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Early and late selection: Effects of load, dilution and salience

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192557 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-255-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Our visual system is constantly bombarded by a variety of stimuli, of which only a small part is relevant to the task at hand. As a result, goal-directed behavior requires a high degree of selectivity at some point in the processing stream. The precise point at which selection takes place has been the focus of much debate. Early selection advocates argue that the locus of selection is at early stages of processing and that therefore, unattended stimuli are not fully processed. In contrast, late selection theorists argue that attention operates only after stimuli have been fully processed. Evidence supporting both sides has been accumulated over the years and the debate played a central role in the attention literature for decades. Perceptual load theory was put forward as an intermediate solution: the locus of selective attention depends on task requirements. When load is high, selection is early. When load is low, selection is late. This solution has been widely accepted and the early/late debate has been, for the most part, set aside. However, recently, perceptual load theory has been challenged on both theoretical and methodological grounds. It has been argued that it is not load, but rather perceptual dilution salience and other perceptual factors that determine the efficacy of attentional selection, which would call for a reevaluation of the current status of both perceptual load theory and its proposed alternatives, and more broadly, the early/late selection debate. The goal of this Research Topic is to provide an up-to-date overview of both empirical evidence and theoretical views on these key questions.

Perceptual Linguistic Salience: Modeling Causes and Consequences

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451777 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-177-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Recent years have seen an upsurge of interest in the notion of salience in linguistics and related disciplines. While in top-down salience, perceivers endogenously direct their attention to a certain stimulus, in the bottom-up salience, it is the stimulus itself which attracts attention. In prototypical cases of bottom-up salience, the stimulus stands out because it is incongruous with a given ground by virtue of intrinsic physical characteristics. But a stimulus may also cause surprise by virtue of deviating from a cognitive ground, e.g., when violating social or probabilistic expectations. This has prompted researchers to examine the relationship between expectations and the perceptual salience of linguistic stimuli in new ways. This e-book features contributions from different scientific frameworks. The reader will find commentaries, reviews, and original research articles on models of sociolinguistic and morphological salience, the role of attention, affect, and predictability, and on how salient items are processed, categorized and learned. Taken together, the articles in this volume contribute to our understanding of how the perceptual salience of linguistic forms and variants can be theoretically framed and methodologically operationalized in different areas of linguistic processing.

Reward Processing in Motivational and Affective Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199860 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-986-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Preferential reward processing is the hallmark of addiction, where salient cues become overvalued and trigger compulsion. In depression, rewards appear to lose their incentive properties or become devalued. In the context of schizophrenia, aberrations in neural reward signalling are thought to contribute to the overvaluation of irrelevant stimuli on the one hand and the onset of negative symptoms on the other. Accordingly, reward processing has emerged as a key variable in contemporary, evidence based, diagnostic frameworks, such as the Research Domain Criteria launched by the United States National Institute of Mental Health. Delineation of the underlying mechanisms of aberrant or blunted reward processing can be of trans-diagnostic importance across several neuropsychiatric disorders. Reward processing can become automatic thus raising the question of cognitive control, a core theme of this Topic, which aims at justifying the necessity of reward processing as a potential therapeutic target in clinical settings. Empirical and theoretical contributions on the following themes were expected to: *Explore new avenues of research by investigating the processing of rewards at the cognitive, behavioral, motivational, neural systems and individual difference levels. A developmental focus is promising in this regard, probing the core processes that shape reward processing and thus subsequent liability to motivational and affective disorders. *Develop and refine conceptual models of reward processing from computational neuroscience. *Promote greater understanding and development of emergent therapeutic approaches such as cognitive bias modification and behavioural approach or avoidance training. A key question is the feasibility of reversing or modifying maladaptive patterns of reward processing to therapeutic ends. *Refine and augment the evidential database for tried and tested therapies such as Contingency Management and Behavioral Activation by focusing on core cognitive processes mediating rewards. *Provide a potential dimensional approach for reward processing deficits that can be of trans-diagnostic importance in clinically relevant disorders, including depression and addiction * Investigate the subjective experience of pleasure- the hedonic aspect of reward seeking and consumption – and how this can be distinguished from the motivational, sometimes compulsive, component of reward pursuit. This promises more nuanced and effective interventions. Depression, for instance, could be seen as the restricted pursuit of pleasure rather than blunted pleasure experience; addiction can be viewed as accentuated drug seeking despite diminished consummatory pleasure. This aims to place motivation centre stage in both scenarios, emphasising the transdiagnostic theme of the Topic. *Temporal discounting of future rewards, whereby smaller, more immediate rewards are chosen even when significantly more valuable deferred rewards are available, is another trans-diagnostic phenomenon of interest in the in the present context. Factors that influence this, such as discounting of future reward are thought to reflect compulsion in the addictive context and hopelessness on the part of people experiencing depression. The executive cognitive processes that regulate this decision making are of both scientific and clinical significance. Empirical findings, theoretical contributions or commentaries bearing on cognitive or executive control were therefore welcome.

Neural Circuitry of Behavioral Flexibility: Dopamine and Related Systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197958 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-795-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Decades of research have identified a role for dopamine neurotransmission in prefrontal cortical function and flexible cognition. Abnormal dopamine neurotransmission underlies many cases of cognitive dysfunction. New techniques using optogenetics have allowed for ever more precise functional segregation of areas within the prefrontal cortex, which underlie separate cognitive functions. Learning theory predictions have provided a very useful framework for interpreting the neural activity of dopamine neurons, yet even dopamine neurons present a range of responses, from salience to prediction error signaling. The functions of areas like the Lateral Habenula have been recently described, and its role, presumed to be substantial, is largely unknown. Many other neural systems interact with the dopamine system, like cortical GABAergic interneurons, making it critical to understand those systems and their interactions with dopamine in order to fully appreciate dopamine's role in flexible behavior. Advances in human clinical research, like exome sequencing, are driving experimental hypotheses which will lead to fruitful new research directions, but how do (or should?) these clinical findings inform basic research? Following new information from these techniques, we may begin to develop a fresh understanding of human disease states which will inform novel treatment possibilities. However, we need an operational framework with which to interpret these new findings. Therefore, the purpose of this Research Topic is to integrate what we know of dopamine, the prefrontal cortex and flexible behavior into a clear framework, which will illuminate clear, testable directions for future research.

Women in Business

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ISBN: 9783039216383 9783039216390 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-639-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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[The role of women in entrepreneurship, management and corporate governance is regarded as central to the development and welfare of economies. Since the early 1980s, there has been increased interest in women managers and entrepreneurs, often from an interdisciplinary approach, combining, for example, sociology, psychology, management and organisational studies and economics. Nowadays, research on women in management and organisations is continuously and rapidly evolving (Paoloni and Demartini, 2016). Research on how women face new business challenges within organisations—as entrepreneurs, owners, managers, as well as workers—can contribute to understanding the new drivers affecting value creation dynamics in our knowledge-based society (Cesaroni, Demartini and Paoloni, 2017). Accordingly, this book tries to offer some insights on how women create, process and share knowledge in their business activity through the application and exploitation of novel creative ideas and solutions]

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