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Novel Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering 2018

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ISBN: 9783038975434 9783038975441 Year: Pages: 426 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-544-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-05 10:26:51
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The concept of regenerating tissues, with properties and functions that mimic natural tissues, has attracted significant attention in recent years. It provides potential solutions for treating many diseases and other healthcare issues. To fully realize the potential of the approach, it is crucial to have a rational biomaterial design to create novel scaffolds, and other materials systems suitable for tissue engineering, repair and regeneration. Research advances on the topic include the design of new biomaterials and their composites, the scaffold fabrication via subtractive and additive manufacturing approaches, the development of implantable scaffolds for disease monitoring, diagnostics, and treatment, as well as the understanding of cells–biomaterial scaffolds interaction. This Special Issue, “Novel Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering”, covers a selection of timely research activities in the field of biomaterials for tissue engineering and regeneration purposes. Promising findings on different approaches to design and develop new biomaterials, biomaterial systems and methods for tissue engineering, are presented and discussed. Recent advances in biofabrication techniques for tissue engineering are additionally demonstrated. The issue comprises a series of state-of-the-art experimental works, up-to-date review articles and commentaries.

Inorganic Biomaterials

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198016 Year: Pages: 149 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-801-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The intention of the editors A. R. Boccaccini and W. Höland has been to target this e-book to a broad readership and at the same time to present scientific contributions sufficiently detailed which discuss various specific fundamental aspects of inorganic biomaterials and their biomedical and dental applications. In this context, two large categories of biomaterials need to be mentioned, namely bioactive biomaterials for the replacement and regeneration of hard tissue and biocompatible, non-bioactive biomaterials for restorative dentistry. Both categories include products based on glasses or glass-ceramics as well as organic-inorganic composite materials. Among the bioactive products, BIOGLASS®, developed in the late 1960s by Prof. Dr. L. L. Hench, occupies a prominent position, being BIOGLASS® the first man-made material shown to form strong and functional bonding to leaving tissue. Sadly, Prof. Hench passed away in December 2015, at the time this e-book was being completed, it is therefore a great honor for the editors to dedicate this e-book to his memory. Indeed the book contains a comprehensive review written by Prof. Hench, in collaboration with Prof. J. R. Jones (UK), which provides a timely overview of the development and applications of bioactive glasses, including a discussion on the remaining challenges in the field. Further bioactive materials have been developed over the years by leading scientists such as Prof. Kokubo (Japan). These materials have also found their way into this book. The other contributions in this book, written by worldwide recognized experts in the field, present the latest advances in relevant areas such as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, metallic ion releasing systems, cements, bioactive glass–polymer coatings, composites for bone regeneration, and effect of porosity on cellular response to bioceramics. In addition to bioactive materials, inorganic systems for restorative dentistry are also discussed in this e-book. Biomaterials for dental restorations consist of glassy or crystalline phases. Glass-ceramics represent a special group of inorganic biomaterials for dental restorations. Glass-ceramics are composed of at least one inorganic glassy phase and at least one crystalline phase. These products demonstrate a combination of properties, which include excellent aesthetics and the ability to mimic the optical properties of natural teeth, as well as high strength and toughness. They can be processed using special processing procedures, e.g. machining, moulding and sintering, to fabricate high quality products. The editors would like to extend their gratitude to the Frontiers team in Lausanne, Switzerland, for their outstanding dedication to make possible the publication of this e-book in a timely manner. It is our wish that the book will contribute to expand the field of inorganic biomaterials, both in terms of fundamental knowledge and applications, and that the book will be useful not only to established researchers but also to the increasing number of young scientists starting their careers in the field of inorganic biomaterials.

Novel Biocomposite Engineering and Bio-Applications

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ISBN: 9783038973829 9783038973836 Year: Pages: 215 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-383-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 12:18:18
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The engineering and utilization of biocomposites is a research field of major scientific and industrial interest worldwide. The biocomposite area is extensive and spans from structured and solid biocomposites (e.g., reinforced bioabsorbable polymers), films (e.g., antimicrobial barriers), to soft biocomposites (e.g., use of alginates, collagen and nanocellulose as components in bioinks for 3D bioprinting). Key aspects in this respect are the appropriate engineering and production of biomaterials, nanofibres, bioplastics, their functionalization enabling intelligent and active materials, processes for effective manufacturing of biocomposites and the corresponding characterization for understanding their properties.The current Special Issue emphasizes the bio-technological engineering of novel biomaterials and biocomposites, considering also important safety aspects in the production and use of bio- and nanomaterials.

Dental and Periodontal Tissues Formation and Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199846 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-984-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Sequential and reciprocal interactions between oral epithelial and cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells give rise to the teeth and periodontium. Teeth are vital organs containing a rich number of blood vessels and nerve fibers within the dental pulp and periodontium. Teeth are composed by unique and specific collagenous (dentin, fibrillar cementum) and non-collagenous (enamel) highly mineralized extracellular matrices. Alveolar bone is another collagenous hard tissue that supports tooth stability and function through its close interaction with the periodontal ligament. Dental hard tissues are often damaged after infection or traumatic injuries that lead to the partial or complete destruction of the functional dental and supportive tissues. Well-established protocols are routinely used in dental clinics for the restoration or replacement of the damaged tooth and alveolar bone areas. Recent progress in the fields of cell biology, tissue engineering, and nanotechnology offers promising opportunities to repair damaged or missing dental tissues. Indeed, pulp and periodontal tissue regeneration is progressing rapidly with the application of stem cells, biodegradable scaffolds, and growth factors. Furthermore, methods that enable partial dental hard tissue repair and regeneration are being evaluated with variable degrees of success. However, these cell-based therapies are still incipient and many issues need to be addressed before any clinical application. The understanding of tooth and periodontal tissues formation would be beneficial for improving regenerative attempts in dental clinics. In the present e-book we have covered the various aspects dealing with dental and periodontal tissues physiology and regeneration in 6 chapters:1. General principles on the use of stem cells for regenerating craniofacial and dental tissues2. The roles of nerves, vessels and stem cell niches in tissue regeneration3. Dental pulp regeneration and mechanisms of various odontoblast functions4. Dental root and periodontal physiology, pathology and regeneration5. Physiology and regeneration of the bone using various scaffolds and stem cell populations6. Physiology, pathology and regeneration of enamel using dental epithelial stem cells

Monoclonal Antibodies

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ISBN: 9783038428756 9783038428763 Year: Pages: X, 228 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-27 13:43:10
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Monoclonal antibodies are established in clinical practice for the treatment of cancer, and autoimmune and infectious diseases. The first generation of antibodies has been dominated by classical IgG antibodies, however, in the last decade, the field has advanced, and, nowadays, a large proportion of antibodies in development have been engineered. This Special Issue on "Monoclonal Antibodies" includes original manuscripts and reviews covering various aspects related to the discovery, analytical characterization, manufacturing and development of therapeutic and engineered antibodies.

Advance of Polymers Applied to Biomedical Applications: Cell Scaffolds

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ISBN: 9783038970330 9783038970347 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-034-7 Language: englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-04 13:51:22
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Since Langer’s seminal work, polymers have been on every corner of tissue engineering. The roles of bioresorbable polymers, as a scaffold, are not merely structural, providing three-dimensional (3D) homing sites to cells, but also functional at their interface with the cells. The polymeric scaffolds actively act as both biochemical and physical cues for cell behaviors, such as adhesion, growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Polymers and cells could interact further with each other mutually, sensing and responding to the signals from the partner. Technological advances in this direction, including chemical modification of polymer scaffolds, highly cytocompatible hybrid materials/composites, dynamic scaffolds, control of juxtacrine interactions, and 3D bioprinting and microfluidic devices, ensure the advances in polymers as cell scaffolds. The detection and characterization methods for cell-material interactions and cell behaviors have been greatly improved, and new characterization techniques have emerged. Recent years have witnessed a quantum leap of progress in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, and this edited book illustrates some of the advances in polymers as cell scaffolds.

Engineering Synthetic Metabolons: From Metabolic Modelling to Rational Design of Biosynthetic Devices

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199211 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-921-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The discipline of Synthetic Biology has recently emerged at the interface of biology and engineering. The definition of Synthetic Biology has been dynamic over time ever since, which exemplifies that the field is rapidly moving and comprises a broad range of research areas. In the frame of this Research Topic, we focus on Synthetic Biology approaches that aim at rearranging biological parts/ entities in order to generate novel biochemical functions with inherent metabolic activity. This Research Topic encompasses Pathway Engineering in living systems as well as the in vitro assembly of biomolecules into nano- and microscale bioreactors. Both, the engineering of metabolic pathways in vivo, as well as the conceptualization of bioreactors in vitro, require rational design of assembled synthetic pathways and depend on careful selection of individual biological functions and their optimization. Mathematical modelling has proven to be a powerful tool in predicting metabolic flux in living and artificial systems, although modelling approaches have to cope with a limitation in experimentally verified, reliable input variables. This Research Topic puts special emphasis on the vital role of modelling approaches for Synthetic Biology, i.e. the predictive power of mathematical simulations for (i) the manipulation of existing pathways and (ii) the establishment of novel pathways in vivo as well as (iii) the translation of model predictions into the design of synthetic assemblies.

Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications

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ISBN: 9783039287741 / 9783039287758 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-775-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Electrospinning is a versatile and effective technique widely used to manufacture nanofibrous structures from a diversity of materials (synthetic, natural or inorganic). The electrospun nanofibrous meshes’ composition, morphology, porosity, and surface functionality support the development of advanced solutions for many biomedical applications. The Special Issue on “Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications” assembles a set of original and highly-innovative contributions showcasing advanced devices and therapies based on or involving electrospun meshes. It comprises 13 original research papers covering topics that span from biomaterial scaffolds’ structure and functionalization, nanocomposites, antibacterial nanofibrous systems, wound dressings, monitoring devices, electrical stimulation, bone tissue engineering to first-in-human clinical trials. This publication also includes four review papers focused on drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

Keywords

sol-gel --- electrospinning --- hydroxyapatite --- nanofiber --- antibacterial --- titanium --- antibacterial coatings --- electrospinning --- nanocomposite coatings --- TiO2 photocatalytic --- orthopedic infections --- electrospinning --- 3D printing --- nanofibers --- encapsulation --- protein diffusion --- in vivo tissue engineering --- immuno-isolation --- transplantation --- electrospinning --- sputtering --- drug delivery --- wound dressing --- biocompatibility --- tissue engineering --- biomimetic scaffolds --- gelatin --- electrospinning --- micromolding --- biomaterials --- poly(lactic acid) (PLLA) --- bioactive glass --- scaffolds --- electrospinning --- composite fibres --- bone regeneration --- poly(vinylidene fluoride) --- composite nanofiber --- piezoelectricity --- antioxidant activity --- well-aligned nanofibers --- P(VDF-TrFE) --- piezoelectric nanogenerator --- preosteoblasts electrospinning --- silicone modified polyurethane nanofibers --- physical properties --- cell attachment --- cell proliferation --- cytotoxicity --- biopolymers --- packaging --- pharmaceutical --- biomedical --- electrospinning --- alginate --- gelatin fibers --- ZnO particles --- antibacterial activity --- electrospinning --- nanofibers --- fabrication --- therapeutics --- biomedical applications --- antibody immobilization --- electrospun nanofibers --- TNF-? capture --- human articular chondrocytes --- rheumatoid arthritis --- nanofibers --- microfluidic chip --- electrospinning --- live assay --- hepatocellular carcinoma cells --- PLA95 --- biocompatibility --- guided tissue regeneration (GTR) --- electrospinning --- electrospun fiber mats --- mechanobiology --- glioblastoma --- biomaterials --- finite element modeling --- electrospun nanofibers --- cancer treatment --- drug release --- nanomedicine --- biocompatible polymers --- hyperthermia

Stem Cell and Biologic Scaffold Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039214976 9783039214983 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-498-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving research field which effectively combines stem cells and biologic scaffolds in order to replace damaged tissues. Biologic scaffolds can be produced through the removal of resident cellular populations using several tissue engineering approaches, such as the decellularization method. Indeed, the decellularization method aims to develop a cell-free biologic scaffold while keeping the extracellular matrix (ECM) intact. Furthermore, biologic scaffolds have been investigated for their in vitro potential for whole organ development. Currently, clinical products composed of decellularized matrices, such as pericardium, urinary bladder, small intestine, heart valves, nerve conduits, trachea, and vessels, are being evaluated for use in human clinical trials. Tissue engineering strategies require the interaction of biologic scaffolds with cellular populations. Among them, stem cells are characterized by unlimited cell division, self-renewal, and differentiation potential, distinguishing themselves as a frontline source for the repopulation of decellularized matrices and scaffolds. Under this scheme, stem cells can be isolated from patients, expanded under good manufacturing practices (GMPs), used for the repopulation of biologic scaffolds and, finally, returned to the patient. The interaction between scaffolds and stem cells is thought to be crucial for their infiltration, adhesion, and differentiation into specific cell types. In addition, biomedical devices such as bioreactors contribute to the uniform repopulation of scaffolds. Until now, remarkable efforts have been made by the scientific society in order to establish the proper repopulation conditions of decellularized matrices and scaffolds. However, parameters such as stem cell number, in vitro cultivation conditions, and specific growth media composition need further evaluation. The ultimate goal is the development of “artificial” tissues similar to native ones, which is achieved by properly combining stem cells and biologic scaffolds and thus bringing them one step closer to personalized medicine. The original research articles and comprehensive reviews in this Special Issue deal with the use of stem cells and biologic scaffolds that utilize state-of-the-art tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches.

Intrinsically Biocompatible Polymer Systems

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ISBN: 9783039284207 9783039284214 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-421-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Biocompatibility refers to the ability of a biomaterial to perform its desired function with respect to a medical therapy, without eliciting any undesirable local or systemic effects in the recipient or beneficiary of that therapy, but generating the most appropriate beneficial cellular or tissue response in that specific situation, and optimizing the clinically relevant performance of that therapy, which reflects current developments in the area of intrinsically biocompatible polymer systems. Polymeric biomaterials are presently used as, for example, long-term implantable medical devices, degradable implantable systems, transient invasive intravascular devices, and, recently, as tissue engineering scaffolds. This Special Issue welcomes full papers and short communications highlighting the aspects of the current trends in the area of intrinsically biocompatible polymer systems.

Keywords

antimicrobial peptides --- biodegradable polymers --- biocompatible polymers --- drug delivery systems --- controlled release --- citropin --- temporin --- ionic liquids --- chitooligosaccharide --- polyurethane --- biodegradability --- physicochemical properties --- hemocompatibility --- biological activity --- crosslinking --- drug delivery --- cosmetic --- food-supplement --- functionalization --- hyaluronan applications --- hyaluronan derivatives --- hyaluronan synthases --- hyaluronic acid --- hyaluronidases --- physico-chemical properties --- cyclohexanone --- ?-butyrolactone --- chloroform --- extraction --- polyhydroxyalkanoates --- PHB --- electrospraying --- biodegradable nano/microparticles --- drug delivery --- septic arthritis --- release characteristics --- biopolymers --- silk fibroin --- konjac glucomannan --- porous beads --- scaffolds --- tissue engineering --- microcarriers --- Poly (l-lactic) acid --- Chitosan --- nanohydroxyapatite --- osteoblasts --- ion-releasing materials --- shrinkage stress --- water sorption --- hydroscopic expansion --- photoelastic investigation --- enzymatic polymerization --- chemical polymerization --- poly(benzyl malate) --- biocompatible nanoparticles --- cell uptake --- cytotoxicity --- HepaRG cells --- human macrophages --- star polymers --- solution behavior --- ATRP --- SPION --- contrast agent --- MRI --- cancer diagnosis --- folate receptor --- pluronic F127 --- polylactide --- hydrolytic degradation --- mechanical properties --- PEEK copolymer synthesis --- PEEK composite --- Spine cage application --- In vitro biosafety --- degradation --- saliva --- mechanical properties --- molecular weight --- thermal properties --- activation energy of thermal decomposition --- anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction --- bone tunnel enlargement --- X-ray microtomography --- polylactide --- n/a

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