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Meta-Analyse angewandter Gleichgewichtsmodelle des internationalen Agrarhandels

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Book Series: cege-Schriften ISBN: 9783631577189 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3726/b14163 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:14
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Quantitative partielle- oder allgemeine Gleichgewichtsmodelle stellen in der angewandten Ökonomie ein wichtiges Instrument zur Politikfolgenabschätzung dar. Aus wissenschaftlicher Sicht wird an diesen Modellen ihre mangelnde Transparenz sowie ihre Abhängigkeit von empirisch wenig gesicherten Parametern und Annahmen kritisiert. Mittels einer Meta-Analyse werden daher Studien untersucht, welche Politikfolgen der laufenden WTO-Verhandlungen (Doha-Runde) simuliert haben. Als zentrales Ergebnis zeigt sich, dass die erhebliche Varianz innerhalb simulierter regionaler Einkommensveränderungen durch vergleichsweise wenige, ermittelbare Variablen zu einem hohen Anteil erklärt werden kann. Die Ergebnisse der Meta-Regression können daher als Orientierungshilfe bei Vergleich und Bewertung existierender sowie zukünftiger Simulationsstudien dienen.

Advanced Approaches Applied to Materials Development and Design Predictions

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039284122 9783039284139 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-413-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This thematic issue on advanced simulation tools applied to materials development and design predictions gathers selected extended papers related to power generation systems, presented at the XIX International Colloquium on Mechanical Fatigue of Metals (ICMFM XIX), organized at University of Porto, Portugal, in 2018. In this issue, the limits of the current generation of materials are explored, which are continuously being reached according to the frontier of hostile environments, whether in the aerospace, nuclear, or petrochemistry industry, or in the design of gas turbines where efficiency of energy production and transformation demands increased temperatures and pressures. Thus, advanced methods and applications for theoretical, numerical, and experimental contributions that address these issues on failure mechanism modeling and simulation of materials are covered. As the Guest Editors, we would like to thank all the authors who submitted papers to this Special Issue. All the papers published were peer-reviewed by experts in the field whose comments helped to improve the quality of the edition. We also would like to thank the Editorial Board of Materials for their assistance in managing this Special Issue.

Advances in Water Distribution Networks

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ISBN: 9783038975564 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-557-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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The Special Issue on Advances in Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) explores four important topics of research in the framework of WDNs, namely simulation and optimization modelling, topology and partitioning, water quality, and service effectiveness. With regard to the first topic, the following aspects are addressed: pressure-driven formulations, algorithms for the optimal location of control valves to minimize leakage, the benefits of water discharge prediction for the remote real time control of valves, and transients generated by pumps operating as turbines. In the context of the second topic, a topological taxonomy of WDNs is presented, and partitioning methods for the creation of district metered areas are compared. In relation to the third topic, the vulnerability to trihalomethane is assessed, and a statistical optimization model to minimize heavy metal releases is presented. Finally, the fourth topic focusses on the estimation of non-revenue water, including leakage and unauthorized consumption, and on the assessment of service under intermittent supply conditions.

Innovative Extraction Techniques and Hyphenated Instrument Configuration for Complex Matrices Analysis

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039210848 9783039210855 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-085-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The present Special Issue, “Innovative Extraction Techniques and Hyphenated Instrument Configuration for Complex Matrices Analysis”, aims to collect and to disseminate some of the most significant and recent contributions in the interdisciplinary area of innovative extraction procedures from complex matrices followed by validated analytical methods using hyphenated instrument configurations to support the optimization of the whole process and the scale-up possibility

Keywords

branched-chain keto acids --- serum --- muscle --- HPLC-Q-TOF/MS --- wood --- odor --- volatile organic compounds --- gas chromatography-olfactometry --- Wuyi Rock tea --- quality --- UPLC-QTOF MS --- UPLC-QqQ MS --- metabolite profiling --- metabolomics --- cluster analysis --- cultivars --- Lycium ruthenicun --- flavonoid --- ruthenicunoid A --- SIRT1 --- Asphodeline lutea --- HPLC-PDA --- heavy metals --- tyrosinase --- diabetes --- neurodegenerative disease --- color analysis --- pigments --- MAE --- HPLC-PDA --- SFE --- Thymus algeriensis --- rare earth elements --- flow injection --- inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry --- seawater --- Hericium erinaceuns mycelium --- high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) --- genistein --- daidzein --- Fe3O4 --- modification --- alginate --- alkaloid --- ultrasound assisted extraction --- gelatin --- actinidin --- bovine hide --- physicochemical properties --- gel strength --- Semen Cuscutae --- ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry --- chlorogenic acids --- flavonoids --- steamed Panax notoginseng --- saponins --- extraction --- optimization --- antioxidant activity --- response surface methodology --- hematopoiesis --- microwave processing --- response surface methodology --- minor ginsenosides --- blood-enriching activity --- hemostatic activity --- ionic liquids --- sample preparation --- microextraction --- solid-phase microextraction --- dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction --- single-drop microextraction --- stir bar sorptive extraction --- stir cake sorptive extraction --- rosuvastatin --- metformin --- HILIC --- LC-MS --- therapeutic drug monitoring --- oolong tea --- Tieguanyin tea cultivar --- metabolite profiling --- UPLC-QTOF MS --- metabolomics --- Ajuga genevensis --- near-infrared spectroscopy --- dry extract --- fluid bed process --- microNIR --- in-line monitoring --- total polyphenolic content --- antioxidant --- flavonoids --- mouse melanoma B16 cells --- Panax notoginseng --- surfactant --- n/a --- ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry --- GHB --- GHB glucuronide --- nails --- endogenous values --- walnut septum --- polyphenols --- phytosterols --- HPLC-MS/MS --- Ultra-Turrax extraction --- biological activity --- antioxidant activity --- experimental design --- optimization --- phytochemicals

Solid Phase Extraction: State of the Art and Future Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783039211586 9783039211593 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-159-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book is a collection of 13 innovative papers describing the state of the art and the future perspectives in solid-phase extraction covering several analytical fields prior to the use of gas or liquid chromatographic analysis. New sorptive materials are presented including carbon nanohorn suprastructures on paper support, melamine sponge functionalized with urea–formaldehyde co-oligomers, chiral metal–organic frameworks, UiO-66-based metal–organic frameworks, and fabric phase sorptive media for various applications. Solid-phase extraction can be applied in several formats aside from the conventional cartridges or mini-column approach, e.g., online solid-phase extraction, dispersive solid-phase microextraction, and in-syringe micro-solid-phase extraction can be very helpful for analyte pre-concentration and sample clean-up. Polycyclic musks in aqueous samples, 8-Nitroguanine in DNA by chemical derivatization antibacterial diterpenes from the roots of salvia prattii, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aater samples by bamboo charcoal-based SPE, parabens in environmental water samples, benzotriazoles as environmental pollutants, organochlorine pesticide residues in various fruit juices and water samples and synthetic peptide purification are among the applications cited in this collection. All these outstanding contributions highlight the necessity of this analytical step, present the advantages and disadvantages of each method and focus on the green analytical chemistry guidelines that have to be fulfilled in current analytical practices.

Drones for Biodiversity Conservation and Ecological Monitoring

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039219803 9783039219810 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-981-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have already become an affordable and cost-efficient tool to quickly map a targeted area for many emerging applications in the arena of ecological monitoring and biodiversity conservation. Managers, owners, companies, and scientists are using professional drones equipped with high-resolution visible, multispectral, or thermal cameras to assess the state of ecosystems, the effect of disturbances, or the dynamics and changes within biological communities inter alia. We are now at a tipping point on the use of drones for these type of applications over natural areas. UAV missions are increasing but most of them are testing applicability. It is time now to move to frequent revisiting missions, aiding in the retrieval of important biophysical parameters in ecosystems or mapping species distributions. This Special Issue shows UAV applications contributing to a better understanding of biodiversity and ecosystem status, threats, changes, and trends. It documents the enhancement of knowledge in ecological integrity parameters mapping, long-term ecological monitoring based on drones, mapping of alien species spread and distribution, upscaling ecological variables from drone to satellite images: methods and approaches, rapid risk and disturbance assessment using drones, mapping albedo with UAVs, wildlife tracking, bird colony and chimpanzee nest mapping, habitat mapping and monitoring, and a review on drones for conservation in protected areas.

Modeling, Design and Optimization of Multiphase Systems in Minerals Processing

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ISBN: 9783039284009 9783039284016 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-401-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Mineral processing deals with complex particle systems with two-, three- and more phases. The modeling and understanding of these systems are a challenge for research groups and a need for the industrial sector. This Special Issue aims to present new advances, methodologies, applications, and case studies of computer-aided analysis applied to multiphase systems in mineral processing. This includes aspects such as modeling, design, operation, optimization, uncertainty analysis, among other topics. The special issue contains a review article and eleven articles that cover different methodologies of modeling, design, optimization, and analysis in problems of adsorption, leaching, flotation, and magnetic separation, among others. Consequently, the topics covered are of interest to readers from academia and industry.

Biofuel and Bioenergy Technology

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038975960 Year: Pages: 425 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-597-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 14:08:22
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The subject of this book is ""Biofuel and Bioenergy Technology"". It aims to publish high-quality review and research papers, addressing recent advances in biofuel and bioenergy. State-of-the-art studies of advanced techniques of biorefinery for biofuel production are also included. Research involving experimental studies, recent developments, and novel and emerging technologies in this field are covered. This book contains twenty-seven technical papers which cover diversified biofuel and bioenergy technology-related research that have shown critical results and contributed significant findings to the fields of biomass processing, pyrolysis, bio-oil and its emulsification; transesterification and biodiesel, gasification and syngas, fermentation and biogas/methane, bioethanol and alcohol-based fuels, solid fuel and biochar, and microbial fuel cell and power generation development. The published contents relate to the most important techniques and analyses applied in the biofuel and bioenergy technology.

Keywords

air-steam gasification --- equilibrium model --- tar --- energy exchange --- exergy efficiency --- bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cells (Bio-E-Fenton MFCs) --- wastewater --- photo catalyst --- degradation --- calcination --- chemical oxygen demand (COD) --- MFC --- hydrodynamic boundary layer --- recirculation mode --- shear rate --- voltage --- charge transfer resistance --- biodiesel --- direct transesterification --- Rhodotorula glutinis --- single cell oil --- biogas --- tri-reforming process --- syngas --- methane and carbon dioxide conversion --- hydrogen/carbon monoxide ratio --- first-law/second-law efficiency --- biodiesel --- esterification --- liquid lipase --- superabsorbent polymer --- response surface methodology --- waste wood --- torrefaction --- energy yield --- mass yield --- CHO index --- gross calorific value --- Van Krevelen diagram --- anaerobic digestion --- biogas production --- wastewater treatment --- membrane bioreactors --- anaerobic digestion --- methane --- carbon dioxide --- small-scale biogas plants --- developing countries --- SOFC --- validation --- simulation --- exergy --- syngas --- Chlorella --- coal-fired flue-gas --- screening --- biodiesel property --- mixotrophic cultivation --- thermophilic anaerobic digestion --- corn stover --- prairie cord grass --- unbleached paper --- digester performance --- process stability --- synergistic effects --- microbial community --- Methanothermobacter --- biochemical methane potential --- redox potential reduction --- direct interspecies electron transfer --- electroactive biofilm --- Nejayote --- granular activated carbon --- Jerusalem artichoke --- lignocellulose --- acid pretreatment --- nitric acid --- alkali pretreatment --- enzymatic hydrolysis --- ethanol fermentation --- waste biomass --- Vietnam --- solid biofuel --- calorific value --- mechanical durability --- fatty acid methyl ester --- catalyst --- viscosity --- iodine value --- acidity index --- sewage sludge --- pyrolytic oil --- Taguchi method --- thermogravimetric analysis --- synergistic effect --- combined pretreatment --- ball mill --- ethanol organosolv --- herbaceous biomass --- lignin recovery --- Annona muricata --- biodiesel production --- seed oil --- soursop --- two-step process --- response surface methodology --- RSM --- second-generation biodiesel --- stone fruit --- optimisation --- biodiesel testing --- transesterification --- lignocellulosic biomass --- Miscanthus --- mechanical pretreatment --- organosolv pretreatment --- microbial biofuel --- metabolic engineering --- alkanes --- alcohols --- acetone --- electrochemical hydrogenation --- isopropanol --- membrane contamination --- polymer electrolyte membrane --- relative humidity --- diesel --- Carica papaya --- engine performance --- biodiesel --- characterisation --- porosity --- thermophoretic force --- biomass fuel --- non-premixed combustion --- counter-flow structure --- mathematical modeling --- emulsification --- liquefaction --- bio-oils --- co-surfactant --- surfactant --- diesel --- biogas --- Clostridiales --- hydrogen-producing bacteria --- bioreactors --- anaerobic fermentation --- anaerobic digestion --- microbial community composition

Machining—Recent Advances, Applications and Challenges

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213771 9783039213788 Year: Pages: 554 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-378-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The Special Issue Machining—Recent Advances, Applications and Challenges is intended as a humble collection of some of the hottest topics in machining. The manufacturing industry is a varying and challenging environment where new advances emerge from one day to another. In recent years, new manufacturing procedures have retained increasing attention from the industrial and scientific community. However, machining still remains the key operation to achieve high productivity and precision for high-added value parts. Continuous research is performed, and new ideas are constantly considered. This Special Issue summarizes selected high-quality papers which were submitted, peer-reviewed, and recommended by experts. It covers some (but not only) of the following topics: High performance operations for difficult-to-cut alloys, wrought and cast materials, light alloys, ceramics, etc.; Cutting tools, grades, substrates and coatings. Wear damage; Advanced cooling in machining: Minimum quantity of lubricant, dry or cryogenics; Modelling, focused on the reduction of risks, the process outcome, and to maintain surface integrity; Vibration problems in machines: Active and passive/predictive methods, sources, diagnosis and avoidance; Influence of machining in new concepts of machine–tool, and machine static and dynamic behaviors; Machinability of new composites, brittle and emerging materials; Assisted machining processes by high-pressure, laser, US, and others; Introduction of new analytics and decision making into machining programming. We wish to thank the reviewers and staff from Materials for their comments, advice, suggestions and invaluable support during the development of this Special Issue.

Keywords

dry-cutting --- concrete --- segmented diamond blade --- topography --- diameter variation --- weight loss --- in situ estimation --- SACE-drilled hole depth --- spark-assisted chemical engraving --- glass machining --- computer vision --- electrochemical discharge machining --- butt weld joint --- fatigue --- crack growth rate --- weld reinforcement --- cooling rate --- artificial neutral network --- cutting parameters --- magnesium alloys --- optimization --- prime machining costs --- surface roughness --- electropulsing --- machinability --- chip compression ratio --- current density --- specific cutting energy --- cutting edge microgeometry --- residual stress --- finite element model --- cutting edge preparation --- Inconel 718 --- stiffness properties --- parameter identification --- connections --- machine tool --- response surface methodology --- design of experiments --- modal testing --- plastic zone --- fracture mechanism --- steel sheet --- cutting process --- Huber–Mises stress --- finite element method --- microscopic analysis --- PVD Ti0.41Al0.59N/Ti0.55Al0.45N coating --- cutting temperature --- Inconel 718 --- cutting tool wear --- secondary adhesion wear --- turning --- machining --- aluminium --- flank super abrasive machining (SAM) --- flank milling --- Inconel® 718 --- roughness --- residual stress --- machine vision --- on-machine monitoring --- tool insert condition --- computer numerical control --- turning machine tools --- multi-beam laser --- heat transfer analysis --- fast simulation --- GPU --- analytic solution --- minimum quantity lubrication --- surface grinding --- multi-objective optimization --- grey relational analysis --- surface topography --- sustainable machining --- Gamma-TiAl --- superalloys --- slight materials --- drilling --- titanium aluminides --- additive manufacturing --- single point incremental sheet forming --- residual stresses --- X-ray diffraction --- ultra-precision machining --- slow tool servo --- surface topography --- simulation --- microlens array --- sinusoidal grid --- Milling stability --- variable pitch --- chatter --- self-excitation --- milling --- ceramics --- ductile machining --- PCD --- corner radius --- material removal rate --- adhesive --- machining --- modelling --- dry --- CFRP/UNS A92024 --- induction assisted milling --- tool wear --- taguchi method --- cutting tool --- machining temperatures at two deformation zones --- force–temperature correlation through analytical modeling --- high computational efficiency --- real-time prediction --- hybrid stacks drilling --- minimum quantity lubrication --- hole quality --- tool wear --- WEDM --- EN 31 steel --- surface roughness --- fractal dimension --- ANN --- GA --- cryogenic machining --- cutting tool --- cutting geometry --- titanium --- power consumption --- material-removal rate --- specific energy consumption --- grain density --- modeling --- shape memory alloy --- superelastic nitinol --- WEDM --- heat transfer search algorithm --- DSC test --- shape memory effect --- dish angle --- trochoidal step --- response surface methodology --- surface roughness --- desirability approach --- tool wear --- trochoidal milling --- titanium alloy --- chip morphology --- thin-wall machining --- chatter --- vibration --- deflection --- damping --- prediction --- workholding --- fixture --- dynamic --- stability --- titanium alloys --- machining --- turning --- machinability --- tool wear --- laser-assisted machining --- Taguchi method --- optimal machining conditions --- machining characteristic --- milling --- the cutting force components --- vibrations --- magnesium alloys --- artificial neural networks

Soil Water Conservation. Dynamics and Impact

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038978527 9783038978534 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-853-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Human needs like food and clean water are directly related to good maintenance of healthy and productive soils. A good understanding of human impact on the natural environment is therefore necessary to preserve and manage soil and water resources. This knowledge is particularly important in semi-arid and arid regions, where the increasing demands on limited water supplies require urgent efforts to improve water quality and water use efficiency. It is important to keep in mind that both soil and water are limited resources. Thus, wise use of these natural resources is a fundamental prerequisite for the sustainability of human societies. This book collects 15 original scientific contributions addressing the state of the art of soil and water conservation research. Contributions cover a wide range of topics, including (1) recovery of soil hydraulic properties; (2) erosion risk; (3) novel modeling, monitoring and experimental approaches for soil hydraulic characterization; (4) improvement of crop yields; (5) water availability; and (6) soil salinity. This collection provides more insights into conservation strategies for effective and sustainable soil and water management.

Keywords

soil moisture storage --- van Genuchten model --- distributed model --- Xin’anjiang model --- TOPMODEL --- bimsoils --- critical hydraulic gradient (CHG) --- response surface methodology --- multi-parameter evaluation --- laboratory experiment --- soil block --- subsurface flow --- macropore network --- spatial scale --- polyurethane foam --- hillslope --- soil water content --- field observation --- three-dimensional model --- numerical model --- delta plain --- shallow groundwater --- unsaturated soil --- Richards equation --- the Trefftz method --- transient --- the meshless method --- vineyards --- infiltration rate --- age of planting --- saturated hydraulic conductivity --- Malawi --- conservation agriculture --- peer effects --- decision tree modeling --- olive grove --- sap flow --- relative transpiration --- FDR sensor --- EM38 --- fraction transpiration soil water --- transdisciplinary research --- Follow-the-Innovation --- innovation development --- electromagnetic induction meter (EM) --- The Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) software --- AquaCrop --- cereals --- DSSAT --- field scattering --- food security --- microdose fertilization --- rainfall variability --- tied ridges --- upgrading strategies --- soil properties --- saturated soil hydraulic conductivity --- soil infiltration --- Beerkan method --- post-fire soil hydraulic characterization --- infiltration --- bottomless bucket method --- single-ring infiltrometer --- field-saturated soil hydraulic conductivity --- data analysis procedures --- environmental change --- local perception --- food security --- adaptation --- soil tillage --- tillage erosion --- seedbed preparation --- water infiltration --- nitrogen use efficiency --- specific leaf water content --- vegetable production --- soil --- yield --- water and soil conservation --- sustainable land management --- soil erosion --- soil water storage --- water infiltration --- water availability --- crop yields

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