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Governing Forest Restoration: Social, Environmental and Institutional Dimensions

ISBN: 9783038420422 9783038420439 Year: Pages: 216 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 07:39:28
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Gli uomini e le cose: I. Figure di restauratori e casi di restauro in Italia tra XVIII e XX secolo. Atti del Convegno Nazionale di Studi (Napoli, 18-20 aprile 2007)

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Book Series: Clio: Saggi di scienze storiche, archeologiche e storico-artistiche ISSN: 2532-4608 ISBN: 9788888904122 Year: Volume: 7 Pages: 468 DOI: 10.6093/978-88-88904-12-2 Language: Italian
Publisher: FedOA - Federico II University Press
Subject: History of arts
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-05 18:30:41
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The essays collected in this volume revolve around the activities of protection and preservation of the historical-artistic and archaeological heritage promoted in Italy between the second half of the 18th century and the first half of the 20th. They refer to different works in both chronology and materials analyzed (wall and gallery paintings, medieval and Renaissance sculptures, mosaics, excavated vases, entire archaeological sites), with the natural corollary of the theoretical debates and the methodological statements that accompanied these same works.The reference to Fernand Braudel in the title embodies the desire to trace a path that is not abstract, but grounded in the reality of the objects and of those who have been studying them in the past. The choice of a relatively broad time span, as well as the decision not to focus exclusively on a single type of object, seek to highlight the diachronic evolution of general concepts such as conservation and restoration, understanding links and differences between the pre-and post-unification phases of the layered national landscape. Further, they aim to retrace the conservative history of these works, hoping to also provide an interpretative tool to those who, in charge of the protection of these works, are tasked with the planning of future interventions: a proper programmatic preservation cannot, in fact, ignore the historical dimension that needs to inform any study that is to be done today on these works.

Keywords

Restoration --- Art history

Konservierungswissenschaft schreibt Geschichte

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ISBN: 9783205788591 Year: Pages: 257 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437228 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4329
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:50:02
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An overview of the academic courses of study and vocational trainings offered in the conservation and restoration of objects of decorative arts and metal in German-speaking countries points to a lack of continuity and identity. This is due to the fact that this field is a relatively young one and many universities have only offered degree courses since the 1990s. In Austria there are two Universities, the "Akademie der bildenden Künste" and the "Universität für angewandte Kunst". Both are located in Vienna and have a old-established academic experience. The long tradition particular to the field of restoration of objects of decorative arts at the University of Applied Arts Vienna is exceptionally. Early conservation and preservation research and restoration work started in the late 19th century. This is a distinctive feature, as other institutions with a similarly long history put their focus on the restoration of paintings and painting technique research instead. The "Kunstgewerbemuseum", todays Museum of Applied Arts Vienna, was founded 1863. In 1868 the school called "Kunstgewerbeschule" was attached. It is famous for its leading design-position during art nouveau an developed into todays University of Applied Arts Vienna. Both stood in close contact with the "K.K. Centralcommission". This historic preservation agency, established in 1850, concentrated in the preservation of monuments and historic buildings of the large Habsburg Empire. During the 19th century new emerging ideas of conservation where well known at "Kunstgewerbeschule" and "Kunstgewerbemuseum".Teaching staff at the school made in their annual reports notes of early restoration. But they did it as an additional business and therefore more detailed information is not given. Women in the studios for enamelwork (Adele von Stark) and the studio for textile work (Rosalia Rothansl) were about 1900 pioneers in field of object conservation. The first official class for conservation existed 1902 - 1910, named "Atelier für Kunstweberei und Restaurierung". A lot of information about the astonishing mordern ethics and methods in Conservation at that time can be extracted from two conferences that took place in Vienna: The First Arthistorical Congress in 1873 and the Enquete about Conservation of Art in 1904. Curators of the Museum of applied Arts and to a certain extent teaching staff of the "Kunstgewerbeschule" were involved with organisation and speeches.A new era for the conservation at University of Applied Arts Vienna started after World War Two. Otto Nedbal, a conservator experienced in metal crafts, was appointed at the university. He at first assumed the existing class for enamelwork. In 1964 he founded a new master class for restoration of metals and objects of enamel. But the content of teaching and the requirements for diploma thesis changed significant during the following forty years and this class evolved into today's Institute for Conservation and Restoration. The specialization of painting conservation was established by Nedbals successor Hubert Dietrich in 1980. In the course of a reorganization of the university in 2000 and the appointment of Gabriela Krist as head of the new conservation department, the new specializations of conservation of stone and textile were arranged.

Biodiversity and Conservation in Forests

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ISBN: 9783038975748 / 9783038975755 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-575-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-18 12:03:56
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Global forest communities cover only about 30% of land areas, but they provide important ecosystem services, such as watershed protection, carbon sequestration, and oxygen production, as well as renewable forest products for human subsistence and markets. Forests also support the majority of the world’s terrestrial biodiversity. Although land conversion for agriculture and pastureland has historically resulted in fragmentation and declining forested areas, forests worldwide are now experiencing change at an unprecedented rate due to various anthropogenic activities and growing human populations. Global warming trends are altering snowpack and hydrology, fostering outbreaks of native forest pests, and accelerating the loss of older tree age classes. Modeling suggests that future fire regimes in temperate regions will have shorter return intervals, with more severe wildfires. In addition, a by-product of trade and travel globalization has been the accelerated transport of plants and animals, and plant and animal diseases, around the world. Exotic species have altered community composition, especially where foundation tree species are affected. Every forest community worldwide is challenged by some of these problems. In this Special Issue of the journal Forests we explore the unique biodiversity supported by forest communities, how forest communities are rapidly changing, and conservation approaches to preserving forest biodiversity.

Nature and Environment: The Psychology of Its Benefits and Its Protection

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198504 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-850-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Our Research Topic section entitled: "Nature and the environment: The psychology of its benefits and its protection" will have two main lines. The first line of articles will center upon cutting-edge research showing how interacting with nature, can affect health, well-being, and overall improve cognition and affect. Articles in this line will stress in what ways nature can improve psychological functioning and health and also discuss the theories and evidence as to why nature can improve psychological functioning. For this line, we welcome submission of articles that discuss the psychological, health and well-being benefits from interacting with nature as well as submissions that focus on theoretical considerations and underlying mechanisms that lead to the restorative effects of interacting with nature. Given that nature can have a positive impact on psychological functioning and overall health, it is also important to understand the variables that facilitate people’s recognition of environmental issues that can help foster a more positive attitude towards the preservation of nature. This brings us to the second line of articles which will center upon the psychological mechanisms that make individuals more or less likely to accept the seriousness of environmental challenges such as climate change. Given the new cutting-edge research in this field we may be able to make individuals more proactive in the protection of the environment and more accepting of policy measures required to mitigate climate change. We see this research topic as a way for psychological scientists to contribute substantially to an important area of public debate and policy. For this line we welcome articles that will focus on ways in which people respond to various framings of policy relevant information and how morality may play into the individuals policy views that center on climate change and environmental protection.

Anthropogenic Impacts on the Microbial Ecology and Function of Aquatic Environments

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199396 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-939-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Aquatic ecosystems are currently experiencing unprecedented levels of impact from human activities including over-exploitation of resources, habitat destruction, pollution and the influence of climate change. The impacts of these activities on the microbial ecology of aquatic environments are only now beginning to be defined. One of the many implications of environmental degradation and climate change is the geographical expansion of disease- causing microbes such as those from the Vibrio genus. Elevating sea surface temperatures correlate with increasing Vibrio numbers and disease in marine animals (e.g. corals) and humans. Contamination of aquatic environments with heavy metals and other pollutants affects microbial ecology with downstream effects on biogeochemical cycles and nutrient turnover. Also of importance is the pollution of aquatic environments with antibiotics, resistance genes and the mobile genetic elements that house resistance genes from human and animal waste. Such contaminated environments act as a source of resistance genes long after an antibiotic has ceased being used in the community. Environments contaminated with mobile genetic elements that are adapted to human commensals and pathogens function to capture new resistance genes for potential reintroduction back into clinical environments. This research topic encompasses these diverse topics and describes the affect(s) of human activity on the microbial ecology and function in aquatic environments and, describes methods of restoration and for modelling disturbances.

Learning to see (better): Improving visual deficits with perceptual learning

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196036 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-603-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Perceptual learning can be defined as a long lasting improvement in a perceptual skill following a systematic training, due to changes in brain plasticity at the level of sensory or perceptual areas. Its efficacy has been reported for a number of visual tasks, such as detection or discrimination of visual gratings (De Valois, 1977; Fiorentini & Berardi, 1980, 1981; Mayer, 1983), motion direction discrimination (Ball & Sekuler, 1982, 1987; Ball, Sekuler, & Machamer, 1983), orientation judgments (Fahle, 1997; Shiu & Pashler, 1992; Vogels & Orban, 1985), hyperacuity (Beard, Levi, & Reich, 1995; Bennett & Westheimer, 1991; Fahle, 1997; Fahle & Edelman, 1993; Kumar & Glaser, 1993; McKee & Westheimer, 1978; Saarinen & Levi, 1995), visual search tasks (Ahissar & Hochstein, 1996; Casco, Campana, & Gidiuli, 2001; Campana & Casco, 2003; Ellison & Walsh, 1998; Sireteanu & Rettenbach, 1995) or texture discrimination (Casco et al., 2004; Karni & Sagi, 1991, 1993). Perceptual learning is long-lasting and specific for basic stimulus features (orientation, retinal position, eye of presentation) suggesting a long-term modification at early stages of visual analysis, such as in the striate (Karni & Sagi, 1991; 1993; Saarinen & Levi, 1995; Pourtois et al., 2008) and extrastriate (Ahissar & Hochstein, 1996) visual cortex. Not confined to a basic research paradigm, perceptual learning has recently found application outside the laboratory environment, being used for clinical treatment of a series of visually impairing conditions such as amblyopia (Levi & Polat, 1996; Levi, 2005; Levi & Li, 2009, Polat et al., 2004; Zhou et al., 2006), myopia (Tan & Fong, 2008) or presbyopia (Polat, 2009). Different authors adopted different paradigms and stimuli in order to improve malfunctioning visual abilities, such as Vernier Acuity (Levi, Polat & Hu, 1997), Gratings detection (Zhou et al., 2006), oculomotor training (Rosengarth et al., 2013) and lateral interactions (Polat et al., 2004). The common result of these studies is that a specific training produces not only improvements in trained functions, but also in other, untrained and higher-level visual functions, such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and reading speed (Levi et al, 1997a, 1997b; Polat et al., 2004; Polat, 2009; Tan & Fong, 2008). More recently (Maniglia et al. 2011), perceptual learning with the lateral interactions paradigm has been successfully used for improving peripheral vision in normal people (by improving contrast sensitivity and reducing crowding, the interference in target discrimination due to the presence of close elements), offering fascinating new perspectives in the rehabilitation of people who suffer of central vision loss, such as maculopathy patients, partially overcoming the structural differences between fovea and periphery that limit the vision outside the fovea. One of the strongest point, and a distinguishing feature of perceptual learning, is that it does not just improve the subject’s performance, but produces changes in brain’s connectivity and efficiency, resulting in long-lasting, enduring neural changes. By tailoring the paradigms on each subject’s needs, perceptual learning could become the treatment of choice for the rehabilitation of visual functions, emerging as a simple procedure that doesn’t need expensive equipment.

Low Back Pain: Recent Advances and Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783038426578 9783038426561 Year: Pages: 218 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-12 11:29:42
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This text will provide the most recent knowledge and advances in the area of chronic low back pain. The articles will range from topics such as the growing epidemic of chronic low back pain, to intervention for it, as well as specific biopsychosocial characteristics that can be used in its assessment, treatment, and outcomes monitoring.

Riverine Ecosystem Management: Science for Governing Towards a Sustainable Future

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Book Series: Aquatic Ecology Series ISBN: 9783319732497 9783319732503 Year: Volume: 8 Pages: 571 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73250-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Universität für Bodenkultur Wien
Subject: Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-02 11:38:32
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This open access book surveys the frontier of scientific river research and provides examples to guide management towards a sustainable future of riverine ecosystems. Principal structures and functions of the biogeosphere of rivers are explained; key threats are identified, and effective solutions for restoration and mitigation are provided.Rivers are among the most threatened ecosystems of the world. They increasingly suffer from pollution, water abstraction, river channelisation and damming. Fundamental knowledge of ecosystem structure and function is necessary to understand how human acitivities interfere with natural processes and which interventions are feasible to rectify this.Modern water legislation strives for sustainable water resource management and protection of important habitats and species. However, decision makers would benefit from more profound understanding of ecosystem degradation processes and of innovative methodologies and tools for efficient mitigation and restoration. The book provides best-practice examples of sustainable river management from on-site studies, European-wide analyses and case studies from other parts of the world. This book will be of interest to researchers in the field of aquatic ecology, river system functioning, conservation and restoration, to postgraduate students, to institutions involved in water management, and to water related industries.

Biblical Terror

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ISBN: 9780567670816 9780567670823 9780567670830 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102538
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:21:05
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For biblical authors and readers, law and restoration are central concepts in the Bible, but they were not always so. To trace out the formation of those biblical concepts as elements in defensive strategies, Cataldo uses as conversational starting points theories from Zizek, Foucault and Deleuze, all of whom emphasize relation and difference. This work argues that the more modern assumption that biblical authors wrote their texts presupposing a central importance for those concepts is backwards. On the contrary, law and restoration were made central only through and after the writing of the biblical texts - in particular, those that were concerned with protecting the community from threats to its identity as the "remnant". Modern Bible readers, Cataldo argues, must renegotiate how they understand law and restoration and come to terms with them as concepts that emerged out of more selfish concerns of a community on the margins of imperial political power.

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