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The Metabolic-Inflammatory Axis in Brain Aging and Neurodegeneration

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452538 Year: Pages: 161 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-253-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Impairment of energy metabolism is a hallmark of brain aging and several neurodegenerative diseases, such as the Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Age- and disease-related hypometabolism is commonly associated with oxidative stress and they are both regarded as major contributors to the decline in synaptic plasticity and cognition. Neuroinflammatory changes, entailing microglial activation and elevated expression of inflammatory cytokines, also correlate with age-related cognitive decline. It is still under debate whether the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced metabolic deficits or the microglia activation-mediated neuroinflammation is the initiator of the cognitive changes in aging and AD. Nevertheless, multiple lines of evidence support the notion that mitochondrial dysfunction and chronic inflammation exacerbate each other, and these mechanistic diversities have cellular redox dysregulation as a common denominator. This research topic focuses on the role of a metabolic-inflammatory axis encompassing the bioenergetic activity, brain inflammatory responses and their redox regulation in healthy brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Dynamic interactions among these systems are reviewed in terms of their causative or in-tandem occurrence and how the systemic environment, –e.g., insulin resistance, diabetes, and systemic inflammation–, impacts on brain function.

Redox Homeostasis Managers in Plants under Environmental Stresses

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198788 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-878-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The production of cellular oxidants such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an inevitable con-sequence of redox cascades of aerobic metabolism in plants. This milieu is further aggravated by a myriad of adverse environmental conditions that plants, owing to their sessile life-style, have to cope with during their life cycle. Adverse conditions prevent plants reaching their full genetic potential in terms of growth and productivity mainly as a result of accelerated ROS generation-accrued redox imbalances and halted cellular metabolism. In order to sustain ROS-accrued consequences, plants tend to manage a fine homeostasis between the generation and antioxidants-mediated metabolisms of ROS and its reaction products. Well-known for their involvement in the regulation of several non-stress-related processes, redox related components such as proteinaceous thiol members such as thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, and peroxiredoxin proteins, and key soluble redox-compounds namely ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) are also listed as efficient managers of cellular redox homeostasis in plants. The management of the cellular redox homeostasis is also contributed by electron carriers and energy metabolism mediators such as non-phosphorylated (NAD+) and the phosphorylated (NADP+) coenzyme forms and their redox couples DHA/AsA, GSSG/GSH, NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH. Moreover, intracellular concentrations of these cellular redox homeostasis managers in plant cells fluctuate with the external environments and mediate dynamic signaling in pant stress responses. This research topic aims to exemplify new information on how redox homeostasis managers are modulated by environmental cues and what potential strategies are useful for improving cellular concentrations of major redox homeostasis managers. Additionally, it also aims to pro-vide readers detailed updates on specific topics, and to highlight so far unexplored aspects in the current context.

Thioredoxin and Glutaredoxin Systems

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ISBN: 9783038978367 / 9783038978374 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-837-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This Special Issue features recent data concerning thioredoxins and glutaredoxins from various biological systems, including bacteria, mammals, and plants. Four of the sixteen articles are review papers that deal with the regulation of development of the effect of hydrogen peroxide and the interactions between oxidants and reductants, the description of methionine sulfoxide reductases, detoxification enzymes that require thioredoxin or glutaredoxin, and the response of plants to cold stress, respectively. This is followed by eleven research articles that focus on a reductant of thioredoxin in bacteria, a thioredoxin reductase, and a variety of plant and bacterial thioredoxins, including the m, f, o, and h isoforms and their targets. Various parameters are studied, including genetic, structural, and physiological properties of these systems. The redox regulation of monodehydroascorbate reductase, aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, and cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase could have very important consequences in plant metabolism. Also, the properties of the mitochondrial o-type thioredoxins and their unexpected capacity to bind iron–sulfur center (ISC) structures open new developments concerning the redox mitochondrial function and possibly ISC assembly in mitochondria. The final paper discusses interesting biotechnological applications of thioredoxin for breadmaking.

Keywords

methionine --- methionine sulfoxide --- methionine sulfoxide reductase --- physiological function --- protein --- plant --- repair --- redox homeostasis --- signaling --- stress --- mitochondria --- thioredoxin --- iron–sulfur cluster --- redox regulation --- ALAD --- tetrapyrrole biosynthesis --- redox control --- thioredoxins --- posttranslational modification --- chlorophyll --- redox regulation --- thioredoxin --- ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase --- chloroplast --- H2O2 --- redox signalling --- development --- regeneration --- adult stem cells --- metazoan --- cyanobacteria --- thioredoxin --- photosynthesis --- redox active site --- thioredoxin --- disulfide --- flavin --- NADPH --- X-ray crystallography --- SAXS --- methanoarchaea --- chilling stress --- cold temperature --- posttranslational modification --- regulation --- ROS --- thiol redox network --- thioredoxin --- thioredoxin --- Calvin-Benson cycle --- photosynthesis --- carbon fixation --- chloroplast --- macromolecular crystallography --- protein-protein recognition --- electrostatic surface --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- thioredoxin --- glutaredoxin --- legume plant --- symbiosis --- redox homeostasis --- stress --- thioredoxin --- monodehydroascorbate reductase --- water stress --- protein oxidation --- antioxidants --- ascorbate --- glutathione --- wheat --- thioredoxin --- thioredoxin reductase --- baking --- redox --- dough rheology --- protein oxidation --- methionine oxidation --- methionine sulfoxide reductases --- oxidized protein repair --- ageing --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- cysteine alkylation --- cysteine reactivity --- MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry --- thioredoxin --- X-ray crystallography --- Isocitrate dehydrogenase --- glutathionylation --- nitrosylation --- glutaredoxin --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- thioredoxins --- plastidial --- specificity --- function --- proteomic --- photosynthesis --- Calvin cycle --- n/a

Salinity Tolerance in Plants

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ISBN: 9783039210268 / 9783039210275 Year: Pages: 422 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-027-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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Salt stress is one of the most damaging abiotic stresses because most crop plants are susceptible to salinity to different degrees. According to the FAO, about 800 million Has of land are affected by salinity worldwide. Unfortunately, this situation will worsen in the context of climate change, where there will be an overall increase in temperature and a decrease in average annual rainfall worldwide. This Special Issue presents different research works and reviews on the response of plants to salinity, focused from different points of view: physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels. Although an important part of the studies on the response to salinity have been carried out with Arabidopsis plants, the use of other species with agronomic interest is also notable, including woody plants. Most of the conducted studies in this Special Issue were focused on the identification and characterization of candidate genes for salt tolerance in higher plants. This identification would provide valuable information about the molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in the salt tolerance response, and it also supplies important resources to breeding programs for salt tolerance in plants.

Keywords

Arabidopsis --- Brassica napus --- ion homeostasis --- melatonin --- NaCl stress --- nitric oxide --- redox homeostasis --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- bZIP transcription factors --- salt stress --- transcriptional regulation --- photosynthesis --- lipid accumulation --- Apocyni Veneti Folium --- salt stress --- multiple bioactive constituents --- physiological changes --- multivariate statistical analysis --- banana (Musa acuminata L.) --- ROP --- genome-wide identification --- abiotic stress --- salt stress --- MaROP5g --- rice --- genome-wide association study --- salt stress --- germination --- natural variation --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- salt stress --- transcriptome analysis --- impairment of photosynthesis --- underpinnings of salt stress responses --- chlorophyll fluorescence --- J8-1 plum line --- mandelonitrile --- Prunus domestica --- redox signalling --- salicylic acid --- salt-stress --- soluble nutrients --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- VOZ --- transcription factor --- salt stress --- transcriptional activator --- chlorophyll fluorescence --- lipid peroxidation --- Na+ --- photosynthesis --- photosystem --- RNA binding protein --- nucleolin --- salt stress --- photosynthesis --- light saturation point --- booting stage --- transcriptome --- grapevine --- salt stress --- ROS detoxification --- phytohormone --- transcription factors --- Arabidopsis --- CDPK --- ion homeostasis --- NMT --- ROS --- salt stress --- antioxidant enzymes --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- ascorbate cycle --- hydrogen peroxide --- reactive oxygen species --- salinity --- SnRK2 --- RNA-seq --- DEUs --- flax --- NaCl stress --- EST-SSR --- Salt stress --- Oryza sativa --- proteomics --- iTRAQ quantification --- cell membrane injury --- root activity --- antioxidant systems --- ion homeostasis --- melatonin --- salt stress --- signal pathway --- SsMAX2 --- Sapium sebiferum --- drought, osmotic stress --- salt stress --- redox homeostasis --- strigolactones --- ABA --- TGase --- photosynthesis --- salt stress --- polyamines --- cucumber --- abiotic stresses --- high salinity --- HKT1 --- halophytes --- glycophytes --- poplars (Populus) --- salt tolerance --- molecular mechanisms --- SOS --- ROS --- Capsicum annuum L. --- CaDHN5 --- salt stress --- osmotic stress --- dehydrin --- Gossypium arboretum --- salt tolerance --- single nucleotide polymorphisms --- association mapping. --- n/a

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