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Microbial and Environmental Factors in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451555 Year: Pages: 193 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-155-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Abstract

In recent years there has been a substantial increase in the number of diseases with the inflammatory component such as such as allergy, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowl disease (IBD, which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease), chronic sinusitis, and many other conditions. The majority of these diseases are multifactorial, with the contribution of genetic and environmental factors. Among the latter, the role of certain microorganisms and viruses in triggering or sustaining the inflammatory process is most controversial. In rheumatoid arthritis, for example, the following bacteria and viruses have been implicated in triggering the disease: Mycoplasma spp., Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Bordetella spp., Acinetobacter spp., the parvoviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, and retroviruses. The list of putative microbial triggers of rheumatoid arthritis is still growing, and it becomes essentially impossible to make a causation link between certain infectious agents and the disease. In the light of these disappointing results there are calls for even larger studies with the use of more advanced and large-scale technologies. The primary function of the immune system is the maintenance of body homeostasis and protection against any threats to it via several lines of elaborate and complex immune defense. Given even higher complexity that involves the microbiota and the corresponding host-microbe interaction, the conditions for this equilibrium become even more challenging. In the absence of a defined pathogen, for example, the spectrum of microorganisms involved in triggering inappropriate immune responses may include polymicrobial communities or the cumulative effect of several microbial/viral factors. Under the normal circumstances there is a fine-tuned balance between commensal microbiota and the host’s immune responses. However, when this balance is compromised, for example in IBD, a massive immune response is launched against commensal microbiota resulting in chronic inflammation. Besides the microbial/viral factors, the balance of the immune system can be compromised by other causes. Given, for example, the close and inclusive interaction of the immune, nervous and endocrine systems, the list of these provoking factors can expand even more. For instance, it has been demonstrated that even mild sleep deprivation may increase the production of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Understanding the complex role of microbial and environmental factors in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, therefore, is the main subject of this topic.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease

ISBN: 9783038422723 9783038422730 Year: Pages: XII, 312 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-11-11 19:02:10
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The role of major dietary omega-3 fatty acids (Ω-3; α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in human health has generated enormous scientific interest and many controversies in recent years. Due to a growing number of studies with conflicting or even negative clinical results, the former “hype” of Ω-3 thought to be beneficial in many aspects of human health regardless of the physiological and clinical preconditions is now being critically re-evaluated, especially with respect to the potential role of Ω-3 fatty acid supplementation in preventing a variety of diseases and clinical conditions. This critical view reflects the complex interaction of Ω-3 with cell membranes and their integrated proteins mediating signal transduction, transport systems, and other processes. Moreover, Ω-3 are precursors of bioactive metabolites, such as eicosanoids, lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins, and nitrolipids that influence several physiological and pathophysiological processes and their full spectrum of effects are only beginning to be defined. Finally, physiological and pathophysiological conditions as well as concomitant pharmacological treatments may influence the specific and non-specific actions of Ω-3 supplementation.This Special Issue of the Journal of Clinical Medicine will emphasize the role and biological interactions of Ω-3 with regard to cancer, psychiatric disorders, metabolic disorders and nutrition and will also reflect on some basic molecular and cellular mechanisms.

Research of Pathogenesis and Novel Therapeutics in Arthritis

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ISBN: 9783038970651 / 9783038970668 Year: Pages: 366 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-066-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Arthritis has a high prevalence globally and includes over 100 different types, the most common of which are rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and inflammatory arthritis. The exact etiology of arthritis remains unclear and no cure exists. Anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used in the treatment of arthritis but are associated with significant side effects. Novel modes of therapy and additional prognostic biomarkers are urgently needed for arthritis patients. This book summarizes and discusses the global picture of the current understanding of arthritis.

Keywords

biosimilars --- Th9 lymphocytes --- rheumatoid arthritis --- infliximab --- rheumatoid arthritis --- bone erosion --- osteoblasts --- next-generation sequencing --- bioinformatics --- microRNA --- messenger RNA --- osteoarthritis --- cell signaling --- IL1? --- WNT --- antagonists --- computational modeling --- nitric oxide --- clodronate --- gene expression --- osteoarthritis --- progenitor cells --- SOX9 --- spondyloarthropathies --- inflammation --- mesenchymal stem cells --- visfatin --- IL-6 --- TNF-? --- osteoarthritis --- miR-199a-5p --- Epstein-Barr virus --- glycoprotein 42 --- rheumatoid arthritis --- shared epitope --- triptolide --- rheumatoid arthritis --- basic research --- clinical translation --- osteoarthritis (OA) --- articular cartilage --- molecular pathology --- therapeutics --- rheumatoid arthritis --- antibodies --- collagen --- glycosylation --- disease pathways --- therapy --- experimental arthritis --- TNF? --- etanercept --- infliximab --- adalimumab --- certolizumab pegol --- golimumab --- rheumatoid arthritis --- therapeutic antibody --- structure --- fraxinellone --- collagen-induced arthritis --- rheumatoid arthritis --- inflammatory arthritis --- osteoclastogenesis --- sclareol --- rheumatoid arthritis --- synovial cell --- collagen --- mice --- cytokines --- Th17 --- MAPK --- arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- rheumatoid arthritis --- small-molecule inhibitor --- chondrocytes --- tumor necrosis factor-alpha --- inflammation --- rheumatoid arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- angiogenesis --- cytokines --- chemokines --- early osteoarthritis --- articular cartilage --- proliferation --- fibroblast growth factor 2 --- mitogen activated protein kinase --- transforming growth factor ? --- SMA- and MAD-related protein --- interleukin --- nuclear factor kappa B --- miRNA --- adjuvant arthritis --- arthritis --- biomarkers --- celastrol --- inflammation --- microRNA --- miRNA --- rat --- rheumatoid arthritis --- Traditional Chinese medicine --- tripterine --- triterpenoid --- spinal fusion --- biological --- osteoblast --- osteoclast --- bisphosphonate --- parathyroid hormone --- bone morphogenetic protein --- receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B --- stem cell --- drug delivery system --- anticitrullinated peptide antibodies --- antirheumatic drug --- autoimmune --- disease-modifying --- immunology --- pathology --- rheumatoid factor --- rheumatoid arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- adipokines --- obesity --- rheumatoid arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- anti-arthritis --- biomarkers

Plant Natural Products for Human Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977124 Year: Pages: 514 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-713-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Plants have served mankind as an important source of foods and medicines. While we all consume plants and their products for nutritional support, a majority of the world population also rely on botanical remedies to meet their health needs, either as their own “traditional medicine” or as “complementary and alternative medicine”. From a pharmaceutical point of view, many compounds obtained from plant sources have long been known to possess bio/pharmacological activities, and historically, plants have yielded many important drugs for human use, from morphine discovered in the early nineteenth century to the more recent paclitaxel and artemisinin. Today, we are witnessing a global resurgence in interest and use of plant-based therapies and botanical products, and natural products remain an important and viable source of lead compounds in many drug discovery programs.This Special Issue on “Plant Natural Products for Human Health” compiles a series of scientific reports to demonstrate the medicinal potentials of plant natural products. It covers a range of disease targets, such as diabetes, inflammation, cancer, neurological disease, cardiovascular disease, liver damage, bacterial, and fungus infection and malarial. These papers provide important insights into the current state of research on drug discovery and new techniques. It is hoped that this Special Issue will serve as a timely reference for researchers and scholars who are interested in the discovery of potentially useful molecules from plant sources for health-related applications.

Keywords

heat-process --- onion --- calorie restriction --- Amadori rearrangement compounds --- hyperglycemia --- A549 cells --- hinokitiol --- MMPs --- p53/Bax --- antioxidant enzymes --- caspases --- migration --- cannabinoid type 1 receptor --- endoplasmic reticulum stress --- gluconeogenesis --- gomisin N --- lipogenesis --- insulin resistance --- garlic --- ischemia --- heme oxygenase --- reperfusion --- heart --- Keap1 --- Nrf2 --- Neuroprotective --- PC12 cells --- PhGs --- anti-malaria activity --- plants --- natural products --- ethnopharmacology --- Plasmodium parasites --- copaiba --- oleoresin --- essential oil --- sesquiterpenoids --- diterpenoids --- biological activity --- molecular targets --- Astragali Radix --- astragaloside IV --- genistein --- mitochondrial bioenergetics --- oxygen consumption rate --- natural products --- drug design and development --- innovation --- automation --- computational softwares --- bioinformatics --- precision medicine --- omics --- global health --- sweet orange --- bitter orange --- neroli --- orange petitgrain --- mandarin --- lemon --- lime --- grapefruit --- bergamot --- yuzu --- kumquat --- cannabigerol --- Cannabis sativa --- neuroinflammation --- oxidative stress --- phytocannabinoid --- iridoids --- nuclear factor-kappaB --- mitogen-activated protein kinase --- anti-inflammation --- Ziziphus jujuba --- triterpenic acids --- pharmacokinetic study --- acute liver injury --- A? --- AD --- lychee seed --- neuroinflammation --- catechin --- procyanidin A2 --- apoptosis --- cinnamamides --- antistaphylococcal activity --- time-kill assay --- biofilm --- antitubercular activity --- MTT assay --- antifungal activity --- PET inhibition --- toxicity --- structure–activity relationship --- bleeding time --- flavonoid --- morin hydrate --- OH· free radical --- platelet activation --- protein kinase --- thromboembolism --- Glycyrrhiza uralensis --- prenylated flavonoids --- antiproliferation --- differentiation --- melanoma cell --- adjuvant-induced arthritis --- arthritis --- celastrol --- curcumin --- dietary supplements --- EGCG --- green tea --- inflammation --- liposomes --- microbiome --- nanoparticles --- natural products --- resveratrol --- rheumatoid arthritis --- targeted delivery --- traditional medicine --- Tripterygium wilfordii --- triptolide --- Penthorum chinense Pursh --- NAFLD --- hepatic steatosis --- flavonoids --- SIRT1 --- AMPK --- dihydromyricetin --- myocardial hypertrophy --- oxidative stress --- sirtuin 3 --- ginseng --- human-hair-follicle dermal papilla cells --- WNT/?-catenin --- Shh/Gli --- TGF-? --- BMP/Smad --- mouse-hair growth --- Panax notoginseng saponins --- aspirin --- HepaRG cells --- herb–drug interactions --- P. eryngii --- glucans --- inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease --- medicinal plants --- phytochemicals --- scoulerine --- bergapten --- immunomodulator --- adjuvant --- cytoxicity --- dendritic cells --- immune modulation --- APAP --- acetaminophen --- hepatotoxicity --- hpatoprotection --- paracetamol --- animals --- preclinical studies --- natural products --- small molecules --- phytochemicals --- plants --- fucoidan --- acetaminophen --- Nrf2 --- oxidative stress --- hepatotoxicity --- plant natural product --- drug discovery --- human health

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