belief, causation, essence, supervenience, conditionality, as well as nomological, metaphysical, and logical necessity – in terms of a single concept. This was the concept of a possible world: a way things could have been. &#xD;Possible worlds found applications in logic, metaphysics, semantics, game theory, information theory, artificial intelligence, and the philosophy of mind and cognition. However, possible worlds analyses have been facing numerous problems. This book traces them all back to hyperintensionality: the need for distinctions more fine-grained than the possible worlds apparatus can easily represent. It then introduces impossible worlds – ways things could not have been – as a general tool for modelling hyperintensional phenomena. The book discusses the metaphysics of impossible worlds and applies them to a range of central topics and open issues in logic, semantics, and philosophy: from the problem of logical omniscience in epistemic logic, to the semantics of non-classical logics, the modeling of imagination and mental simulation, the analysis of information and informative inference, truth in fiction, and counterpossible reasoning.&#xD;The latter half of the 20th Century witnessed an ‘intensional revolution’: a great collective effort to analyse notions which are absolutely fundamental to our understanding of the world and of ourselves – from meaning and information to knowledge, belief, causation, essence, supervenience, conditionality, as well as nomological, metaphysical, and logical necessity – in terms of a single concept. This was the concept of a possible world: a way things could have been. &#xD;Possible worlds found applications in logic, metaphysics, semantics, game theory, information theory, artificial intelligence, and the philosophy of mind and cognition. However, possible worlds analyses have been facing numerous problems. This book traces them all back to hyperintensionality: the need for distinctions more fine-grained than the possible worlds apparatus can easily represent. It then introduces impossible worlds – ways things could not have been – as a general tool for modelling hyperintensional phenomena. The book discusses the metaphysics of impossible worlds and applies them to a range of central topics and open issues in logic, semantics, and philosophy: from the problem of logical omniscience in epistemic logic, to the semantics of non-classical logics, the modeling of imagination and mental simulation, the analysis of information and informative inference, truth in fiction, and counterpossible reasoning.&#xD;

Improving Bayesian Reasoning: What Works and Why?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197453 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-745-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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We confess that the first part of our title is somewhat of a misnomer. Bayesian reasoning is a normative approach to probabilistic belief revision and, as such, it is in need of no improvement. Rather, it is the typical individual whose reasoning and judgments often fall short of the Bayesian ideal who is the focus of improvement. What have we learnt from over a half-century of research and theory on this topic that could explain why people are often non-Bayesian? Can Bayesian reasoning be facilitated, and if so why? These are the questions that motivate this Frontiers in Psychology Research Topic. Bayes' theorem, named after English statistician, philosopher, and Presbyterian minister, Thomas Bayes, offers a method for updating one’s prior probability of an hypothesis H on the basis of new data D such that P(H|D) = P(D|H)P(H)/P(D). The first wave of psychological research, pioneered by Ward Edwards, revealed that people were overly conservative in updating their posterior probabilities (i.e., P(D|H)). A second wave, spearheaded by Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, showed that people often ignored prior probabilities or base rates, where the priors had a frequentist interpretation, and hence were not Bayesians at all. In the 1990s, a third wave of research spurred by Leda Cosmides and John Tooby and by Gerd Gigerenzer and Ulrich Hoffrage showed that people can reason more like a Bayesian if only the information provided takes the form of (non-relativized) natural frequencies. Although Kahneman and Tversky had already noted the advantages of frequency representations, it was the third wave scholars who pushed the prescriptive agenda, arguing that there are feasible and effective methods for improving belief revision. Most scholars now agree that natural frequency representations do facilitate Bayesian reasoning. However, they do not agree on why this is so. The original third wave scholars favor an evolutionary account that posits human brain adaptation to natural frequency processing. But almost as soon as this view was proposed, other scholars challenged it, arguing that such evolutionary assumptions were not needed. The dominant opposing view has been that the benefit of natural frequencies is mainly due to the fact that such representations make the nested set relations perfectly transparent. Thus, people can more easily see what information they need to focus on and how to simply combine it. This Research Topic aims to take stock of where we are at present. Are we in a proto-fourth wave? If so, does it offer a synthesis of recent theoretical disagreements? The second part of the title orients the reader to the two main subtopics: what works and why? In terms of the first subtopic, we seek contributions that advance understanding of how to improve people’s abilities to revise their beliefs and to integrate probabilistic information effectively. The second subtopic centers on explaining why methods that improve non-Bayesian reasoning work as well as they do. In addressing that issue, we welcome both critical analyses of existing theories as well as fresh perspectives. For both subtopics, we welcome the full range of manuscript types.

Multisensory Integration: Brain, Body and the World

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197927 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-792-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Behaviour, language, and reasoning are expressions of neural functions par excellence, as the brain must draw on sensory modalities to gather information on the rest of the body and on the outer world. Cortical areas processing the identity and location of sensory inputs were once thought to be organised hierarchically, with some branches dedicated to basic features and other branches dedicated to complex features. Yet current studies have uncovered synergistic effects at early sensory cortices as well as at higher-level association areas. A less hierarchical functional architecture of the brain has emerged such that, irrespective of sensory modality, inputs would be allocated to the best suited cortical substrate. It is our hope that the articles included in this special issue will offer novel insights into recent developments relating to multisensory integration and brain functioning.

Learning Ontology Relations by Combining Corpus-Based Techniques and Reasoning on Data from Semantic Web Sources

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Book Series: Forschungsergebnisse der Wirtschaftsuniversitaet Wien ISBN: 9783631606513 Year: Pages: 222 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Computer Science --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:26
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The manual construction of formal domain conceptualizations (ontologies) is labor-intensive. Ontology learning, by contrast, provides (semi-)automatic ontology generation from input data such as domain text. This thesis proposes a novel approach for learning labels of non-taxonomic ontology relations. It combines corpus-based techniques with reasoning on Semantic Web data. Corpus-based methods apply vector space similarity of verbs co-occurring with labeled and unlabeled relations to calculate relation label suggestions from a set of candidates. A meta ontology in combination with Semantic Web sources such as DBpedia and OpenCyc allows reasoning to improve the suggested labels. An extensive formal evaluation demonstrates the superior accuracy of the presented hybrid approach.

Principles and Practice of Case-based Clinical Reasoning Education: A Method for Preclinical Students

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Book Series: Innovation and Change in Professional Education ISSN: 1572-1957 / 2542-9957 ISBN: 9783319648279 9783319648286 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64828-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 17:20:23
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This volume describes and explains the educational method of Case-Based Clinical Reasoning (CBCR) used successfully in medical schools to prepare students to think like doctors before they enter the clinical arena and become engaged in patient care. Although this approach poses the paradoxical problem of a lack of clinical experience that is so essential for building proficiency in clinical reasoning, CBCR is built on the premise that solving clinical problems involves the ability to reason about disease processes. This requires knowledge of anatomy and the working and pathology of organ systems, as well as the ability to regard patient problems as patterns and compare them with instances of illness scripts of patients the clinician has seen in the past and stored in memory. CBCR stimulates the development of early, rudimentary illness scripts through elaboration and systematic discussion of the courses of action from the initial presentation of the patient to the final steps of clinical management.The book combines general backgrounds of clinical reasoning education and assessment with a detailed elaboration of the CBCR method for application in any medical curriculum, either as a mandatory or as an elective course. It consists of three parts: a general introduction to clinical reasoning education, application of the CBCR method, and cases that can used by educators to try out this method.

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