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Brain Networks in Aging: Reorganization and Modulation by Interventions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454167 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-416-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Old adults undertake multiple reduced cognitive abilities in aging, which are accompanied with specific brain reorganization in forms of regional brain activity and brain tissues, inter-region connectivity, and topology of whole brain networks in both function and structure. The plasticity changes of brain activities in old adults are explained by the mechanisms of compensation and dedifferentiation. For example, older adults have been observed to have greater, usually bilateral, prefrontal activities during memory tasks compared to the typical unilateral prefrontal activities in younger adults, which was explained as a compensation for the reduced brain activities in visual processing cortices. Dedifferentiation is another mechanism to explain that old adults are with much less selective and less distinct activity in task-relevant brain regions compared with younger adults. A larger number of studies have examined the plasticity changes of brain from the perspective of regional brain activities. However, studies on only regional brain activities cannot fully elucidate the neural mechanisms of reduced cognitive abilities in aging, as multiple regions are integrated together to achieve advanced cognitive function in human brain. In recent years, brain connectivity/network, which targets how brain regions are integrated, have drawn increasing attention in neuroscience with the development of neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical analysis. Connectivity quantifies functional association or neural fibers between two regions that may be spatially far separated, and graph theoretical analysis of brain network examines the complex interactions among multiple regions from the perspective of topology. Studies showed that compared to younger adults, older adults had altered strength of task-relevant functional connectivity between specific brain regions in cognitive tasks, and the alternation of connectivity are correlated to behavior performance. For example, older adults had weaker functional connectivity between the premotor cortex and a region in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a working memory task. Interventions like cognitive training and neuro-modulation (e.g., transcranial magnetic stimulation) have been shown to be promising in regaining or retaining the decreasing cognitive abilities in aging. However, only few neuroimaging studies have examined the influence of interventions to old adult’s brain activity, connectivity, and cognitive performance. This Research Topic calls for contributions on brain network of subjects in normal aging or with age-related diseases like mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. The studies are expected to be based on neuroimaging techniques including but not limited to functional magnetic resonance imaging, Electroencephalography, and diffusion tensor imaging, and contributions on the influence of interventions to brain networks in aging are highly encouraged. All these studies would enrich our understanding of neural mechanisms underlying aging, and offer new insights for developing possible interventions to retain cognitive abilities in aging subjects.

Neuroplasticity and Neurorehabilitation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193929 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-392-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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In the history of neuroscience it had long been a virtually axiomatic belief that the mature mammalian nervous system was hardwired and fixed. This view goes back to the work of Louis Broca in the 1850s and has been perhaps most famously articulated by Ramon y Cajal. The immature nervous system was thought to have considerable plasticity, but after maturity the CNS was not considered to be capable of repairing itself after damage. In the last two decades, however, persuasive evidence has been accumulating at an increasing rate that the plasticity of the nervous system persists throughout the lifespan. Beginning 14 years ago, an efficacious form of neurorehabilitation termed Constraint-Induced Movement therapy or CI therapy was shown to produce marked neuroplastic changes in the brain. It has been proposed that CI therapy harnesses neuroplasticity in the service of restoring motor and language function lost as a result of such injuries to the central nervous system as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and cerebral palsy. The proposed journal issue will include articles by the main investigators involved in the development of this body of research. There will also be articles on the role of neurogenesis in the recovery of function after CNS damage encouraged by the stimulation of endogenous stem cell production, exogenous stem cell implantation, and pharmacological means. There will also be two articles describing the work carried out to date on the use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (TDCS) to increase the excitability of the brain in order to enhance the recovery of function after stroke.

Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis: From Molecular to System Level, from Adaptation to Maladaptation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197644 Year: Pages: 72 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-764-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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This research topic aims at providing a state of the art update on neuroplasticity in humans with multiple sclerosis. It summarizes advances in plasticity research as achieved by a variety of techniques, in the motor as well as visual and cognitive domain. We are confident that this collection of articles broadens the view across systems and techniques and widens our understanding of this exciting field of research.

Luxury and Rubble: Civility and Dispossession in the New Saigon

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ISBN: 9780520292512 9780520966017 9780520966017 9780520966017 Year: Pages: 304 DOI: 10.1525/luminos.20 Language: English
Publisher: University of California Press
Subject: Ethnology --- Sociology --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2016-11-06 11:01:08
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Luxury and Rubble is the tale of two cities in Ho Chi Minh City. It is the story of two planned, mixed-use residential and commercial developments that are changing the face of Vietnam’s largest city. Since the early 1990s, such developments have been steadily reorganizing urban landscapes across the country. For many Vietnamese, they are a symbol of the country’s emergence into global modernity and of post-socialist economic reforms. However, they are also sites of great contestation, sparking land disputes and controversies over how to compensate evicted residents. In this penetrating ethnography, Erik Harms vividly portrays the human costs of urban reorganization as he explores the complex and sometimes contradictory experiences of individuals grappling with the forces of privatization in a socialist country.

Principles Underlying Post-Stroke Recovery of Upper Extremity Sensorimotor Function - A Neuroimaging Perspective

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197675 Year: Pages: 153 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-767-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Neuroimaging post-stroke has the potential to uncover underlying principles of disturbed hand function and recovery characterizing defined patient groups, including their long term course as well as individual variations. The methods comprise functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measuring task related activation as well as resting state. Functional MRI may be complemented by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI to investigate slowly varying blood flow and associated changes in brain function. For structural MRI robust and accurate computational anatomical methods like voxel-based morphometry and surface based techniques are available. The investigation of the connectivity among brain regions and disruption after stroke is facilitated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Intra- and interhemispheric coherence may be studied by electromagnetic techniques such as electroencephalography and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Consecutive phases of stroke recovery (acute, subacute, early chronic and late chronic stages) are each distinguished by intrinsic processes. The site and size of lesions entail partially different functional implications. New strategies to establish functional specificity of a lesion site include calculating contrast images between patients exhibiting a specific disorder and control subjects without the disorder. Large-size lesions often imply poor cerebral blood flow which impedes recovery significantly and possibly interferes with BOLD response of functional MRI. Thus, depending on the site and size of the infarct lesion the patterns of recovery will vary. These include recovery sensu stricto in the perilesional area, intrinsic compensatory mechanisms using alternative cortical and subcortical pathways, or behavioral compensatory strategies e.g. by using the non-affected limb. In this context, behavioral and neuroimaging measures should be developed and employed to delineate aspects of learning during recovery. Of special interest in recovery of hand paresis is the interplay between sensory and motor areas in the posterior parietal cortex involved during reaching and fine motor skills as well as the interaction with the contralesional hemisphere. The dominant disability should be characterized, from the level of elementary to hierarchically higher processes such as neglect, apraxia and motor planning. In summary, this Research Topic covers new trends in state of the art neuroimaging of stroke during recovery from upper limb paresis. Integration of behavioral and neuroimaging findings in probabilistic brain atlases will further advance knowledge about stroke recovery.

Travailler dans la grande distribution

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ISBN: 9782883517233 9782883510906 Year: Pages: 217 DOI: 10.33058/seismo.20723 Language: French
Publisher: Seismo
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-02 11:21:07
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What does it mean to work in the retail sector today? In Switzerland, two giants share almost the whole market. In order to stay competitive, they intensify the work, demand more availability from their employees and deskill certain positions. How do the store managers achieve profitability objectives despite the constraints in this context? How do the cashiers cope with the increasing automation of their jobs? How do the shelf workers reconcile customer contact with ever-increasing time constraints? This book explains how neoliberal working time patterns are taking place in the supermarkets and questions the evolution of the working day in our society. The study is based on 78 interviews with managers, shop floor workers and union officers. Nicola Cianferoni is a post-doctoral researcher at the University of Geneva and the University of Neuchâtel in Switzerland.

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