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Using Fine Grain Approaches for highly reliable Design of FPGA-based Systems in Space

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Book Series: Steinbuch Series on Advances in Information Technology / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Technik der Informationsverarbeitung ISSN: 21914737 ISBN: 9783731500384 Year: Volume: 9 Pages: IX, 146 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000035134 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Nowadays using SRAM based FPGAs in space missions is increasingly considered due to their flexibility and reprogrammability. A challenge is the devices sensitivity to radiation effects that increased with modern architectures due to smaller CMOS structures. This work proposes fault tolerance methodologies, that are based on a fine grain view to modern reconfigurable architectures. The focus is on SEU mitigation challenges in SRAM based FPGAs which can result in crucial situations.

Information Decomposition of Target Effects from Multi-Source Interactions

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ISBN: 9783038970156 9783038970163 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-016-3 Language: englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-04 13:22:10
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Using Shannon information theory to analyse the contributions from two source variables to a target, for example, we can measure the information held by one source about the target, the information held by the other source about the target, and the information held by those sources together about the target. Intuitively, however, there is strong desire to measure further notions of how this directed information interaction may be decomposed, e.g., how much information the two source variables hold redundantly about the target, how much each source variable holds uniquely, and how much information can only be discerned by synergistically examining the two sources together.The absence of measures for such decompositions into redundant, unique and synergistic information is arguably the most fundamental missing piece in classical information theory. Triggered by the formulation of the Partial Information Decomposition framework by Williams and Beer in 2010, the past few years have witnessed a concentration of work by the community in proposing, contrasting, and investigating new measures to capture these notions of information decomposition.This Special Issue seeks to bring together these efforts, to capture a snapshot of the current research, as well as to provide impetus for and focused scrutiny on newer work, present progress to the wider community and attract further research. Our contributions present: several new approaches for measures of such decompotions; commentary on properties, interpretations and limitations of such approaches; and applications to empirical data (in particular to neural data).

Entwurfsoptimierung von selbst-adaptiven Wartungsmechanismen für software-intensive technische Systeme

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Book Series: The Karlsruhe Series on Software Design and Quality / Ed. by Prof. Dr. Ralf Reussner ISSN: 18670067 ISBN: 9783731508526 Year: Volume: 28 Pages: XXV, 342 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000086097 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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This work presents novel concepts for efficient decision support in reconfiguring software-intensive technical systems with limited maintenance access. In contrast to purely redundancy-oriented approaches, the proposed methodology is based on the predictive pre-calculation of adequate configuration alternatives in the relevant design space. The knowledge about configuration relationships is manifested early and used for the autonomic cost-efficient assessment of configuration alternatives.

Critical Earthquake Response of Elastic-Plastic Structures and Rigid Blocks under Near-Fault Ground Motions: Closed-Form Approach via Double Impulse

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Book Series: Frontiers Theme Book ISBN: 9782889198702 Year: Pages: 64 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-870-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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This eBook is the second in a series of books on the critical earthquake response of elastic-plastic structures or rigid blocks under near-fault ground motions, and includes four original research papers which were published in the specialty section Earthquake Engineering in ‘Frontiers in Built Environment’. Several extensions of the first book1 are included here. The first article is on the soil-structure interaction problem. The reduction of an original soil-structure interaction model into a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) model enables the application of the original theory for an SDOF model to such complicated soil-structure interaction model. The second article is concerned with the extension of the original theory for an SDOF model to a 2DOF model. Since the simple application of the original theory for an SDOF model to a multi-degree-of-freedom model is difficult due to out-of-phase phenomenon of multiple masses, a convex model theory is introduced and an upper bound of elastic-plastic response is derived. The third article is related to the stability problem of structures (collapse problems of structures) in which the P-delta effect is included. It is shown that the original theory for an SDOF model with elastic-perfectly plastic restoring-force characteristic can be applied to a model with negative second slope. The fourth article is an application of the energy balance approach to an overturning limit problem of rigid blocks. A closed-form expression of the overturning limit of rigid blocks is derived for the first time after the Housner’s pioneering work in 1963. The approach presented in this book, together with the first book, is an epoch-making accomplishment to open the door for simpler and deeper understanding of structural reliability of built environments in the elastic-plastic and nonlinear range.

Critical Earthquake Response of Elastic-Plastic Structures Under Near-Fault Ground Motions: Closed-Form Approach via Impulse Input

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ISBN: 9782889197422 Year: Pages: 55 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-742-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-30 10:14:31
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The specialty section Earthquake Engineering is one branch of Frontiers in Built Environment and welcomes critical and in-depth submissions on earthquake ground motions and their effects on buildings and infrastructures. Manuscripts should yield new insights and ultimately contribute to a safer and more reliable design of building structures and infrastructures. The scope includes the characterization of earthquake ground motions (e.g. near-fault, far-fault, short-period, long-period), their underlying properties, their intrinsic relationship with structural responses, and the true behaviors of building structures and infrastructures under risky and uncertain ground motions. More specific topics include recorded ground motions, generated ground motions, response spectra, stochastic modeling of ground motion, critical excitation, geotechnical aspects, soil mechanics, soil liquefaction, soil-structure interactions, pile foundations, earthquake input energy, structural control, passive control, active control, base-isolation, steel structures, reinforced concrete structures, wood structures, building retrofit, structural optimization, uncertainty analysis, robustness analysis, and redundancy analysis. This eBook includes four original research papers, in addition to the Specialty Grand Challenge article, on the critical earthquake response of elastic-plastic structures under near-fault or long-duration ground motions which were published in the specialty section Earthquake Engineering. In the early stage of dynamic nonlinear response analysis of structures around 1960s, a simple hysteretic structural model and a simple sinusoidal earthquake ground motion input were dealt with together with random inputs. The steady-state response was tackled by an equivalent linearization method developed by Caughey, Iwan and others. In fact, the resonance plays a key role in the earthquake-resistant design and it has a strong effect even in case of near-fault ground motions. In order to draw the steady-state response curve and investigate the resonant property, two kinds of repetition have to be introduced. One is a cycle, for one forced input frequency, of the initial guess of the steady-state response amplitude, the construction of the equivalent linear model, the analysis of the steady-state response amplitude using the equivalent linear model and the update of the equivalent linear model based on the computed steady-state response amplitude. The other is the sweeping over a range of forced input frequencies. This process is quite tedious. Four original research papers included in this eBook propose a new approach to overcome this difficulty. Kojima and Takewaki demonstrated that the elastic-plastic response as continuation of free-vibrations under impulse input can be derived in a closed form by a sophisticated energy approach without solving directly the equations of motion as differential equations. While, as pointed out above, the approach based on the equivalent linearization method requires the repetition of application of the linearized equations, the method by Kojima and Takewaki does not need any repetition. The double impulse, triple impulse and multiple impulses enable us to describe directly the critical timing of impulses (resonant frequency) which is not easy for the sinusoidal and other inputs without a repetitive procedure. It is important to note that, while most of the previous methods employ the equivalent linearization of the structural model with the input unchanged, the method treated in this eBook transforms the input into a series of impulses with the structural model unchanged. This characteristic guarantees high accuracy and reliability even in the large plastic deformation range. The approach presented in this eBook is an epoch-making accomplishment to open the door for simpler and deeper understanding of structural reliability of built environments in the elastic-plastic range.

Information Theory in Neuroscience

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ISBN: 9783038976646 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-665-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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As the ultimate information processing device, the brain naturally lends itself to being studied with information theory. The application of information theory to neuroscience has spurred the development of principled theories of brain function, and has led to advances in the study of consciousness, as well as to the development of analytical techniques to crack the neural code—that is, to unveil the language used by neurons to encode and process information. In particular, advances in experimental techniques enabling the precise recording and manipulation of neural activity on a large scale now enable for the first time the precise formulation and the quantitative testing of hypotheses about how the brain encodes and transmits the information used for specific functions across areas. This Special Issue presents twelve original contributions on novel approaches in neuroscience using information theory, and on the development of new information theoretic results inspired by problems in neuroscience.

Mechanism Design for Robotics

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ISBN: 9783039210589 9783039210596 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-059-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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MEDER 2018, the IFToMM International Symposium on Mechanism Design for Robotics, was the fourth event in a series that was started in 2010 as a specific conference activity on mechanisms for robots. The aim of the MEDER Symposium is to bring researchers, industry professionals, and students together from a broad range of disciplines dealing with mechanisms for robots, in an intimate, collegial, and stimulating environment. In the 2018 MEDER event, we received significant attention regarding this initiative, as can be seen by the fact that the Proceedings contain contributions by authors from all around the world.The Proceedings of the MEDER 2018 Symposium have been published within the Springer book series on MMS, and the book contains 52 papers that have been selected after review for oral presentation. These papers cover several aspects of the wide field of robotics dealing with mechanism aspects in theory, design, numerical evaluations, and applications.This Special Issue of Robotics (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/robotics/special_issues/MDR) has been obtained as a result of a second review process and selection, but all the papers that have been accepted for MEDER 2018 are of very good quality with interesting contents that are suitable for journal publication, and the selection process has been difficult.

Keywords

hexapod walking robot --- 3-UPU parallel mechanism --- kinematics --- stability --- gait planning --- shape changing --- rolling --- robot --- cylindrical --- elliptical --- velocity control --- economic locomotion --- actuation burden --- inadvertent braking --- humanoid robots --- parallel mechanisms --- cable-driven robots --- robotic legs --- painting robot --- collaborative robot --- image processing --- non-photorealistic rendering --- artistic rendering --- robot wrists --- spherical parallel mechanism --- orientational mechanisms --- computer-aided design --- workspace analysis --- iCub --- shape memory alloy --- compliant mechanism --- SMA actuator --- pneumatic artificial muscle --- McKibben muscle --- haptic glove --- hand exoskeleton --- teleoperation --- force reflection --- human-machine interaction --- robot kinematics --- robot singularity --- singularity analysis --- robot control --- mobile manipulation --- human-robot-interaction --- learning by demonstration --- compliance control --- trajectory planning --- energy efficiency --- redundancy --- robotic cell --- kinematic redundancy --- cable-driven parallel robots --- fail-safe operation --- exercising device --- cobot --- V2SOM --- safety mechanism --- safe physical human–robot interaction --- pHRI --- variable stiffness actuator --- VSA --- collaborative robots --- humanoid robotic hands --- underactuated fingers --- graphical user interface --- grasp stability --- safe physical human–robot interaction (pHRI) --- variable stiffness actuator (VSA) --- collaborative robots --- robot-assisted Doppler sonography --- n/a

Radiation Tolerant Electronics

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ISBN: 9783039212798 9783039212804 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-280-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Research on radiation-tolerant electronics has increased rapidly over the past few years, resulting in many interesting approaches to modeling radiation effects and designing radiation-hardened integrated circuits and embedded systems. This research is strongly driven by the growing need for radiation-hardened electronics for space applications, high-energy physics experiments such as those on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and many terrestrial nuclear applications including nuclear energy and nuclear safety. With the progressive scaling of integrated circuit technologies and the growing complexity of electronic systems, their susceptibility to ionizing radiation has raised many exciting challenges, which are expected to drive research in the coming decade. In this book we highlight recent breakthroughs in the study of radiation effects in advanced semiconductor devices, as well as in high-performance analog, mixed signal, RF, and digital integrated circuits. We also focus on advances in embedded radiation hardening in both FPGA and microcontroller systems and apply radiation-hardened embedded systems for cryptography and image processing, targeting space applications.

Keywords

physical unclonable function --- FPGA --- total ionizing dose --- Co-60 gamma radiation --- ring-oscillator --- Image processing --- line buffer --- SRAM-based FPGA --- single event upset (SEU) --- configuration memory --- soft error --- radiation-hardened --- instrumentation amplifier --- sensor readout IC --- total ionizing dose --- nuclear fusion --- radiation hardening --- hardening by design --- TMR --- selective hardening --- VHDL --- FPGA --- radiation hardening --- single event upsets --- heavy ions --- error rates --- single-event upsets (SEUs) --- digital integrated circuits --- triple modular redundancy (TMR) --- radiation hardening by design --- TMR --- FMR --- 4MR --- triplex–duplex --- FPGA-based digital controller --- radiation tolerant --- single event effects --- proton irradiation --- RFIC --- SEE testing --- space application --- CMOS --- TDC --- radiation effects --- total ionizing dose (TID) --- single-shot --- PLL --- ring oscillator --- analog single-event transient (ASET) --- bandgap voltage reference (BGR) --- CMOS analog integrated circuits --- gamma-rays --- heavy-ions --- ionization --- protons --- radiation hardening by design (RHBD) --- reference circuits --- single-event effects (SEE) --- space electronics --- total ionization dose (TID) --- voltage reference --- X-rays --- radiation-hardened --- single event gate rupture (SEGR) --- SEB --- power MOSFETs --- Single-Event Upsets (SEUs) --- radiation effects --- Ring Oscillators --- Impulse Sensitive Function --- Radiation Hardening by Design --- fault tolerance --- single event upset --- proton irradiation effects --- neutron irradiation effects --- soft errors --- saturation effect --- gain degradation --- total ionizing dose --- gamma ray --- bipolar transistor --- single event transient (SET) --- single event opset (SEU) --- radiation-hardening-by-design (RHBD) --- frequency synthesizers --- voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) --- frequency divider by two --- CMOS --- n/a

Methods and Concepts for Designing and Validating Smart Grid Systems

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039216482 9783039216499 Year: Pages: 408 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-649-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Energy efficiency and low-carbon technologies are key contributors to curtailing the emission of greenhouse gases that continue to cause global warming. The efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions also strongly affect electrical power systems. Renewable sources, storage systems, and flexible loads provide new system controls, but power system operators and utilities have to deal with their fluctuating nature, limited storage capabilities, and typically higher infrastructure complexity with a growing number of heterogeneous components. In addition to the technological change of new components, the liberalization of energy markets and new regulatory rules bring contextual change that necessitates the restructuring of the design and operation of future energy systems. Sophisticated component design methods, intelligent information and communication architectures, automation and control concepts, new and advanced markets, as well as proper standards are necessary in order to manage the higher complexity of such intelligent power systems that form smart grids. Due to the considerably higher complexity of such cyber-physical energy systems, constituting the power system, automation, protection, information and communication technology (ICT), and system services, it is expected that the design and validation of smart-grid configurations will play a major role in future technology and system developments. However, an integrated approach for the design and evaluation of smart-grid configurations incorporating these diverse constituent parts remains evasive. The currently available validation approaches focus mainly on component-oriented methods. In order to guarantee a sustainable, affordable, and secure supply of electricity through the transition to a future smart grid with considerably higher complexity and innovation, new design, validation, and testing methods appropriate for cyber-physical systems are required. Therefore, this book summarizes recent research results and developments related to the design and validation of smart grid systems.

Keywords

adaptive control --- fuzzy logic --- cell --- frequency containment control (FCC) --- power frequency characteristic --- droop control --- smart grids --- substation automation system (SAS) --- high-availability seamless redundancy (HSR) --- seamless communications --- traffic reduction technique --- Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) --- interface algorithm (IA) --- operational range of PHIL --- linear/switching amplifier --- cyber-physical energy system --- co-simulation --- conceptual structuration --- coupling method --- linear decision rules --- optimal reserve allocation --- robust optimization --- web of cells --- demand response --- real-time balancing market --- elastic demand bids --- shiftable loads --- market design --- market design elements --- Web-of-Cells --- procurement scheme --- remuneration scheme --- pricing scheme --- cascading procurement --- real-time simulation --- hardware-in-the-Loop --- synchrophasors --- micro-synchrophasors --- distribution phasor measurement units --- distribution grid --- time synchronization --- PHIL (power hardware in the loop) --- simulation initialization --- synchronization --- time delay --- synchronous power system --- stability --- accuracy --- peer-to-peer --- distributed control --- device-to-device communication --- voltage control --- experimentation --- smart grid --- cyber physical co-simulation --- information and communication technology --- 4G Long Term Evolution—LTE --- network reconfiguration --- fault management --- power loss allocation --- plug-in electric vehicle --- smart grid --- locational marginal prices --- microgrid --- resilience --- investment --- underground cabling --- network outage --- battery energy storage system (BESS) --- micro combined heat and power (micro-CHP) --- electricity distribution --- solar photovoltaics (PV) --- islanded operation --- distributed control --- microgrid --- hardware-in-the-loop --- average consensus --- multi-agent system --- active distribution network --- laboratory testbed --- renewable energy sources --- DC link --- centralised control --- interoperability --- smart energy systems --- use cases --- IEC 62559 --- SGAM --- TOGAF --- integration profiles --- IHE --- testing --- gazelle --- connectathon --- Hardware-in-the-Loop --- Software-in-the-Loop --- Power-Hardware-in-the-Loop --- Quasi-Dynamic Power-Hardware-in-the-Loop --- smart grids --- real-time simulation --- validation and testing --- decentralised energy system --- smart grids control strategies --- smart grid --- wind power --- synchronized measurements --- PMU --- data mining --- Architecture --- Development --- Enterprise Architecture Management --- Model-Based Software Engineering --- Smart Grid --- Smart Grid Architecture Model --- System-of-Systems --- Validation --- design, development and implementation methods for smart grid technologies --- modelling and simulation of smart grid systems --- co-simulation-based assessment methods --- validation techniques for innovative smart grid solutions --- real-time simulation and hardware-in-the-loop experiments

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