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3 Is It Possible to Prevent Unforeseen Events? (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch3 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"An unforeseen event may be defined as something that happens suddenly&#xD;and unexpectedly. Such events are seldom the result of an organisation’s operational&#xD;planning, but they can be side-effects of such planning. An unforeseen event may&#xD;have either positive or negative consequences. This chapter aims to discuss if it is&#xD;possible&#xD;to prevent unforeseen events. The major focus is on analysis and prevention&#xD;of unforeseen events with negative consequences, such as accidents, catastrophes&#xD;and acts of terror. Such events often take place in complex systems, and failures of&#xD;appropriate organisational interaction and communication among participants&#xD;with complementary competence in such systems may contribute to unforeseen&#xD;events. Risk-analysis methods and tools based on energy-barrier models, causal sequence&#xD;and process models, as well as information-processing models are presented&#xD;and their applicability to the prevention of unforeseen events is discussed. This also&#xD;includes the Bow-tie approach, as well as other approaches which take into consideration&#xD;organisational factors and social interaction (samhandling). The conclusion&#xD;is that unforeseen events can be prevented. However, in the aftermath of the implementation&#xD;of safety and security measures, it is not possible to know which events&#xD;they prevented, or to obtain knowledge about their efficiency. An additional strategy&#xD;for prevention of unforeseen events with negative consequences is proposed."&#xD;

Hagelgefährdung und Hagelrisiko in Deutschland basierend auf einer Kombination von Radardaten und Versicherungsdaten

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Book Series: Wissenschaftliche Berichte des Instituts für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie ISSN: 01795619 ISBN: 9783731508465 Year: Volume: 78 Pages: V, 263 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000086012 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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This work presents a new approach for a hail loss model to quantify the hail risk on residual buildings for high return periods. Based on the analysis of 3D radar data from 2005 to 2015 a stochastic hail track model is developed to sample a random number of stochastic hail tracks. A detailed vulnerability analysis combines the hazard from the hail tracks and the vulnerability of buildings towards hail and leads to the hail risk for a certain portfolio.

Crosswind stability of vehicles under nonstationary wind excitation

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Technische Mechanik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 16143914 ISBN: 9783731503767 Year: Volume: 28 Pages: XXI, 178 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000047001 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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This work has studied the crosswind stability of vehicles under nonstationary wind excitation in various scenarios. Railway vehicles running on curved and straight track with varying vehicle speed are studied. Road vehicles are classified into different categories. For each vehicle class, a corresponding worst-case vehicle model has been built. As the wind excitation on the vehicle is a stochastic process, a risk analysis has to be carried out and failure probabilities are computed and analyzed.

Renewing Local Planning to Face Climate Change in the Tropics

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Book Series: Green Energy and Technology ISSN: 1865-3529 / 1865-3537 ISBN: 9783319590950 9783319590967 Year: Pages: 372 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59096-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 15:34:08
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This book aims to inspire decision makers and practitioners to change their approach to climate planning in the tropics through the application of modern technologies for characterizing local climate and tracking vulnerability and risk, and using decision-making tools. Drawing on 16 case studies conducted mainly in the Caribbean, Central America, Western and Eastern Africa, and South East Asia it is shown how successful integration of traditional and modern knowledge can enhance disaster risk reduction and adaptation to climate change in the tropics. The case studies encompass both rural and urban settings and cover different scales: rural communities, cities, and regions. In addition, the book looks to the future of planning by addressing topics of major importance, including residual risk integration in local development plans, damage insurance and the potential role of climate vulnerability reduction credits. In many regions of the tropics, climate planning is growing but has still very low quality. This book identifies the weaknesses and proposes effective solutions.

Deliberation, Representation, Equity: Research Approaches, Tools and Algorithms for Participatory Processes

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ISBN: 9781783743032 9781783743056 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 380 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0108 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-19 13:24:50
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In democratic societies there is widespread acknowledgment of the need to incorporate citizens’ input in decision-making processes in more or less structured ways. But participatory decision making is balancing on the borders of inclusion, structure, precision and accuracy. To simply enable more participation will not yield enhanced democracy, and there is a clear need for more elaborated elicitation and decision analytical tools. This rigorous and thought-provoking volume draws on a stimulating variety of international case studies, from flood risk management in the Red River Delta of Vietnam, to the consideration of alternatives to gold mining in Roșia Montană in Transylvania, to the application of multi-criteria decision analysis in evaluating the impact of e-learning opportunities at Uganda's Makerere University. This book is important new reading for decision makers in government, public administration and urban planning, as well as students and researchers in the fields of participatory democracy, urban planning, social policy, communication design, participatory art, decision theory, risk analysis and computer and systems sciences.

Welfare of Cultured and Experimental Fishes

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ISBN: 9783039217106 / 9783039217113 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-711-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Welfare is a multidimensional concept that can be described as the state of an animal as it copes with the environment. Captive environments can impact farmed animals at different levels, especially fishes, considering their highly complex sensory world. Understanding the ethology of a species is therefore essential to address fish welfare, and the interpretation of behavioral responses in specific rearing contexts (aquaculture or experimental contexts) demands knowledge of their underlying physiological, developmental, functional, and evolutionary mechanisms. In natural environments, the stress response has evolved to help animals survive challenging conditions. However, animals are adapted to deal with natural stressors, while anthropogenic stimuli may represent stressors that fishes are unable to cope with. Under such circumstances, stress responses may be maladaptive and cause severe damage to the animal. As welfare in captivity is affected in multiple dimensions, multiple possible indicators can be used to assess the welfare state of individuals. In the past, research on welfare has been largely focusing on health indicators and predominantly based on physiological stress. Ethological indicators, however, also integrate the mental perspective of the individual and have been gradually assuming an important role in welfare research: behavioral responses to stressors are an early response to adverse conditions, easily observable, and demonstrative of emotional states. Many behavioral indicators can be used as non-invasive measurements of welfare in practical contexts such as aquaculture and experimentation. Presently, research in fish welfare is growing in importance and interest because of the growing economic importance of fish farming, the comparative biology opportunities that experimental fishes provide, and the increasing public sensitivity to welfare issues.

Food Packaging. Materials and Technologies

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ISBN: 9783038977667 9783038977674 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-767-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Because of the increasing pressure on both food safety and packaging/food waste, the topic is important both for academics, applied research, industry and also for environment protection. Different materials, such as glass, metals, paper and paperboards, and non-degradable and degradable polymers, with versatile properties, are attractive for potential uses in food packaging. Food packaging is the largest area of application within the food sector. Only the nanotechnology-enabled products in the food sector account for ~50% of the market value, with and the annual growth rate is 11.65%. Technological developments are also of great interest. In the food sector, nanotechnology is involved in packaging materials with extremely high gas barriers, antimicrobial properties, and also in nanoencapsulants for the delivery of nutrients, flavors, or aromas, antimicrobial, and antioxidant compounds. Applications of materials, including nanomaterials in packaging and food safety, are in forms of: edible films, polymer nanocomposites, as high barrier packaging materials, nanocoatings, surface biocides, silver nanoparticles as potent antimicrobial agents, nutrition and neutraceuticals, active/bioactive packaging, intelligent packaging, nanosensors and nanomaterial-based assays for the detection of food relevant analytes (gasses, small organic molecules and food-borne pathogens) and bioplastics.

Energy and Seismic Renovation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

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ISBN: 9783038979449 / 9783038979456 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-945-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Arts in general --- Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 09:16:44
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The principle of sustainability should be strictly connected with safety, since both aim to conserve resources: in the case of sustainability, the resources are typically thought of as environmental, while in the case of safety, the resources are basically human. In spite of this common ground, discussions on sustainability usually give insufficient attention to safety. In the last years the EU has made large investments to increase the energy efficiency of the existing building stock, paving the way for a low-carbon future; however, less effort has been made to enhance its seismic resilience. Therefore, the safety and, consequently, the sustainability of towns situated in earthquake-prone countries remain inadequate. In such countries, energy renovation actions should be combined with seismic retrofitting. However, a number of barriers considerably limit the real possibility of extensively undertaking combined retrofit actions, especially for multi-owner housing and high-rise buildings. These barriers are of different kinds: technical (e.g., unfeasibility and/or ineffectiveness of conventional retrofit solutions), financial (e.g., high renovation costs, insufficient incentives/subsidies), organizational (e.g., occupants’ disruption and relocation, renovation consensus by condominium ownerships), and cultural/social (insufficient information and skills, lack of adequate policy measures for promoting renovation actions). This book aims to overcome these barriers and to bridge the gap between sustainability and safety, so to conserve both human and environmental resources.

Risk Analysis and Portfolio Modelling

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ISBN: 9783039216246 / 9783039216253 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-625-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Financial Risk Measurement is a challenging task, because both the types of risk and the techniques evolve very quickly. This book collects a number of novel contributions to the measurement of financial risk, which address either non-fully explored risks or risk takers, and does so in a wide variety of empirical contexts.

Marine Oil Spills 2018

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ISBN: 9783038978541 9783038978558 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-855-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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The mitigation of oil spills is an important facet of environmental protection. Understanding oil spills is a first step toward preventing and minimizing their damage to the environment. This compilation presents several of the current studies related to such an understanding of oil spills and the environment.This book is a compilation of 14 papers presenting new developments in the field of oil spills, giving insight into the rapidly changing world of oil spill studies and technology. The 14 papers included cover topics varying from risk analysis to oil spill remote sensing. Broadly categorized, included are six papers on modeling, four papers on remote sensing, three papers on risk assessment, and one paper on oil spill countermeasures. Each paper presents a unique insight into a facet of oil spill research and technology. The authors of these papers represent many different countries and affiliations around the world.

Keywords

RANS --- non-breaking ocean waves --- random walk method --- Lagrangian particle dispersion --- oil spill model --- oil spill --- impact modeling --- simulation --- contingency planning --- oil spill model --- ocean trajectory --- GNOME --- BLOSOM --- Salish Sea --- Point Wells --- Foss Barge --- hindcast --- windage --- model comparison --- oil spill model --- FVCOM --- OSCAR --- M/V Marathassa oil spill --- the English Bay --- Vancouver Harbour --- oil spill response --- sea-coastal zones --- methods of vulnerability mapping to oil --- the problems of vulnerability maps development --- ordinal values --- arithmetic operations with rank values --- marine pollution --- oil spill pollution --- oil spill accidents --- oil spill mitigation plans --- coastal protection --- statistical analysis --- PROMETHEE methodology --- Access Western Blend (condensate/bitumen-dilbit) --- Western Canadian Select (condensate mixed with synthetic crude/bitumen-dilsynbit) --- Synthetic Bitumen (synthetic crude/bitumen-Synbit) --- Heidrun --- dispersant --- wave tank --- dispersion effectiveness (DE) --- oil-slick discrimination algorithm --- petrogenic oil-slick category --- naturally-occurring oil seeps --- man-made oil spills --- exploratory data analysis --- remote sensing --- synthetic aperture radar --- RADARSAT --- Gulf of Mexico --- Campeche Bay --- oil spill --- Italian seas --- numerical forecasting tool --- emergency management --- oil spill --- remote sensing --- reflection coefficient --- electromagnetic roughness --- multi-frequency detector --- multiple observations --- probability density function --- probability of detection --- contingency planning --- marine information systems --- environmental monitoring --- proactive systems --- decision support systems --- signal integration --- oil spills --- oil slicks characterization --- oil thickness --- polarized SAR data --- polarimetric SAR data (PolSAR) --- statistical region-based classification --- uncertainty maps --- UAVSAR --- trajectory model --- oil spill model --- oil spill response --- oil spill risk analysis --- Gulf of Mexico --- Outer Continental Shelf --- environmental resources --- risk modelling --- Princeton Ocean Model --- trajectory analysis --- oil spill --- numerical simulation --- LES --- low atmosphere --- coastal flow --- contingency plan --- Kotor bay --- n/a

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