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Regulatory Theory: Foundations and applications

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ISBN: 9781760461010 Year: DOI: 10.22459/RT.02.2017 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Law --- Business and Management --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-06 11:01:22
License: ANU Press

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This volume introduces readers to regulatory theory. Aimed at practitioners, postgraduate students and those interested in regulation as a cross-cutting theme in the social sciences, Regulatory Theory includes chapters on the social-psychological foundations of regulation as well as theories of regulation such as responsive regulation, smart regulation and nodal governance. It explores the key themes of compliance, legal pluralism, meta-regulation, the rule of law, risk, accountability, globalisation and regulatory capitalism. The environment, crime, health, human rights, investment, migration and tax are among the fields of regulation considered in this ground-breaking book. Each chapter introduces the reader to key concepts and ideas and contains suggestions for further reading. The contributors, who either are or have been connected to the Regulatory Institutions Network (RegNet) at The Australian National University, include John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Peter Grabosky, Neil Gunningham, Fiona Haines, Terry Halliday, David Levi-Faur, Christine Parker, Colin Scott and Clifford Shearing.

Regulation by non-coding RNAs

ISBN: 9783038420057 9783038420101 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 844 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:03:39
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Regulatory non-protein-coding RNA genes and their transcripts were first found and characterized in bacteria but encompass all biological kingdoms. The complexity of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in terms of number and types increases with degree of biological development, whereby humans and other primates appear to have the largest number. Many regulatory ncRNAs base-pair to a target RNA or DNA and inhibit target function. Bacterial ncRNA genes largely respond to environmental stress conditions and help protect the organism from adverse conditions. The prokaryotic RNAs are for the most part small (<200 bp) and are commonly referred to as small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs). Eukaryotic RNAs consist of small <200 nt RNAs and large >200 nt (termed lncRNAs). The eukaryotic small RNAs include miRNAs, siRNAs, and piRNAs. miRNAs inhibit mRNA functions and may also be associated with cancer. lncRNAs functions are multifaceted and include epigenetic regulation and animal development. The bacterial and archeal immune system CRISPR, and the eukaryotic piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA) immune system that inhibits mobile elements in germ line cells both function by via RNA transcript/ target DNA heteroduplex base-pairing are a specific class of RNAs that protect cells from invading transposons/and or viruses. siRNAs function in plant and invertebrate immune systems and protect against viral infections. [...]

Regulation by non-coding RNAs

ISBN: 9783038420064 9783038420118 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 244 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:06:27
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Regulatory non-protein-coding RNA genes and their transcripts were first found and characterized in bacteria but encompass all biological kingdoms. The complexity of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in terms of number and types increases with degree of biological development, whereby humans and other primates appear to have the largest number. Many regulatory ncRNAs base-pair to a target RNA or DNA and inhibit target function. Bacterial ncRNA genes largely respond to environmental stress conditions and help protect the organism from adverse conditions. The prokaryotic RNAs are for the most part small (<200 bp) and are commonly referred to as small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs). Eukaryotic RNAs consist of small <200 nt RNAs and large >200 nt (termed lncRNAs). The eukaryotic small RNAs include miRNAs, siRNAs, and piRNAs. miRNAs inhibit mRNA functions and may also be associated with cancer. lncRNAs functions are multifaceted and include epigenetic regulation and animal development. The bacterial and archeal immune system CRISPR, and the eukaryotic piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA) immune system that inhibits mobile elements in germ line cells both function by via RNA transcript/ target DNA heteroduplex base-pairing are a specific class of RNAs that protect cells from invading transposons/and or viruses. siRNAs function in plant and invertebrate immune systems and protect against viral infections. [...]

Good News - Bad News: The Two Faces of Immune Privilege

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193318 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-331-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Immune privilege was once thought to be the property of a few select sites that include the eye, brain, testis, pregnant uterus and (of all things) the hamster cheek pouch, and was believed to be mainly based on sequestration behind blood-tissue barriers. This view has changed. Immune privilege is now considered to constitute a more general phenomenon through which tissues are able to actively direct and control immune responses taking place in their “territory” to preserve their structural and functional integrity in the face of inflammatory processes. These positive aspects of immune privilege can be hijacked by tumors to their survival advantage and to the detriment of the host. This Research Topic dissects the beneficial and deleterious consequences of immune privilege in terms of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that various tissues and tumors use, each in its own fashion, to regulate immune processes that affect them, at the local and the systemic level.

T Cell Regulation by the Environment

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197330 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-733-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Naïve T cells get activated upon encounter with their cognate antigen and differentiate into a specific subset of effector cells. These T cells are themselves plastic and are able to re-differentiate into another subset, changing both phenotype and function. Differentiation into a specific subset depends on the nature of the antigen and of the environmental milieu. Notably, certain nutrients, such as vitamins A and D, sodium chloride, have been shown to modulate T cell responses and influence T cell differentiation. Parasite infection can also skew Th differentiation. Similarly, the gut microbiota regulates the development of immune responses. Lastly, the key role of metabolism on T cells has also been demonstrated. This series of articles highlights some of the multiple links existing between environmental factors and T cell responses.

Evolution of Gene Regulatory Networks in Plant Development

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454075 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-407-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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During their life cycle plants undergo a wide variety of morphological and developmental changes. Impinging these developmental processes there is a layer of gene, protein and metabolic networks that are responsible for the initiation of the correct developmental transitions at the right time of the year to ensure plant life success. New omic technologies are allowing the acquisition of massive amount of data to develop holistic and integrative analysis to understand complex processes. Among them, Microarray, Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) and Proteomics are providing enormous amount of data from different plant species and developmental stages, thus allowing the analysis of gene networks globally. Besides, the comparison of molecular networks from different species is providing information on their evolutionary history, shedding light on the origin of many key genes/proteins. Moreover, developmental processes are not only genetically programed but are also affected by internal and external signals. Metabolism, light, hormone action, temperature, biotic and abiotic stresses, etc. have a deep effect on developmental programs. The interface and interplay between these internal and external circuits with developmental programs can be unraveled through the integration of systematic experimentation with the computational analysis of the generated omics data (Molecular Systems Biology).This Research Topic intends to deepen in the different plant developmental pathways and how the corresponding gene networks evolved from a Molecular Systems Biology perspective. Global approaches for photoperiod, circadian clock and hormone regulated processes; pattern formation, phase-transitions, organ development, etc. will provide new insights on how plant complexity was built during evolution. Understanding the interface and interplay between different regulatory networks will also provide fundamental information on plant biology and focus on those traits that may be important for next-generation agriculture.

Abiotic Stress: Molecular Genetics and Genomics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193592 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-359-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Abiotic stresses are the major cause that limits productivity of crop plants worldwide. Plants have developed intricate machinery to respond and adapt over these adverse environmental conditions both at physiological and molecular levels. Due to increasing problems of abiotic stresses, plant biotechnologists and breeders need to employ new approaches to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Although current research has divulged several key genes, gene regulatory networks and quantitative trait loci that mediate plant responses to various abiotic stresses, the comprehensive understanding of this complex trait is still not available. This e-book is focused on molecular genetics and genomics approaches to understand the plant response/adaptation to various abiotic stresses. It includes different types of articles (original research, method, opinion and review) that provide current insights into different aspects of plant responses and adaptation to abiotic stresses.

How aging affects T lymphocyte-mediated immunity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194186 Year: Pages: 77 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-418-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Increasing age has been associated with an insufficient protection following vaccination and an increased incidence and severity of infectious diseases. The predicted acceleration of global population aging will accentuate the need to understand the mechanisms that drive the age-related decline of the immune system and to, eventually, identify strategies to lower the burden of infectious diseases in elderly people. One type of immune cell appears to be most dramatically affected by the aging process: T lymphocytes. Age-related changes of the bone marrow and the thymus microenvironment lead to a decreased thymic output of functional, naïve T lymphocytes. As T lymphocytes are key players of the adaptive immune system, this research topic will summarize our current understanding on how aging affects the microenvironmental niches and molecular networks that are important for the generation, survival and function of naïve, memory and effector T lymphocytes. This research topic will also address the impact of aging on the different T lymphocyte lineages, such as regulatory T cells and Th17 cells and how age-related changes of the microenvironment affect organ- and tissue-resident memory T lymphocytes. Eventually, the identification of a set of markers for immunosenescence would facilitate the design and application of more specific therapies and improved vaccines and vaccination strategies for elderly people, thereby increasing life and health span.

Evolution of Organismal Form: From Regulatory Interactions to Developmental Processes and Biological Patterns

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450978 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-097-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Ecology --- Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Today's biodiversity is the spectacular product of hundreds of millions of years of evolution. Understanding how this diversity of living organisms appeared is one of the most intriguing and challenging question in biology. Because organismal morphology is established during embryonic development, and because morphological traits diversified from ancestral forms during evolution, it can be inferred that changes in the mechanisms controlling embryonic development are instrumental for morphological evolution. This syllogism lies at the very heart of a new discipline called Evo-Devo which is centered in the identification of the cellular and genetic mechanisms that, through modifications in developmental programmes, were at the base of morphological innovations during evolution. After the discovery of the broad conservation of gene content and regulatory networks in the animal kingdom, as well as in plants, Evo-Devo is orienting towards the study of differences through experimental and functional approaches. Given the wide range of species, gene families, and developmental processes considered, a concerted effort is still required to shed light on the genetic, cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in phenotypic evolution. It is a particularly exciting time for this field of evolutionary developmental biology, as the advent of novel imaging, genome editing and sequencing technologies allows the study of almost any organism in ways that were unthinkable only a few years ago. Therefore, the aim of this Frontiers Research Topic is to gather an original collection of experimental approaches, concepts and hypotheses reflecting the current diversity of the Evo-Devo field. We have organized the articles according to the mechanistic depth with which they tackle specific evolutionary issues. Hence, comparisons of expression patterns have been grouped in Chapter 1, changes in regulatory interactions and gene networks are presented in Chapter 2, while Chapter 3 focuses on the evolution of developmental processes and biological patterns.

Phage Therapy: Past; Present and Future

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452514 Year: Pages: 392 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-251-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Historically, the first observation of a transmissible lytic agent that is specifically active against a bacterium (Bacillus anthracis) was by a Russian microbiologist Nikolay Gamaleya in 1898. At that time, however, it was too early to make a connection to another discovery made by Dmitri Ivanovsky in 1892 and Martinus Beijerinck in 1898 on a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants. Thus the viral world was discovered in two of the three domains of life, and our current understanding is that viruses represent the most abundant biological entities on the planet. The potential of bacteriophages for infection treatment have been recognized after the discoveries by Frederick Twort and Felix d’Hérelle in 1915 and 1917. Subsequent phage therapy developments, however, have been overshadowed by the remarkable success of antibiotics in infection control and treatment, and phage therapy research and development persisted mostly in the former Soviet Union countries, Russia and Georgia, as well as in France and Poland. The dramatic rise of antibiotic resistance and especially of multi-drug resistance among human and animal bacterial pathogens, however, challenged the position of antibiotics as a single most important pillar for infection control and treatment. Thus there is a renewed interest in phage therapy as a possible additive/alternative therapy, especially for the infections that resist routine antibiotic treatment. The basis for the revival of phage therapy is affected by a number of issues that need to be resolved before it can enter the arena, which is traditionally reserved for antibiotics. Probably the most important is the regulatory issue: How should phage therapy be regulated? Similarly to drugs? Then the co-evolving nature of phage-bacterial host relationship will be a major hurdle for the production of consistent phage formulae. Or should we resort to the phage products such as lysins and the corresponding engineered versions in order to have accurate and consistent delivery doses? We still have very limited knowledge about the pharmacodynamics of phage therapy. More data, obtained in animal models, are necessary to evaluate the phage therapy efficiency compared, for example, to antibiotics. Another aspect is the safety of phage therapy. How do phages interact with the immune system and to what costs, or benefits? What are the risks, in the course of phage therapy, of transduction of undesirable properties such as virulence or antibiotic resistance genes? How frequent is the development of bacterial host resistance during phage therapy? Understanding these and many other aspects of phage therapy, basic and applied, is the main subject of this Topic.

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