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Viruses threatening stable production of cereal crops

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196128 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-612-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Cereal crops such as maize, wheat, and rice account for a majority of biomass produced globally in agriculture. Continuous economic and population growth especially in developing countries accompanied more intensive production of cereal crops to meet increasing demands for them as main staple foods and livestock feeds. However, imbalance between production and consumption of cereal crops, which is inevitably reflected as their higher market prices, is becoming palpable in recent years. Stable production of cereal crops has been threatened by various abiotic and biotic stresses. One of the most threatening constraints is virus diseases. Especially, intensification of cereal crop production is often achieved by monoculture of a popular crop variety in a wide area. Such agroecosystems with low biodiversity is usually more conducive to biotic stresses, and may result in the outbreaks of existing and emerging cereal viruses. Numerous reports on incidences of various virus diseases of cereal crops attested that viruses have been a long-standing obstacle eroding yields of cereal crops worldwide. Despite of the evident economic losses incurred by virus disease of cereal crops, the progress in basic research on virus species causing major diseases of cereal crops lagged behind compared to that carried out for viruses that can infect dicotyledonous plants. This was partially due to the lack of ideal experimental systems to investigate the interaction between viruses and monocotyledonous crops. For example, inoculation of many viruses to cereal plants still requires tedious manipulation of vector organisms, and reverse genetic systems are not available for many cereal viruses. However, application of latest molecular biology technologies has led to significant advance in cereal virology recently; transient gene expression systems through particle bombardment and agroinfiltration have been exploited to examine the functions of cereal virus proteins. Cell culture systems of vector insects enabled to investigate the molecular interactions between cereal viruses and insect vectors. Furthermore, RNAi technologies for vector insects and monocotyledonous plants facilitated identification of specific host and viral factors involved in viral replication and transmission cycles. Also, accumulating information on the genome sequences of cereal crop species has been simplifying the roadmap to pinpoint resistance genes against cereal viruses. The objective of this research topic is to provide and share the information which can contribute to advances in cereal virology by covering recent progresses in areas such as: 1) characterization of emerging viruses, 2) analyses of genetic and biological diversities within particular viruses, 3) development of experimental systems applicable to cereal viruses, 4) elucidation of the molecular interactions among viruses, vector organisms, and host plants, 5) identification of traits and genes linked to virus resistance in cereal crops, 6) development of novel genetic approaches for virus resistance, and 7) assessment of epidemiological factors affecting the incidences of cereal virus diseases. Synergistic integration of ideas from such areas under this research topic should help to formulate practical alternatives to the current management options for virus diseases in cereal crops.

Selenium Transfer between Kaolinite or Goethite Surfaces, Nutrient Solution and Oryza Sativa

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Book Series: Karlsruher mineralogische und geochemische Hefte : Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Geowissenschaften ISSN: 16182677 ISBN: 9783731504610 Year: Volume: 41 Pages: XXV, 244 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000051067 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Ethnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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The aim of this study was to describe and quantify Se transfer at the interface between soil and plant. For this purpose, three Se reservoirs were defined: soil, soil solution and plant, represented by kaolinite or goethite, nutrient solution and rice. First, Se transfer from solution to plant and Se partitioning in the plant was studied; then adsorption-desorption processes of Se onto kaolinite and goethite were investigated. Finally, a mass balance of the combined experiment was modelled.

The Subject of Race in American Science Fiction

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Book Series: Literary Criticism and Cultural Theory ISBN: 9780203944486 9780415979016 9780415802895 9781135864590 9781135864583 9781135864545 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203944486 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Social Sciences --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:06
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While the connections between science fiction and race have largely been neglected by scholars, racial identity is a key element of the subjectivity constructed in American SF. In his Mars series, Edgar Rice Burroughs primarily supported essentialist constructions of racial identity, but also included a few elements of racial egalitarianism. Writing in the 1930s, George S. Schuyler revised Burroughs' normative SF triangle of white author, white audience, and white protagonist and promoted an individualistic, highly variable concept of race instead. While both Burroughs and Schuyler wrote SF focusing on racial identity, the largely separate genres of science fiction and African American literature prevented the similarities between the two authors from being adequately acknowledged and explored. Beginning in the 1960s, Samuel R. Delany more fully joined SF and African American literature. Delany expands on Schuyler's racial constructionist approach to identity, including gender and sexuality in addition to race. Critically intertwining the genres of SF and African American literature allows a critique of the racism in the science fiction and a more accurate and positive portrayal of the scientific connections in the African American literature. Connecting the popular fiction of Burroughs, the controversial career of Schuyler, and the postmodern texts of Delany illuminates a gradual change from a stable, essentialist construction of racial identity at the turn of the century to the variable, social construction of poststructuralist subjectivity today.

Keywords

edgar --- rice --- burroughs --- genre --- schuylers --- black --- community --- farnhams --- freehold --- star

China's Business Reforms

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Routledge Contemporary China Series ISBN: 9780203537039 9780415345170 9780415648806 9781134283262 9781134283255 9781134283217 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203537039 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics --- Sociology --- History --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:29
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China's recent economic reforms have led to impressive growth, and an unprecedented enthusiasm for establishing foreign enterprises in China. Since 1993, China has been the second largest recipient of foreign direct investment in the world and is now considered to be the world's third biggest economy. Its greater economic integration with the rest of the world, especially since its accession to the World Trade Organisation (WTO), has further accelerated its market-oriented economic reforms. China is now opening its protected markets and beginning to submit to the rule of international law. This ongoing transition and increasing participation in the world economy has resulted in significant changes in human resource management and social welfare practices in China's enterprises. The book examines the key areas, all of which are linked, where China is grappling with institutional reforms as it opens up to the outside world: state-owned enterprise reform, capital markets and financial reform, human resources and labour market reform, social welfare reform, and China's accession to the WTO and the growth of the private sector.

Keywords

iron --- rice --- bowl --- foreign --- banks --- corporate --- governance --- social --- protection --- chinas

Plant Silicon Interactions between Organisms and the Implications for Ecosystems

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451029 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-102-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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In this Frontiers topic, we explore how the functions and fates of plant silicon interact with other organisms and ecosystem processes. By bringing together new data from multiple disciplines and scales, we present a cross-section of novel explorations into how plants use silicon and the implications for agriculture and ecosystems. Key aims in this field are to understand the determinants of plant silicon uptake and cycling, and the benefits that silicon uptake confers on plants, including reducing the impacts of stresses such as herbivory. Current research explores inter-specific interactions, including co-evolutionary relationships between plant silicon and animals, particularly morphological adaptations, behavioural responses and the potential for plant silicon to regulate mammal populations. Another emerging area of research is understanding silicon fluxes in soils and vegetation communities and scaling this up to better understand the global silicon cycle. New methods for measuring plant silicon are contributing to progress in this field. Silicon could help plants mitigate some effects of climate change through alleviation of biotic and abiotic stress and silicon is a component of some carbon sinks. Therefore, understanding the role of plant silicon across ecological, agricultural and biogeochemical disciplines is increasingly important in the context of global environmental change.

Recent Advances in Flowering Time Control

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451159 Year: Pages: 255 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-115-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The onset of flowering is an important step during the lifetime of a flowering plant. During the past two decades, there has been enormous progress in our understanding of how internal and external (environmental) cues control the transition to reproductive growth in plants. Many flowering time regulators have been identified from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Most of them are assembled in regulatory pathways, which converge to central integrators which trigger the transition of the vegetative into an inflorescence meristem. For crop cultivation, the time of flowering is of upmost importance, because it determines yield. Phenotypic variation for this trait is largely controlled by genes, which were often modified during domestication or crop improvement. Understanding the genetic basis of flowering time regulation offers new opportunities for selection in plant breeding and for genome editing and genetic modification of crop species.

Margery Spring Rice: Pioneer of Women’s Health in the Early Twentieth Century

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ISBN: 9781783748815 9781783748839 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0215 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-27 16:08:45
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This book vividly presents the story of Margery Spring Rice, an instrumental figure in the movements of women’s health and family planning in the first half of the twentieth century. Margery Spring Rice, née Garrett, was born into a family of formidable female trailblazers – niece of physician and suffragist Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, and of Millicent Fawcett, a leading suffragist and campaigner for equal rights for women. Margery Spring Rice continued this legacy with her co-founding of the North Kensington birth control clinic in 1924, three years after Marie Stopes founded the first clinic in Britain.Engaging and accessible, this biography weaves together Spring Rice’s personal and professional lives, adopting a chronological approach which highlights how the one impacted the other. Her life unfolds against the turbulent backdrop of the early twentieth century – a period which sees the entry of women into higher education, and the upheaval and societal upshots of two world wars. Within this context, Spring Rice emerges as a dynamic figure who dedicated her life to social causes, and whose actions time and again bear out her habitual belief that, contrary to the Shakespearian dictum, ‘valour is the better part of discretion’.This is the first biography of Margery Spring Rice, drawing extensively on letters, diaries and other archival material, and equipping the text with family trees and photographs. It will be of great interest to a range of social historians, especially those researching the birth control movement; female friendships, female philanthropists, and feminist activism in the twentieth century; and the history of medicine and public health.

»Ich Tarzan.«

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Science Studies ISBN: 9783839408827 9783899428827 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.14361/9783839408827 Language: German
Publisher: transcript Verlag
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-11 11:21:30
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Im 19. Jahrhundert noch ein Skandalon, scheint die Vorstellung vom 'Affen in uns' heute eher faszinationsbesetzt. Die Soziobiologie und die Evolutionspsychologie reduzieren menschliches Verhalten auf ein genetisches Erbe aus der Evolution. Wohl keine Ikone der Populärkultur kündigte diese Wendung so plakativ an wie Tarzan, der von Edgar Rice Burroughs 1912 erstmals in Szene gesetzte Affenmensch. Die interdisziplinären Beiträge in diesem Band orientieren sich an der seither in zahllosen Variationen repräsentierten Figur. Sie streben eine kritische Auseinandersetzung mit den Diskursen um und den Bildern von Menschenaffen und Affenmenschen an.

Carbohydrate Intake in Non-communicable Disease Prevention and Treatment

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ISBN: 9783038978183 9783038978190 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-819-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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In 2011, carbohydrates provided 63% of the dietary energy intake to the world&rsquo;s population. Historically, carbohydrate-rich diets have been associated with good health and longevity but there has been a move away from traditional carbohydrate-rich diets, with refined carbohydrate taking much criticism for contributing to non-communicable disease. The aim of this Special Issue is to discuss the appropriate use of environmentally sustainable carbohydrate-rich foods in the modern diet in developing and developed countries in the context of prevention and treatment of non-communicable disease.

Fertilizer Application on Crop Yield

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ISBN: 9783038976547 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-655-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Fertilizer Application on Crop Yield that was published in Agronomy

Keywords

soil organic matter --- soil biota --- soil acidity --- soil erosion --- fertilizer management --- site-specific nutrient management --- balanced use of fertilizers --- integrated nutrient management --- agronomic response --- calcium --- Copper --- NPK amendments --- Value Cost Ratio --- Zinc --- nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) --- nitrate assimilation --- nitrate reductase activity --- maize --- nitrate --- ammonia --- NADH --- NADH-dehydrogenase --- Complex I --- site-specific K management --- soil K supply --- maize yield response to K --- maize crop manager --- nutrient expert for maize --- durum wheat --- mineral N --- organic N --- S fertilization --- grain quality --- grain yield --- phosphorous --- potassium --- corn–soybean rotation --- management --- production system --- organic farming --- conventional farming --- organic nutrients --- chemical fertilizers --- global food demand --- agroforestry system --- evergreen agriculture --- biofertilizer --- Bacillus pumilus --- growth promotion --- N fertilizer --- rice --- yield --- green manure --- nitrogen uptake --- Orychophragmus violaceus L. --- soil nitrogen pools --- grain yield --- Zea mays L. --- hybrid rice --- K use efficiency --- potassium --- saline tract --- soil N supply --- soil N mineralization --- N fertilization --- potentially mineralizable N --- humid Mediterranean climate --- conservation agriculture --- NUE --- nitrogen recovery efficiency --- nitrogen physiological recovery --- wheat yields --- Agrotain® urea --- rice-wheat system --- organic farming --- forage legume --- long-term productivity --- soil health --- economics --- integrated nutrient management --- rice --- wheat --- yield --- net returns --- soil health --- sustainability

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