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Manipulation of the host cell by viral auxiliary proteins

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194841 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-484-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Productive HIV infection requires completion of all the steps of the replication cycle, the success of which largely relying on the multiple interactions established by viral proteins with cellular partners. Indeed, cellular and viral fates are intertwined and this interplay may involve rerouting of cellular factors/pathways to the benefit of the viral life cycle. To gain a foothold into host cells, HIV has to take advantage of available cellular factories and overcome the numerous potential blocks opposed to its replication while ensuring cellular survival. Viral auxiliary proteins are a perfect paradigm to illustrate the complexity of the relationship between HIV and its host. Although these accessory proteins are mostly unnecessary for viral replication in permissive cells in vitro, they play a crucial role in regulating viral spread ex vivo in non-permissive cells and in vivo in hosts. Most accessory proteins are pleiotropic and instrumental in the counteraction of restriction factors and proteins involved in innate immune response. Several proteins of the "intrinsic" immune system that detect the presence of the assailant and initiate a subsequent immune response, as well as restriction factors that are directly devoted to arresting the replication cycle at precise steps have been characterized. Despite the numerous cellular mechanisms dedicated to preventing viral replication, HIV is able to efficiently replicate in humans. Indeed, as a master regulator of cellular machineries and processes, not only has HIV evolved strategies to avoid triggering of pattern recognition receptors, but HIV has also elaborated ways to counteract host restriction factors, thereby overcoming the hurdles that oppose efficient replication. This review collection is dedicated to the manipulation of host cells by HIV-1 and HIV-2, with a particular focus on viral accessory proteins.

Retroviruses, retroelements and their restrictions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194018 Year: Pages: 127 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-401-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Human retroviruses, HIV and HTLV have been recognized as important pathogens because of their association with lethal diseases such as AIDS and ATL. Considerable resources and efforts have been directed at understanding the interaction between these retroviruses and their host which may provide clues as to how the infection can be controlled or prevented. Among the key scientific successes is the identification of intracellular “restriction factors” that have evolved as obstacles to the replication of pathogens including infectious retroviruses. The discovery of APOBEC, which are strong mutagens of retroviral genomes and intracellular retroelements, began a new era of intense research activities into the spectrum of intrinsic anti-HIV activity, leading to the identification of TRIM5a, BST2/Tetherin, and SAMHD1. In response, HIV has evolved several accessory genes as weaponries to evade these intracellular restriction activities. The intracellular antiretroviral defenses evolved in response to endogenous retroelements that make up more than 40% of the entire mammalian genome, and which are regarded as ancestors of infectious retroviruses. LTR-type retroelements are present in all higher eukaryotes, representing about 8% of the human genome. Non-LTR retroelements can be found at extremely high copy numbers also, with a significant portion of mammalin genomes consisting of LINEs. Mammalian genomes are modified by LINEs through insertions, but also by the indirect replication of non-autonomous retrotransposons such as SINEs. LINEs insertion was shown to have played, and continue to play important roles in genomic evolution and somatic genome mosaicism-mediated physiology. And, because retrotransposition can confer genetic diversity that is beneficial to the host, the vertebrate intrinsic immunity has evolved to support a balance between retroelement insertions that confer beneficial and those that cause deleterious gene disruptions. The articles published in this Research Topic should serve not only as valuable references for the field, but provide future topics of research for investigators that should further our understanding of the retrovirus, retroelements and their restrictions.

Keywords

Retrovirus --- Retroelement --- restriction factor --- HIV --- HTLV --- line --- APOBEC --- BST2/Tetherin --- SAMHD1

Significance of antigen and epitope specificity in tuberculosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194513 Year: Pages: 119 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-451-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Dissection of the specificity of host immune responses following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is essential for designing effective vaccination and diagnostic biomarkers as well as for better understanding of immunopathogenesis of active tuberculosis. The articles in this volume of the Topics in Microbial Immunology review the significance of this area of research from both experimental models and clinical surveys. This includes T cell recognition of MHC permissive epitopes, use of algorithms for genome-based prediction of immunodominant epitopes, evaluation of candidate antigens/epitopes and adjuvants for vaccination and immunodiagnosis. Future research strategies indicate the need for better understanding of the relationship between epitope specificity and the phenotype of responding T cells and search for biomarkers with a capacity to discriminate and predict the change from latent infection to active disease. These research avenues have important potentials for improving the prevention and control of tuberculosis.

Progenitor diversity and neural cell specification in the central nervous system

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196838 Year: Pages: 107 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-683-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The central nervous system continuously perceives, integrates, processes and generates information. These complex functions rely on the detailed elaboration of its cellular network and on the myriads of individual, highly differentiated and specialized cell types, classically subdivided into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The specification of these individual populations begins early during development with less differentiated, yet already partly restricted, progenitor cells. Anatomically located in dedicated germinative niches, neural progenitors perceive the influence of diffusible molecules of various natures and concentrations. These signals result in the initial specialization of cohorts of progenitors that express unique combinations of transcription factors. It is now clearly established that both extrinsic and intrinsic signals act in concert to determine the fate potentials of these progenitor cohorts. This limitation increases over time, adult neural progenitors being more restricted than their developmental counterparts. Nevertheless, recent data have shown that the fate restriction of neural progenitors, as well as that of their progenies, can be overwritten upon selected intrinsic factor expression, not only during development but also in adulthood. This e-book is a collection of original research studies along with review articles that, together, provide insights into the vast spatiotemporal diversity of neural progenitors, and the various factors that govern their fate potential.

Ginseng and Borderland

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ISBN: 9780520295995 9780520968714 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.1525/luminos.36 Language: English
Publisher: University of California Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-11 11:01:49
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Ginseng and Borderland explores the territorial boundaries and political relations between Qing China and Chosŏn Korea during the period from the early seventeenth to the late nineteenth centuries. By examining a unique body of materials written in Chinese, Manchu, and Korean, and building on recent studies in New Qing History, Seonmin Kim adds new perspectives to current understandings of the remarkable transformation of the Manchu Qing dynasty (1636–1912) from a tribal state to a universal empire. This book discusses early Manchu history and explores the Qing Empire’s policy of controlling Manchuria and Chosŏn Korea. Kim also contributes to the Korean history of the Chosŏn dynasty (1392–1910) by challenging conventional accounts that embrace a China-centered interpretation of the tributary relationship between the two polities, stressing instead the agency of Chosŏn Korea in the formation of the Qing Empire. This study demonstrates how Koreans interpreted and employed this relationship in order to preserve the boundary—and peace—with the suzerain power. By focusing on the historical significance of the China-Korea boundary, this book defines the nature of the Qing Empire through the dynamics of contacts and conflicts under both the cultural and material frameworks of its tributary relationship with Chosŏn Korea.

Parameteranalyse eines redundanten Roboters mit Pivotpunkt-Restriktion

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ISBN: 9783731507048 Year: Pages: IX, 164 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000072643 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Nowadays robots are used not only in production lines, but also in the field of medicine. In this thesis an analysis was performed which relates to a serial, redundant robot and its parameters. The pivot point restriction results from the minimally invasive surgical scenario. The parameter analysis evaluates the robot performance by indicators, which depend on the selected parameters and the operating area.

Benefits of Resveratrol Supplementation

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ISBN: 9783039212750 / 9783039212767 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-276-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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In recent years, great attention has been paid to polyphenols due to their positive effects on health. One of the most widely-studied phenolic compounds is resveratrol. This molecule, which is naturally present in some foods, shows beneficial effects on various physiological and biochemical processes, thus representing a potential tool for the prevention or the treatment of diseases highly prevalent in our society. Several of these beneficial effects have been observed in human beings, but others only in pre-clinical studies so far, and therefore, it is mandatory to continue with the scientific research in this field. Indeed, new knowledge concerning these issues could enable the development of novel functional foods or nutraceuticals, incorporating resveratrol, suitable for preventing or treating diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, dislipemia, insulin resistance and diabetes, liver diseases, etc.

Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying

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ISBN: 9783039210800 / 9783039210817 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-081-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Education
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Despite the significant decrease in bullying that has been reported in many countries during the last two decades, bullying continues to be a significant problem among young people. Given the increase of internet use among youth, researchers have started to pay attention to cyberspace, understanding that it may be a fertile ground for bullying behaviors, specifically, what is known as cyberbullying. “Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying” examines the association of several family variables with bullying in offline and online environments during childhood and adolescence. Contributors from the Americas, Canada, Asia, and Europe offer cutting-edge research on family dynamics, bystander behaviors, parents’ and educators’ perceptions, and bullying and cyberbullying prevention and intervention strategies of bullying for school and home. This book also provides an analysis of the current research on the influence of family in the electronic bullying. Research topics included in the book: 1) Parental education and bullying and cyberbullying; 2) Parental monitoring and cyberbullying; 3) Parental communication and feelings of affiliation; 4) Student and educator perspective on cyberbullying; 5) Parents’ responses to bullying; 6) Parental mediation and bystander behaviors; 7) Development of scales to measure cyberbullying and high internet risks. “Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying” is an essential resource for researchers, graduate students, families, and practitioners in social education, social work, teacher education, and psychology.

Integrated Role of Nutrition and Physical Activity for Lifelong Health

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ISBN: 9783039212118 / 9783039212125 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-212-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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As computer and space technologies have been developed, geoscience information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies, which deal with the geospatial information, have been rapidly maturing. Moreover, over the last few decades, machine learning techniques including artificial neural network (ANN), deep learning, decision tree, and support vector machine (SVM) have been successfully applied to geospatial science and engineering research fields. The machine learning techniques have been widely applied to GIS and RS research fields and have recently produced valuable results in the areas of geoscience, environment, natural hazards, and natural resources. This book is a collection representing novel contributions detailing machine learning techniques as applied to geoscience information systems and remote sensing.

Keywords

aging --- chronic low-grade systemic inflammation --- physical activity --- nutrition --- physical performance --- chronic diseases --- adolescent --- free or reduced lunch --- National School Lunch Program --- Fitbit --- soccer --- low-income --- Latino --- added sugar --- sport nutrition --- sport --- older adults --- diet quality --- physical activity --- telemonitoring --- lifestyle intervention --- mechanisms of impact --- mediation analyses --- dietary restriction --- macronutrients --- physical exercise --- free radicals --- cytokines --- childhood memories --- sport spectators --- sport games --- sporting events --- music events --- food consumption --- out-of-home eating --- food healthiness --- immunity --- inflammation --- metabolism --- physical activity --- physical activity --- food intake --- adolescents --- movement skills --- fitness --- nutrition education --- health promotion --- behavioral intervention --- self-efficacy --- stunting --- overweight --- obesity --- physical activity --- dual burden of malnutrition --- compensatory eating --- exercise-induced anorexia --- food choice --- acute exercise --- behavioral economics --- nudges --- aging --- exercise --- diet --- telomerase --- TERRA --- telomere length --- senescence --- dietary intake --- physical activity --- body weight --- lifestyle change --- cardiometabolic health --- long-term follow-up --- vegetarian --- vegan --- half-marathon --- marathon --- running --- health conscious --- recreational athlete --- Protein --- oxidation --- anabolic competence --- breath test --- naturally enriched 13C-milk proteins --- endurance exercise --- skeletal muscle damage --- inflammation --- protein --- carbohydrates --- protein shake --- food --- n/a

Plant Natural Products for Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038977124 Year: Pages: 514 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-713-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Plants have served mankind as an important source of foods and medicines. While we all consume plants and their products for nutritional support, a majority of the world population also rely on botanical remedies to meet their health needs, either as their own “traditional medicine” or as “complementary and alternative medicine”. From a pharmaceutical point of view, many compounds obtained from plant sources have long been known to possess bio/pharmacological activities, and historically, plants have yielded many important drugs for human use, from morphine discovered in the early nineteenth century to the more recent paclitaxel and artemisinin. Today, we are witnessing a global resurgence in interest and use of plant-based therapies and botanical products, and natural products remain an important and viable source of lead compounds in many drug discovery programs.This Special Issue on “Plant Natural Products for Human Health” compiles a series of scientific reports to demonstrate the medicinal potentials of plant natural products. It covers a range of disease targets, such as diabetes, inflammation, cancer, neurological disease, cardiovascular disease, liver damage, bacterial, and fungus infection and malarial. These papers provide important insights into the current state of research on drug discovery and new techniques. It is hoped that this Special Issue will serve as a timely reference for researchers and scholars who are interested in the discovery of potentially useful molecules from plant sources for health-related applications.

Keywords

heat-process --- onion --- calorie restriction --- Amadori rearrangement compounds --- hyperglycemia --- A549 cells --- hinokitiol --- MMPs --- p53/Bax --- antioxidant enzymes --- caspases --- migration --- cannabinoid type 1 receptor --- endoplasmic reticulum stress --- gluconeogenesis --- gomisin N --- lipogenesis --- insulin resistance --- garlic --- ischemia --- heme oxygenase --- reperfusion --- heart --- Keap1 --- Nrf2 --- Neuroprotective --- PC12 cells --- PhGs --- anti-malaria activity --- plants --- natural products --- ethnopharmacology --- Plasmodium parasites --- copaiba --- oleoresin --- essential oil --- sesquiterpenoids --- diterpenoids --- biological activity --- molecular targets --- Astragali Radix --- astragaloside IV --- genistein --- mitochondrial bioenergetics --- oxygen consumption rate --- natural products --- drug design and development --- innovation --- automation --- computational softwares --- bioinformatics --- precision medicine --- omics --- global health --- sweet orange --- bitter orange --- neroli --- orange petitgrain --- mandarin --- lemon --- lime --- grapefruit --- bergamot --- yuzu --- kumquat --- cannabigerol --- Cannabis sativa --- neuroinflammation --- oxidative stress --- phytocannabinoid --- iridoids --- nuclear factor-kappaB --- mitogen-activated protein kinase --- anti-inflammation --- Ziziphus jujuba --- triterpenic acids --- pharmacokinetic study --- acute liver injury --- A? --- AD --- lychee seed --- neuroinflammation --- catechin --- procyanidin A2 --- apoptosis --- cinnamamides --- antistaphylococcal activity --- time-kill assay --- biofilm --- antitubercular activity --- MTT assay --- antifungal activity --- PET inhibition --- toxicity --- structure–activity relationship --- bleeding time --- flavonoid --- morin hydrate --- OH· free radical --- platelet activation --- protein kinase --- thromboembolism --- Glycyrrhiza uralensis --- prenylated flavonoids --- antiproliferation --- differentiation --- melanoma cell --- adjuvant-induced arthritis --- arthritis --- celastrol --- curcumin --- dietary supplements --- EGCG --- green tea --- inflammation --- liposomes --- microbiome --- nanoparticles --- natural products --- resveratrol --- rheumatoid arthritis --- targeted delivery --- traditional medicine --- Tripterygium wilfordii --- triptolide --- Penthorum chinense Pursh --- NAFLD --- hepatic steatosis --- flavonoids --- SIRT1 --- AMPK --- dihydromyricetin --- myocardial hypertrophy --- oxidative stress --- sirtuin 3 --- ginseng --- human-hair-follicle dermal papilla cells --- WNT/?-catenin --- Shh/Gli --- TGF-? --- BMP/Smad --- mouse-hair growth --- Panax notoginseng saponins --- aspirin --- HepaRG cells --- herb–drug interactions --- P. eryngii --- glucans --- inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease --- medicinal plants --- phytochemicals --- scoulerine --- bergapten --- immunomodulator --- adjuvant --- cytoxicity --- dendritic cells --- immune modulation --- APAP --- acetaminophen --- hepatotoxicity --- hpatoprotection --- paracetamol --- animals --- preclinical studies --- natural products --- small molecules --- phytochemicals --- plants --- fucoidan --- acetaminophen --- Nrf2 --- oxidative stress --- hepatotoxicity --- plant natural product --- drug discovery --- human health

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