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How Salmonella infection can inform on mechanisms of immune function and homeostasis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197996 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-799-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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Abstract

The use of model antigens such as haptens and ovalbumin has provided enormous insights into how immune responses develop, particularly to vaccine antigens. Furthermore, these studies are overwhelmingly performed in animals housed in clean facilities and are not known to have experienced overt clinical signs caused by infectious agents. Therefore, this is unlikely to reflect the impact more complex host-pathogen interactions can have on the host, nor the diversity in how immunity is regulated. Humans develop immune responses in the context of the periodic exposure to multiple pathogens and vaccines over a life-time. These are likely to have a long-lasting effect on who and what we are and how we respond to further antigen challenge. Therefore, studies on how infection influences immune homeostasis and how the development of responses to a pathogen reflects what is known on immune regulation will be informative on how we can translate findings from our standard models into treatments usable in humans. One organism allows us to do just this. Bacteria of the genus Salmonella are devastating human pathogens. Nevertheless, many aspects of the diseases they cause can be successfully modelled in murine systems so that the infection is either resolving or non-resolving. This has the advantage of allowing the long-term impact of infection on immune function to be assessed. We propose to welcome key workers to write about their research that examine the consequence of Salmonella infection on the host and the elements of the bacterium that contribute to this.

Advances in Prevention of Foodborne Pathogens of Public Health Concern during Manufacturing

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ISBN: 9783039219322 9783039219339 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-933-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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According to a report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), achieving safe and healthier foods was one of the top ten achievements of public health in the 20th century. However, considerable persisting challenges currently exist in developed nations and developing economies for further assuring the safety and security of the food supplies. According to CDC estimates, as many as 3000 American adults, as an example, and based on a recent epidemiological estimate of the World Health Organization, around 420,000 individuals around the globe, lose their lives annually due to foodborne diseases. This emphasizes the need for innovative and emerging interventions, for further prevention or mitigation of the risk of foodborne microbial pathogens during food processing and manufacturing. The current publication discusses recent advancements and progress in the elimination and decontamination of microbial pathogens during various stages of manufacturing and production. Special emphasis is placed on hurdle validation studies, investigating decontamination of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars, various serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, public health-significant serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes, and pathogenic species of Cronobacter.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs)

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ISBN: 9783039282562 9783039282579 Year: Pages: 390 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-257-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Abstract

The cytoplasm of Gram-negative bacteria is bound by three layers: an inner membrane, a layer of peptidoglycan, and an outer membrane. The outer membrane is an asymmetric lipidic bilayer, with phospholipids on its inner surface and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) on the outside, with the latter being the major component of the outer leaflet and covering nearly three-quarters of the total outer cell surface. All LPSs possess the same general chemical architecture independently of bacterial activity (pathogenic, symbiotic, commensal), ecological niche (human, animal, soil, plant, water), or growth conditions. Endotoxins are large amphiphilic molecules consisting of a hydrophilic polysaccharide component and a covalently bound hydrophobic and highly conserved lipid component, termed lipid A (the endotoxin subunit). The polysaccharide component can be divided into two subdomains: the internal and conserved core region as well as the more external and highly variable O-specific chain, also referred to as the O-antigen due to its immunogenic properties. LPSs are endotoxins, one of the most potent class of activators of the mammalian immune system; they can be released from cell surfaces of bacteria during multiplication, lysis, and death. LPS can act through its biological center (lipid A component) on various cell types, of which macrophages and monocytes are the most important.

Keywords

aspirin --- hepcidin --- P65 (nuclear factor-?B) --- IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 pathway --- lipopolysaccharide (LPS) --- nitric oxide (NO) --- iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) --- Megalobrama amblycephala --- lipopolysaccharide induced TNF? factor --- lipopolysaccharide stimulation --- innate immune --- Aeromonas --- genomics --- inner core oligosaccharide --- outer core oligosaccharide --- lipopolysaccharide --- lipopolysaccharide --- Erwinia amylovora --- NMR --- ESI FT-ICR --- structural determination --- Bordetellae --- Bordetella holmesii --- endotoxin --- lipid A --- structure --- mass spectrometry --- genomic --- Edwardsiella tarda --- core oligosaccharide --- MALDI-TOF MS --- ESI MSn --- NMR --- genomic --- LPS tolerance --- hypothalamic inflammation --- insulin resistance --- pJNK --- fibroblast --- keratocyte --- cornea --- lipopolysaccharide --- bacteria --- chemokine --- adhesion molecule --- collagen --- tear fluid --- serum resistance --- complement --- Salmonella --- lipopolysaccharide --- sialic acid --- reptile-associated salmonellosis --- sepsis --- time response --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- endotoxaemia --- mouse --- rat --- lipopolysaccharide --- double-stranded RNA --- epithelial cell --- dendritic cell --- allergic respiratory disorder --- hygiene hypothesis --- rhinovirus --- respiratory syncytial virus --- toll-like receptor --- LPS --- lipopolysaccharide --- heptosyltransferase --- protein dynamics --- glycosyltransferase --- GT-B --- inhibitor design --- lipopolysaccharide --- Coxiella burnetii --- Q fever --- phagosome --- virenose --- Plesiomonas shigelloides --- O-antigen --- lipopolysaccharide --- O-acetylation --- d-galactan I --- HR-MAS --- NMR spectroscopy --- endotoxin --- lipopolysaccharide --- Low Endotoxin Recovery --- phase transitions --- polysorbate --- LPS aggregates --- Small Angle X-ray Scattering --- MAT --- LAL and LER --- anti-conjugate serum --- core oligosaccharide --- lipopolysaccharide --- NMR spectroscopy --- ESI MS --- Proteus penneri

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