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Music and Spirituality

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ISBN: 9783038421023 9783038420996 Year: Pages: 208 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Music --- Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-05 16:20:03
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Across time and geography people have known the power of music for evoking the gods and acquiring spiritual insight. Whether arising as a textless chant by a single voice or a percussive auditory context for ritual dance, music in its various modes is a virtually ubiquitous companion to religious and spiritual practices. The apparently intangible, insubstantial nature of sound is one of the reasons why music has so effectively symbolized the mysterious and wholly other since the dawn of creation. Not only an accompaniment to one’s spiritual trek, musical compositions from the great oratorios of Handel to the soundtrack to the movie Lord of the Rings also serve as powerful metaphors and inspirations for that journey.

Neurophysiology in Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199303 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-930-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia are the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Since the number of individuals with AD and dementia is expected to increase considerably in the near future, reliable treatment and diagnosis are critical. EEG and neurophysiological technique could be used as a cost-effective screening tool for early detection and diagnosis in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage. The aim in neurophysiology research is to develop signal processing methods that improve the specificity for diagnosing dementia; we wish to discover signal features that not only significantly differ in AD patients, but also allow us to reliably separate AD patients and control subjects. This approach is valuable for clinical purposes (as diagnostic tool for dementia), and it also more fundamentally contributes to a better understanding of brain dynamics of MCI patients. Finally, the development of neurophysiological biomarker could be useful in monitoring pharmacological treatments. The main focus of this special issue will be on the most recent developments and ideas in the field of EEG and neurophysiology which will enable us to extract features that improve the specificity for diagnosing AD and dementia.

The CA3 region of the hippocampus: how is it? what is it for? how does it do it?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196319 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-631-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The aim of this special topic is to bring together experts on the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the wiring properties of the CA3 hippocampal microcircuit in both physiological and pathological conditions, synaptic plasticity, behavior and cognition.We will particularly emphasize the dual glutamatergic and GABAergic phenotype of MF-CA3 synapses at early developmental stages and the steps that regulate the integration of newly generated neurons into the adult dentate gyrus-CA3 circuit.

Therapeutic Implications of Circadian Rhythms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196654 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-665-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Circadian rhythms are biological processes displaying endogenous and entrainable oscillations of about 24 hours. They are driven by a group of genes called clock genes that have been widely observed in plants, animals and even in bacteria. In mammals, the core clock genes are rhythmically expressed in both the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master clock residing in the hypothalamus, and almost all peripheral tissues where they control numerous target genes in a circadian manner, and thus affect many physiological and biochemical processes. Evidence suggests that disruption of the circadian rhythms (or desynchronization) is a significant risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and sleep disorders. Evidence also suggests that the disruption suppresses immune function and increases vulnerability to infectious diseases. Restoring or strengthening the circadian rhythm may be therapeutic for these conditions. This becomes exceptionally important in modern societies because many people are suffering from frequent desynchronization due to shift working, exposure to artificial light, travel by transmeridian air flight, and involvement in social activities. Besides, the temporal variations in the incidence and severity of many diseases, such as the onset of cardiovascular events, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), inflammatory diseases and mental disorders have also drawn increasing attention to the circadian clock. The circadian rhythms affect not only the health status, but also the drug efficiency. The effects (and side effects) of many drugs vary with biological timing. The tolerance of many medications displays circadian variation as well. The timing of medical treatment in coordination with the body clock may significantly increase the desired effects of drugs, and lower the dose and toxicity. In addition, circadian rhythms can also be modulated by some therapeutic drugs, for example, melatonin and modafinil, which are used to treat circadian rhythm sleep disorders. In this Research Topic, we assemble a series of critical review and research articles that focus on the therapeutic implications of circadian rhythms. Topics include, but are not limited to: • Circadian disruption caused diseases or disorders and related intervention • Temporal manifestation of diseases or disorders and therapeutic implications • The effects of circadian rhythms on drugs • The effects of drugs on circadian rhythms

Rhythm and Meaning in Shakespeare

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Book Series: Literary Studies ISBN: 9781921867811 9781925523058 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Monash University Publishing Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101457
Subject: Performing Arts
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-16 11:02:30
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How did Shakespere intend that his plays be read? Rhythm and Meaning in Shakespeare explores the rhythmical organisation of Shakespeare’s verse and how it creates and reinforces meaning both in the theatre and in the mind of the reader. Because metrical form in the pentameter is not passively present in the text but rather something that the performer must co-operatively re-create in speaking it, pentameter is what John Barton calls “stage-direction in shorthand”, a supple instrument through which Shakespeare communicates valuable cues for performance. This book is thus an essential guide for actors wishing to perform in his plays, as well as a valuable resource for anyone wishing to enhance their understanding of and engagement with Shakespeare’s verse. Has supplementary audio files.

Manuel pratique du traduire : Lire - Écrire - Traduire

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9782858313303 DOI: 10.4000/books.pressesinalco.32206 Language: French
Publisher: Presses de l’Inalco
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:40
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« Pratique du traduire » est le titre d’un séminaire qui fait suite aux séminaires « Théorie » et « Critique du Traduire ». La distinction radicale entre les trois est évidemment partiellement factice, mais il fallait à la fois nommer chacun de ces séminaires et souligner une sorte de progression (souhaitée et souhaitable) dans l’apprentissage du métier de traducteur­-traduisant, une fois admis que ce métier exigeait une formation : d’abord se familiariser avec la problématique (on ne traduit pas une langue, mais une littérature en langue ; la littérature traduite doit conserver en français ses caractéristiques, nous ne sommes pas là pour produire du bon français fluide), ensuite apprendre à lire des textes traduits en tant que textes traduits (ce que ne fait presque jamais la critique), enfin, sur la base de traductions existantes, écrire. Dans tous les cas, et c’est l’aspect le plus déroutant de la méthode pratiquée à l’Inalco et l’École de traduction littéraire du CNL, on travaillera sur diverses langues, indépendamment du savoir des apprenants. Il n’est pas nécessaire de connaître chaque langue pour savoir lire et corriger (modestement) un texte traduit. Il faut et il suffit de le traiter en tant que texte traduit, quels qu’aient été les choix du traducteur, même si son objectif – hélas trop fréquent encore – était de gommer ou d’effacer l’acte de traduire. Ce livre ou manuel, est le résultat d’une posture de traducteurs, c’est­à­dire le résultat des réflexions croisées de traducteurs enseignants d’une part, d’autre part le désir de faire des participants au séminaire, à leur tour, des traduisants. Ces réflexions sur des pratiques (que les champs littéraires embrasses peuvent rendre très hétérogènes) ne nous ont pas conduit à proposer un catalogue de réponses, de trucs et astuces ou une boite à outils. Il s’agit d’une série de questionnements soulevés par la pratique des textes (le traducteur est, avec l’auteur, le seul à connaitre le livre mot à mot), destinés à aiguiser un regard, une attitude. Le futur traducteur sera donc appelé à développer une démarche proche sur la base d’enquêtes collectives. Rien ne serait plus éloigné de notre pensée que d’imaginer en arriver à une solution unique. Mais nous nous refusons tout autant à en inférer que tout est relatif, tout est équivalent, que toutes les solutions se valent. Les solutions acceptables sont celles qu’aura dicté le texte à traduire.

The Evolution of Rhythm Cognition: Timing in Music and Speech

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455003 Year: Pages: 391 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-500-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Human speech and music share a number of similarities and differences. One of the closest similarities is their temporal nature as both (i) develop over time, (ii) form sequences of temporal intervals, possibly differing in duration and acoustical marking by different spectral properties, which are perceived as a rhythm, and (iii) generate metrical expectations. Human brains are particularly efficient in perceiving, producing, and processing fine rhythmic information in music and speech. However a number of critical questions remain to be answered: Where does this human sensitivity for rhythm arise? How did rhythm cognition develop in human evolution? How did environmental rhythms affect the evolution of brain rhythms? Which rhythm-specific neural circuits are shared between speech and music, or even with other domains? Evolutionary processes’ long time scales often prevent direct observation: understanding the psychology of rhythm and its evolution requires a close-fitting integration of different perspectives. First, empirical observations of music and speech in the field are contrasted and generate testable hypotheses. Experiments exploring linguistic and musical rhythm are performed across sensory modalities, ages, and animal species to address questions about domain-specificity, development, and an evolutionary path of rhythm. Finally, experimental insights are integrated via synthetic modeling, generating testable predictions about brain oscillations underlying rhythm cognition and its evolution. Our understanding of the cognitive, neurobiological, and evolutionary bases of rhythm is rapidly increasing. However, researchers in different fields often work on parallel, potentially converging strands with little mutual awareness. This research topic builds a bridge across several disciplines, focusing on the cognitive neuroscience of rhythm as an evolutionary process. It includes contributions encompassing, although not limited to: (1) developmental and comparative studies of rhythm (e.g. critical acquisition periods, innateness); (2) evidence of rhythmic behavior in other species, both spontaneous and in controlled experiments; (3) comparisons of rhythm processing in music and speech (e.g. behavioral experiments, systems neuroscience perspectives on music-speech networks); (4) evidence on rhythm processing across modalities and domains; (5) studies on rhythm in interaction and context (social, affective, etc.); (6) mathematical and computational (e.g. connectionist, symbolic) models of “rhythmicity” as an evolved behavior.

Neurofeedback in ADHD

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197224 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-722-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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EEG-based neurofeedback is used as a treatment approach in attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a clinically and pathophysiologically heterogeneous child psychiatric disorder. There is increasing evidence for specific effects of neurofeedback when applying 'standard' protocols (slow cortical potentials, theta/beta, sensorimotor rhythm). Knowledge about underlying mechanisms and moderating variables is increasing. Nevertheless, further well-controlled and conducted trials are needed to answer open questions concerning optimisation and individualisation of neurofeedback. Further improvements may develop with new methods and technical developments (e.g., tomographic neurofeedback) and new concepts (integrated ADHD treatment). This Frontiers Research Topic comprising 14 articles intends to answer the following questions concerning neurofeedback in ADHD:• How efficacious is neurofeedback?• What is the rationale of applying a certain neurofeedback protocol in ADHD?• What are central mechanisms and which moderating variables may affect training and treatment outcome?• How to optimise treatment? What are new developments and which benefits may be expected?Aspects of learning theory are also stressed dissociating 'neurofeedback as a treatment' and 'neurofeedback as entertainment'. In the Editorial, this crucial aspect is compared to the way you read (and study) a scientific book versus reading a thriller for leisure. In this respect: Enjoy this Research Topic, study and apply it in practice, unless you read it for entertainment purposes!

Roman grec et poésie : Dialogues des genres et nouveaux enjeux du poétique

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9782356681904 DOI: 10.4000/books.momeditions.2225 Language: French
Publisher: MOM Éditions
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:38
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Quelles sont les relations entre les deux genres complexes, variés et changeants que constituent les romans grecs anciens et la poésie, épique, lyrique, dramatique, d’époque archaïque, classique, hellénistique ? Ce recueil de dix-sept articles, issus d’un colloque tenu à Nice en 2013, ouvre à nouveaux frais ce dossier. Au-delà des influences et intertextualités, quatre domaines sont étudiés : lien entre images et figures poétiques et romanesques ; jeux de références, lectures, réécritures ; effets de rythme et jeux de structure ; roman comme poésie et poésie comme roman. Chaque aspect fait l’objet d’approches à la fois théoriques et appliquées, présentant un état des lieux critique et proposant des perspectives renouvelées, voire des interrogations originales. Sont ainsi abordés l’évolution de la prononciation du grec à l’époque impériale, le rapport description/narration et l’ekphrasis , la métaphore et la fiction, la relation des romanciers anciens à la tradition rhétorique voire scolaire, le roman épique ou tragique et la poésie romanesque, ou encore les liens avec la littérature latine. Enfin, ce sont les relations entre théorie littéraire contemporaine et réflexivité ancienne, ainsi qu’entre littérature générale et philologie classique, qui sont ici réinterrogées.

Interdisciplinary Approaches to Culture Theory

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Approaches to Culture Theory ISBN: 9789949033041 Year: Pages: 442 Language: English
Publisher: University of Tartu Press
Subject: History --- Information theory --- Science (General) --- Archaeology --- Religion --- Social Sciences --- Sociology --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-04 10:28:07
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The central theme of the volume is interdisciplinary experimentation. The volume includes collaborative and interdisciplinary studies on a variety of topics, from territorialisation of theory, relations between culture theory and research methodology, culture-dependent meaning formation, power relations in discourses on religion, communal heritage management, celebration practices of (national) holidays, conceptual boundaries of the ‘unnatural’, temporal boundaries in culture and cultural boundaries within archaeological material. Some of the chapters are dedicated to more general theoretical and methodological questions, while the majority of chapters use Estonian culture as source material for approaching broader cultural theoretical notions and questions. The chapters are the outcome of an experimental collaborative project aimed at bringing together representatives of various disciplines in order to find new ways to conceptualise and study their research objects or discover new study objects between disciplines. The approaches to interdisciplinary collaboration taken by the authors of the chapters are diverse. Some of them juxtapose or combine several disciplinary perspectives on common issue in order to highlight the multifaceted nature that escapes the purview of any one discipline. Some reveal similarities or complementarities between the disciplines despite the apparent differences in their metalanguage and theoretical apparatus. Others take a more integrative approach and aim to present a more holistic interdisciplinary theoretical or methodological framework. Several of the chapters re-evaluate or re-interpret existing data or case studies from the vantage points afforded by other fields, prompting questions that are not usually asked within their own field. In addition, the experimental collaboration also offered a space within which to explore issues located between disciplines and whose reoccurring presence becomes evident when diverse disciplines and studies are brought into dialogue.

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