Search results: Found 29

Listing 1 - 10 of 29 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by
Frontiers in Skeletal Muscle Wasting, Regeneration and Stem Cells

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198320 Year: Pages: 259 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-832-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The search for knowledge on cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle mass homeostasis and regeneration is an exciting scientific area and extremely important to develop therapeutic strategies for neuromuscular disorders and conditions related to muscle wasting. The mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and regeneration consist of molecular signaling pathways modulating protein synthesis and degradation, bioenergetics alterations and preserved function of muscle stem cells. In the last years, different kinds of stem cells has been reported to be localized into skeletal muscle (satellite cells, mesoangioblasts, progenitor interstitial cells and others) or migrate from non-muscle sites, such as bone marrow, to muscle tissue in response to injury. In addition, myogenic progenitor cells are also activated in skeletal muscle wasting disorders. The goal of this research topic is to highlight the available knowledge regarding skeletal muscle and stem cell biology in the context of both physiological and pathological conditions. Our purpose herein is to facilitate better dissemination of research into skeletal muscle physiology field.

Performance of new GNSS satellite clocks

Author:
ISBN: 9783731501121 Year: Pages: XIV, 204 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000036610 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), the on-board clocks are a key component from which timing and navigation signals are generated. This thesis reviews the performance of the first Passive Hydrogen Maser (PHM) launched by the Galileo system in 2008; and demonstrates how the new PHM can be consider as the best clock in space, pushing the physical clock error contribution below the noise floor of geodetic time transfer capabilities. Furthermore, overall GNSS clock peformance is reviewed

Biomaterials and Bioactive Molecules to Drive Differentiation in Striated Muscle Tissue Engineering

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198412 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-841-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Tissue engineering is an innovative, multidisciplinary approach which combines (bio)materials, cells and growth factors with the aim to obtain neo-organogenesis to repair or replenish damaged tissues and organs. The generation of engineered tissues and organs (e. g. skin and bladder) has entered into the clinical practice in response to the chronic lack of organ donors. In particular, for the skeletal and cardiac muscles the translational potential of tissue engineering approaches has clearly been shown, even though the construction of this tissue lags behind others given the hierarchical, highly organized architecture of striated muscles. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world, where the yearly incidence of Acute MI (AMI) is approx 2 million cases in Europe. Recovery from AMI and reperfusion is still less than ideal. Stem cell therapy may represent a valid treatment. However, delivery of stem cells alone to infarcted myocardium provides no structural support while the myocardium heals, and the injected stem cells do not properly integrate into the myocardium because they are not subjected to the mechanical forces that are known to drive myocardial cellular physiology. On the other hand, there are many clinical cases where the loss of skeletal muscle due to a traumatic injury, an aggressive tumour or prolonged denervation may be cured by the regeneration of this tissue. In vivo, stem or progenitor cells are sheltered in a specialized microenvironment (niche), which regulates their survival, proliferation and differentiation. The goal of this research topic is to highlight the available knowledge on biomaterials and bioactive molecules or a combination of them, which can be used successfully to differentiate stem or progenitor cells into beating cardiomyocytes or organized skeletal muscle in vivo. Innovations compared to the on-going trials may be: 1) the successful delivery of stem cells using sutural scaffolds instead of intracoronary or intramuscular injections; 2) protocols to use a limited number of autologous or allogeneic stem cells; 3) methods to drive their differentiation by modifying the chemical-physical properties of scaffolds or biomaterials, incorporating small molecules (i.e. miRNA) or growth factors; 4) methods to tailor the scaffolds to the elastic properties of the muscle; 5) studies which suggest how to realize scaffolds that optimize tissue functional integration, through the combination of the most up-to-date manufacturing technologies and use of bio-polymers with customized degradation properties.

Role of Stem Cells in Skeletal Muscle Development, Regeneration, Repair, Aging and Disease

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198665 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-866-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Adult stem cells are responsible for tissue regeneration and repair throughout life. Their quiescence or activation are tightly regulated by common signalling pathways that often recapitulate those happening during embryonic development, and thus it is important to understand their regulation not only in postnatal life, but also during foetal development. In this regard, skeletal muscle is an interesting tissue since it accounts for a large percentage of body mass (about 40%), it is highly amenable to intervention through exercise and it is also key in metabolic and physiological changes underlying frailty susceptibility in the elderly. While muscle-resident satellite cells are responsible for all myogenic activity in physiological conditions and become senescent in old age, other progenitor cells such as mesoangioblasts do seem to contribute to muscle regeneration and repair after tissue damage. Similarly, fibro-adipogenic precursor cells seem to be key in the aberrant response that fills up the space left from atrophied muscle mass and which ends up with a dysfunctional muscle having vast areas of fatty infiltration and fibrosis. The complex interplay between these stem/progenitor cell types and their niches in normal and pathological conditions throughout life are the subjects of intense investigation. This eBook highlights recent developments on the role of stem cells in skeletal muscle function, both in prenatal and postnatal life, and their regulation by transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, it includes articles on interventions associated with exercise, pathological changes in neuromuscular diseases, and stem cell aging.

Im Orbit einstellbare Ausgangsfilter und -multiplexer

Author:
Book Series: Karlsruher Forschungsberichte aus dem Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik und Elektronik ISSN: 18684696 ISBN: 9783731507222 Year: Volume: 87 Pages: VIII, 203 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000073722 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Generally, communication satellites do not allow to flexibly react to changes in demand. This work presents theoretical and practical principles allowing to flexibly reconfigure the frequency plan of an output multiplexer. Particularly, based on the investigations performed in this work for the first time it is possible to realize manifold-based multiplexers with multiple channels which can be reconfigured in orbit for both center frequency and bandwidth during the life-time of the satellite.

Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Sarcopenia in Aging and in Muscular Dystrophy: A Translational Approach

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196845 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-684-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Loss of muscle mass and increased fibrosis characterize both sarcopenia of aging and muscular dystrophy. Research is increasingly showing that these two conditions also share several pathophysiological mechanisms, including mitochondrial dysfunction, increased apoptosis, abnormal modulation of autophagy, decline in satellite cells, increased generation of reactive oxygen species, and abnormal regulation of signaling and stress response pathways. This Research Topic will cover several mechanisms involved in aging and dystrophic sarcopenia and explore the therapeutic potential of various strategies for intervention.

Sea Level Variability and Change

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451500 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-150-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oceanography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In June 2015 we held a workshop on the beautiful island of Mallorca, Spain with a focus on sea level variability and change. Over 120 sea level experts from around the world attended this workshop, from a range of different disciplines. The main aims of the workshop were to: 1.) Evaluate the current state-of-knowledge of sea level science; 2.) Identify gaps and unresolved questions in any aspect of sea level science; and 3.) Design future research to address these issue. All aspects of sea level changes were covered, from global to regional, observations and modelling, processes driving mean sea level changes and extremes, from the geological scale to the instrumental era and future projections and including impacts on the coastal zones. This E-Book presents papers that came out of that workshop. Overall, these papers illustrate the multi-disciplinary nature of sea level research, cross-cutting many fields of research including: oceanography, meteorology, geology, coastal morphodynamics, engineering and the social-economic aspects. Collectively, theses articles represent an interesting range of perspectives and original studies that contribute to understanding the dynamic nature of sea level and its impacts across a wide range of time and space scales. Enjoy reading them!

Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensing: Estimation of Agricultural Crop Biomass Water Equivalent

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319695389 9783319695396 Year: Pages: 33 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69539-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 16:37:01
License: CC BY IGO 3.0

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This open access book provides methods for the estimation of Biomass Water Equivalent (BEW), an essential step for improving the accuracy of area-wide soil moisture by cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNS). Three techniques are explained in detail: (i) traditional in-situ destructive sampling, (ii) satellite based remote sensing of plant surfaces, and (iii) biomass estimation via the use of the CRNS itself. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed along with step by step instructions on proper procedures and implementation.

Festschrift zur 150-Jahr-Feier des Geodätischen Instituts (1868 - 2018)

Author:
Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Studiengangs Geodäsie und Geoinformatik / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Studiengang Geodäsie und Geoinformatik ISSN: 16129733 ISBN: 9783731508564 Year: Volume: 2018,2 Pages: XII, 381 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000086360 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The commemorative publication of the 150-year anniversary of the foundation of the Geodetic Institute Karlsruhe (GIK) presents the historical overview of the development of the GIK. Current research results are presented and innovations are shown.

(Schw)Ehre, wem (Schw)Ehre gebührt : Festschrift zur Verabschiedung von Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h.c. Bernhard Heck

Author:
Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Studiengangs Geodäsie und Geoinformatik / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Studiengang Geodäsie und Geoinformatik ISSN: 16129733 ISBN: 9783731507772 Year: Volume: 2018,1 Pages: XX, 308 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000080324 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The commemorative publication in honor of Prof. Bernhard Heck contains 41 contributions written by friends, colleagues, co-workers and former PhD-students. The focus of the scientific articles is on Physical and Satellite Geodesy as well as on geodynamics. It reflects the wide range of academic and scientific research activities of Bernhard Heck. The volume is completed by articles about education at the Geodetic Institute of KIT as well as the importance of Geodesy for society.

Listing 1 - 10 of 29 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by