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Ethik als Kommunikation - zur Praxis klinischer Ethik-Komitees in theologischer Perspektive

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ISBN: 9783940344182 Year: Pages: 213 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Religion --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2012-04-11 23:04:47
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»Zu Risiken und Nebenwirkungen fragen Sie Ihren Arzt, Apotheker — oder das Klinische Ethik-Komitee in Ihrer Umgebung.« Die Einrichtung von Klinischen Ethik-Komitees ist eine direkte Reaktion auf die Professionalisierung des Medizinbetriebs und die Erfolge in der Medizintechnik. Seit jeher bezeichnet man mit Fortschritt in der Medizin mehr als nur einen technischen Fortschritt. Gerade dessen unbestreitbare Erfolge stellen Mediziner, Pflegekräfte, Seelsorger und die Geschäftsführung zugleich vor neue Fragen und Probleme. Mit der Institutionalisierung klinischer Ethikberatung verbindet sich die Erwartung, die komplexen Verständigungsprozesse auf eine gemeinsame Grundlage zu stellen. Welche Aufgaben übernehmen Ethik-Komitees in Krankenhäusern? Wie wird dort Ethik zum Thema? Und wie kommunizieren Theologen und Pflegekräfte in diesen Gremien? Die Beiträge dieses Bandes fassen aus theologischer und philosophischer Sicht zentrale Forschungsergebnisse zusammen, die im Rahmen des DFG-geförderten Forschungsprojekts »Ethik und Organisation« zur Diskussion standen.

Geschichte lernen im digitalen Wandel

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ISBN: 9783486858662 9783110399042 Year: Pages: xvi, 173 DOI: 10.1515/9783486858662 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2015-06-29 09:29:07
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Young people communicate through social networks, and seek information and opinion online. They participate publicly in real-time social debates. These radical changes in their life worlds have implications for their views of history and for the collective historical culture. Thus, historical instruction is facing entirely new challenges. The contributors to this volume submitted to an open review process prior to publication.

Arbeit im Nationalsozialismus

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ISBN: 9783486858846 9783110399073 Year: Pages: 403 DOI: 10.1515/9783486858846 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2015-08-13 13:31:08
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Work was a core concept in National Socialism. In pre-war concentration camps, it was a tool for converting prisoners into Volksgenossen, or members of the national community. And during the war, forced labor was crucial to armaments production. “Ability to work” meant life or death for Jews, POWs, and others. The essays in this volume explore the multiple meanings of work as a social, political, and cultural practice in National Socialism.

Historyblogosphere. Bloggen in den Geschichtswissenschaften

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ISBN: 9783486755732 Year: Pages: 201 DOI: 10.1524/9783486755732 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-07 16:15:32
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For the first time in the German language historical disciplines, a book has been subject to open peer review as it was developed. All contributions were discussed online with comments. The ‘history blogosphere’ has thereby engaged in understanding an especially timely topic– namely, the medium of the blog itself.

The biology and ecology of ticks shape the potential for the transmission of zoonotic pathogens

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194063 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-406-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Ticks are noticeable by the high diversity of pathogens they can transmit, most of them with implications in human and animal health. Ticks are arachnids, meaning that they do not share the biological and ecological features of the mosquitoes and other parasitic Diptera. The natural foci of tick-borne pathogens may be as large as a continent, or be restricted to small portions of a country, without apparently too many similar features. The life cycle of the ticks involved three developing instars. The precise relationships of ticks and their hosts, the specific seasonal pattern of activity of ticks, and the still poorly known molecular relationships between ticks and the pathogens they can transmit, make these vectors a specially fecund field of research. Importantly, extensive studies on the biological and ecological relationships of ticks and abiotic (climate and vegetation) conditions have revealed the fine-tuning of the ticks and the pathogens they transmit, together with the biological effects of host and the driving features by the climate. The studies on tick-transmitted pathogens have been on the rise in the last years. There is a growing interest in understand the somewhat complex relationships between the landscape, the climate, the vectors and the pathogens, because the concerns of spread, probably driven by subtle changes in climate and man made alterations of the landscape. Studies on Lyme borreliosis are addressing the interesting issue of the relationships between the climate, the tick activity patterns, and the selection of strains according to the reservoir availability. Furthermore, the expanding field of habitat suitability modeling has been applied with different degrees of success to evaluate and quantify the risk of disease transmission. In such exponentially growing field, revisionary books are clearly welcome additions to the bibliographical tools of researchers. It is however necessary the compilation of works devoted to explore the tip of the iceberg in the field of research. In this Research Topic, we wish to summarize and review the studies on ecology, molecular biology, and tick-host-pathogens interactions, provided to resolve the important issues of ticks and pathogens. We want not only the results obtained by newly developed molecular tools, but rigorous reviews of the most recent advances in these issues. This Topic will cover aspects of both human and animal health, with special interest on zoonoses. Aspects of the biology of the ticks, as affecting the transmission of pathogens, are of special interest in this Topic. Studies on ticks of the poorly known family Argasidae, as related to their involvement on pathogen transmission, are especially welcome. We also wish to describe the perspective of the field in the future. Finally, the presentation of ongoing original works is greatly encouraged.

Intrinsic motivations and open-ended development in animals, humans, and robots

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193721 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-372-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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The aim of this Research Topic for Frontiers in Psychology under the section of Cognitive Science and Frontiers in Neurorobotics is to present state-of-the-art research, whether theoretical, empirical, or computational investigations, on open-ended development driven by intrinsic motivations. The topic will address questions such as: How do motivations drive learning? How are complex skills built up from a foundation of simpler competencies? What are the neural and computational bases for intrinsically motivated learning? What is the contribution of intrinsic motivations to wider cognition? Autonomous development and lifelong open-ended learning are hallmarks of intelligence. Higher mammals, and especially humans, engage in activities that do not appear to directly serve the goals of survival, reproduction, or material advantage. Rather, a large part of their activity is intrinsically motivated - behavior driven by curiosity, play, interest in novel stimuli and surprising events, autonomous goal-setting, and the pleasure of acquiring new competencies. This allows the cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills that can later be used to accomplish fitness-enhancing goals. Intrinsic motivations continue during adulthood, and in humans artistic creativity, scientific discovery, and subjective well-being owe much to them. The study of intrinsically motivated behavior has a long history in psychological and ethological research, which is now being reinvigorated by perspectives from neuroscience, artificial intelligence and computer science. For example, recent neuroscientific research is discovering how neuromodulators like dopamine and noradrenaline relate not only to extrinsic rewards but also to novel and surprising events, how brain areas such as the superior colliculus and the hippocampus are involved in the perception and processing of events, novel stimuli, and novel associations of stimuli, and how violations of predictions and expectations influence learning and motivation. Computational approaches are characterizing the space of possible reinforcement learning algorithms and their augmentation by intrinsic reinforcements of different kinds. Research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems with increasing autonomy and capacity for self-improvement: artificial systems with motivations that are similar to those of real organisms and support prolonged autonomous learning. Computational research on intrinsic motivation is being complemented by, and closely interacting with, research that aims to build hierarchical architectures capable of acquiring, storing, and exploiting the knowledge and skills acquired through intrinsically motivated learning. Now is an important moment in the study of intrinsically motivated open-ended development, requiring contributions and integration across a large number of fields within the cognitive sciences. This Research Topic aims to contribute to this effort by welcoming papers carried out with ethological, psychological, neuroscientific and computational approaches, as well as research that cuts across disciplines and approaches.

Soft-Tissue Reconstruction Using Biologic Tissue Matrix: Where Do We Stand?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455034 Year: Pages: 91 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-503-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Soft-tissue reconstruction for a variety of surgical conditions, such as abdominal wall hernia, hiatal hernia, stomal hernia, anal fistula and pelvic floor replacement remains a challenge. There is an insufficient level of high-quality evidence in the literature on the value of bioprosthetics for soft-tissue reconstruction. An expanded knowledge about their clinical efficacy is urgently needed.

Mobile Learning

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ISBN: 9783038976608 Year: Pages: 86 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-661-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Education --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Mobile learning has become one of the more influential aspects of the field of educational technology, given the ubiquity of modern mobile devices and proliferation of educational applications or ‘apps’. Within this volume, there are a range of studies and reviews which cover a breadth of current topics in the field, namely user motivations for using mobile learning, issues in evaluation, as well as domain-specific considerations (e.g., use within language learning or audio-based applications). Together, these studies represent the synthesis of a range of methods, approaches, and applications that highlight benefits and areas of future growth of mobile technologies and how they can be useful and most effective in education.

Vitamin D and Human Health

ISBN: 9783038420569 9783038420576 Year: Pages: 476 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 08:50:54
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Vitamin D research has expanded greatly over the last 10 years, with a more than two-fold increase in annual publications listed in Pubmed with the key word ‘vitamin D’ from 1675 in 2005 to 3953 in 2014. Part of this increase is due to research showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a wide range of diseases and health outcomes. Until the 1980s, the primary focus of vitamin D research (in combination with calcium supplementation) was on bone diseases. Since then, observational studies have linked vitamin D deficiency with increased risk of many diseases: both acute and chronic. This book contains publications on several of these disease groups linked to vitamin D deficiency.

Mercury and Methylmercury Toxicology and Risk Assessment

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ISBN: 9783038979708 / 9783038979715 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-971-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Mercury is a global pollutant that affects the health of both humans and ecosystems. This Special Issue collects three review papers and six research articles that report on the latest findings on the mechanisms of mercury toxicology and its impacts on environmental health. This collection of papers provides useful, new information on the mechanisms of mercury toxicity and methods of improving the risk assessment of mercury exposure.

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