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How to improve immune reconstitution in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194919 Year: Pages: 86 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-491-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Abstract

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is widely used in the treatment of haematological malignancies as a form of immunotherapy acting through a graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) reaction. This curative allogeneic response can be associated with severe drawbacks, such as frequent and severe graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and a long-lasting immunodeficiency, especially now with the development of innovative strategies such as umbilical cord blood transplantation or transplants from haplo-identical family donors (Haplo-HSCT). In the long-term follow-up of these patients, severe post-transplant infections, relapse or secondary malignancies may be directly related to persistent immune defects.Reconstitution of the different lymphocyte populations (B, T, NK, NKT) and antigen presenting cells of myeloid origin (monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells) should be considered not only quantitatively but especially qualitatively, in terms of functional subsets. Immune deficiency leading to an increased susceptibility to infections lasts for more than a year. Although infections that occur in the first month mostly result from a deficiency in both granulocytes and mononuclear cells (MNC), later post-engraftment infections are due to a deficiency in MNC subsets, primarily CD4 T-cells and B-cells. T-cell reconstitution has been extensively studied because of the central role of T-cells in mediating both GvHD, evidenced by the reduced incidence of this complication following T-Cell depletion, and a GvL effect as shown by DLI. In the recent years there has been renewed interest in the role of NK-cells, especially in the context of Haplo-HSCT, and in B-cell reconstitution.This Frontiers Research Topic will provide state of the art knowledge of the mechanisms of immune reconstitution in an allogeneic environment, in order to improve monitoring and therapeutic intervention in allo-HSCT patients.

Engineering Synthetic Metabolons: From Metabolic Modelling to Rational Design of Biosynthetic Devices

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199211 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-921-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The discipline of Synthetic Biology has recently emerged at the interface of biology and engineering. The definition of Synthetic Biology has been dynamic over time ever since, which exemplifies that the field is rapidly moving and comprises a broad range of research areas. In the frame of this Research Topic, we focus on Synthetic Biology approaches that aim at rearranging biological parts/ entities in order to generate novel biochemical functions with inherent metabolic activity. This Research Topic encompasses Pathway Engineering in living systems as well as the in vitro assembly of biomolecules into nano- and microscale bioreactors. Both, the engineering of metabolic pathways in vivo, as well as the conceptualization of bioreactors in vitro, require rational design of assembled synthetic pathways and depend on careful selection of individual biological functions and their optimization. Mathematical modelling has proven to be a powerful tool in predicting metabolic flux in living and artificial systems, although modelling approaches have to cope with a limitation in experimentally verified, reliable input variables. This Research Topic puts special emphasis on the vital role of modelling approaches for Synthetic Biology, i.e. the predictive power of mathematical simulations for (i) the manipulation of existing pathways and (ii) the establishment of novel pathways in vivo as well as (iii) the translation of model predictions into the design of synthetic assemblies.

Fungal Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts

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ISBN: 9783038977162 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-717-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Microbiology --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Abstract

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Fungal Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts that was published in JoF

Keywords

Candida auris --- Aspergillus fumigatus --- antifungal resistance --- multidrug resistance --- mechanisms of antifungal resistance --- liver disease --- hepatic impairment --- invasive fungal infection --- antifungal agent --- antifungal drug --- toxicity --- Immunotherapy --- invasive aspergillosis --- Aspergillus fumigatus --- fungal infections --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- cell therapy --- cytokine therapy --- taxonomy --- fungal nomenclature --- phylogenetics --- species complex --- invasive fungal infections --- mycoses --- immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome --- fungal immunity --- prognostic risk model --- prediction models --- risk score --- invasive mold disease --- hematological malignancy --- risk assessment --- antifungal stewardship --- paracoccidioidomycosis --- HIV --- cancer --- lymphoma --- kidney transplant --- TNF inhibitors --- literature review --- MALDI-ToF MS --- yeast --- fungus --- AIDS --- IRIS --- cat-transmitted sporotrichosis --- immunocompromised hosts --- mycoses of implantation --- sporotrichosis --- Sporothrix brasiliensis --- Sporothrix schenckii --- subcutaneous mycoses --- invasive fungal infection --- non-culture-based diagnostics --- aspergillosis --- candidiasis --- Aspergillus PCR --- galactomannan --- lateral flow --- beta-d-glucan --- T2 Candida --- candidemia --- Candida meningoencephalitis --- (1?3)-?-d-glucan --- T2Candida --- PCR --- liposomal amphotericin B --- micafungin --- anidulafungin --- Aspergillus --- anti-fungal agents --- hematological malignancies

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