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Interlacing Self-Localization, Moving Object Tracking and Mapping for 3D Range Sensors

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe / Institut für Mess- und Regelungstechnik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 16134214 ISBN: 9783866449770 Year: Volume: 24 Pages: XVIII, 128 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000032359 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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This work presents a solution for autonomous vehicles to detect arbitrary moving traffic participants and to precisely determine the motion of the vehicle. The solution is based on three-dimensional images captured with modern range sensors like e.g. high-resolution laser scanners. As result, objects are tracked and a detailed 3D model is built for each object and for the static environment. The performance is demonstrated in challenging urban environments that contain many different objects.

Ein Beitrag zur Verbesserung und Erweiterung der Lidar-Signalverarbeitung für Fahrzeuge

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe / Institut für Mess- und Regelungstechnik, Universität Karlsruhe (TH) ISSN: 16134214 ISBN: 9783866441743 Year: Volume: 9 Pages: XII, 126 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000007047 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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Laserscanner werden in Fahrzeugen zur Umfelderfassung eingesetzt. Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht, wie aus den Messungen des Laserscanners der Abstand und die Bewegung anderer Fahrzeuge bestimmt werden können. Verschiedene Ansätze zur Gruppierung der Messungen werden verglichen und hinsichtlich ihrer Eignung für Fahrzeuge bewertet. Darauf aufbauend wird analysiert, wie der Einfluss stochastischer und deterministischer Fehler auf die Bestimmung von Abstand und Bewegung minimiert werden kann.

Road Vehicles Surroundings Supervision: On-Board Sensors and Communications

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ISBN: 9783038975687 / 9783038975694 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-569-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Transportation
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-29 10:33:32
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This Special Issue presents a selection of current solutions for vehicle surroundings perception systems. This perception is essential for many advanced driver application systems and autonomous driving, and there are currently several challenges that need addressing. Perception can be obtained using on-board sensors, but, due to their limitations, the development of sensor fusion techniques or specific algorithms is needed. Vehicle positioning is also important, but further refined accuracy and specific requirements arise with each new application. Apart from on-board sensors, wireless communication can provide information from a larger electronic horizon that can be used for better decision making. Finally, all this information can be used to enhance development of autonomous driving

MEMS Technology for Biomedical Imaging Applications

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ISBN: 9783039216048 / 9783039216055 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-605-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Biomedical imaging is the key technique and process to create informative images of the human body or other organic structures for clinical purposes or medical science. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology has demonstrated enormous potential in biomedical imaging applications due to its outstanding advantages of, for instance, miniaturization, high speed, higher resolution, and convenience of batch fabrication. There are many advancements and breakthroughs developing in the academic community, and there are a few challenges raised accordingly upon the designs, structures, fabrication, integration, and applications of MEMS for all kinds of biomedical imaging. This Special Issue aims to collate and showcase research papers, short commutations, perspectives, and insightful review articles from esteemed colleagues that demonstrate: (1) original works on the topic of MEMS components or devices based on various kinds of mechanisms for biomedical imaging; and (2) new developments and potentials of applying MEMS technology of any kind in biomedical imaging. The objective of this special session is to provide insightful information regarding the technological advancements for the researchers in the community.

Keywords

tilted microcoil --- electromagnetically-driven --- surface micromachining --- polyimide capillary --- MEMS --- ego-motion estimation --- indoor navigation --- monocular camera --- scale ambiguity --- wearable sensors --- photoacoustic --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- miniaturized microscope --- lead-free piezoelectric materials --- high frequency ultrasonic transducer --- needle-type --- high spatial resolution --- ultrahigh frequency ultrasonic transducer --- Si lens --- tight focus --- finite element simulation --- low noise amplifier (LNA) --- noise figure --- smart hydrogels --- bio-sensors --- chemo-sensor --- electrochemical sensors --- transduction techniques --- near-field microwave --- microwave resonator --- microwave remote sensing --- potentiometric sensor --- gold nanoparticles --- metal oxide field-effect transistor --- chemo-FET --- bio-FET --- photoacoustic imaging --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- MEMS scanning mirror --- micromachined US transducer --- microring resonator --- acoustic delay line --- MEMS mirror --- Lissajous scanning --- pseudo-resonant --- sensing --- imaging --- display --- MEMS actuators --- microendoscopy --- confocal --- two-photon --- wide-filed imaging --- photoacoustic --- fluorescence --- scanner --- capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) --- acoustics --- micromachining --- capacitive --- transducer --- modelling --- fabrication --- 3D Printing --- piezoelectric array --- ultrasonic transducer --- ultrasonic imaging --- micro-optics --- bioimaging --- microtechnology --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- in vitro --- in vivo --- cantilever waveguide --- electrostatic actuator --- non-resonating scanner --- optical scanner --- push-pull actuator --- rib waveguide --- n/a

Optical MEMS

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ISBN: 9783039213030 / 9783039213047 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-304-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microoptoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS), or optical microsystems are devices or systems that interact with light through actuation or sensing at a micro- or millimeter scale. Optical MEMS have had enormous commercial success in projectors, displays, and fiberoptic communications. The best-known example is Texas Instruments’ digital micromirror devices (DMDs). The development of optical MEMS was impeded seriously by the Telecom Bubble in 2000. Fortunately, DMDs grew their market size even in that economy downturn. Meanwhile, in the last one and half decade, the optical MEMS market has been slowly but steadily recovering. During this time, the major technological change was the shift of thin-film polysilicon microstructures to single-crystal–silicon microsructures. Especially in the last few years, cloud data centers are demanding large-port optical cross connects (OXCs) and autonomous driving looks for miniature LiDAR, and virtual reality/augmented reality (VR/AR) demands tiny optical scanners. This is a new wave of opportunities for optical MEMS. Furthermore, several research institutes around the world have been developing MOEMS devices for extreme applications (very fine tailoring of light beam in terms of phase, intensity, or wavelength) and/or extreme environments (vacuum, cryogenic temperatures) for many years. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on (1) novel design, fabrication, control, and modeling of optical MEMS devices based on all kinds of actuation/sensing mechanisms; and (2) new developments of applying optical MEMS devices of any kind in consumer electronics, optical communications, industry, biology, medicine, agriculture, physics, astronomy, space, or defense.

Keywords

scanning micromirror --- electromagnetic actuator --- angle sensor --- flame retardant 4 (FR4) --- variable optical attenuator (VOA) --- wavelength dependent loss (WDL) --- polarization dependent loss (PDL) --- micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) --- tunable fiber laser --- echelle grating --- DMD chip --- MEMS scanning micromirror --- fringe projection --- laser stripe scanning --- quality map --- large reflection variations --- 3D measurement --- laser stripe width --- vibration noise --- MLSSP --- MEMS scanning mirror --- wavefront sensing --- digital micromirror device --- ocular aberrations --- dual-mode liquid-crystal (LC) device --- infrared Fabry–Perot (FP) filtering --- LC micro-lenses controlled electrically --- spectrometer --- infrared --- digital micromirror device (DMD) --- signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) --- stray light --- programmable spectral filter --- digital micromirror device --- optical switch --- microscanner --- input shaping --- open-loop control --- quasistatic actuation --- residual oscillation --- usable scan range --- higher-order modes --- resonant MEMS scanner --- electrostatic --- parametric resonance --- NIR fluorescence --- intraoperative microscope --- 2D Lissajous --- fluorescence confocal --- metasurface --- metalens --- field of view (FOV) --- achromatic --- Huygens’ metalens --- bio-optical imaging --- optical coherence tomography --- confocal --- two-photon --- spectrometer --- MEMS mirror --- electrothermal bimorph --- Cu/W bimorph --- electrothermal actuation --- reliability --- n/a

3D Remote Sensing Applications in Forest Ecology: Composition, Structure and Function

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ISBN: 9783039217823 / 9783039217830 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-783-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Dear Colleagues, The composition, structure and function of forest ecosystems are the key features characterizing their ecological properties, and can thus be crucially shaped and changed by various biotic and abiotic factors on multiple spatial scales. The magnitude and extent of these changes in recent decades calls for enhanced mitigation and adaption measures. Remote sensing data and methods are the main complementary sources of up-to-date synoptic and objective information of forest ecology. Due to the inherent 3D nature of forest ecosystems, the analysis of 3D sources of remote sensing data is considered to be most appropriate for recreating the forest’s compositional, structural and functional dynamics. In this Special Issue of Forests, we published a set of state-of-the-art scientific works including experimental studies, methodological developments and model validations, all dealing with the general topic of 3D remote sensing-assisted applications in forest ecology. We showed applications in forest ecology from a broad collection of method and sensor combinations, including fusion schemes. All in all, the studies and their focuses are as broad as a forest’s ecology or the field of remote sensing and, thus, reflect the very diverse usages and directions toward which future research and practice will be directed.

Mobile Mapping Technologies

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ISBN: 9783039280186 / 9783039280193 Year: Pages: 334 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-019-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Mobile Mapping technologies have seen a rapid growth of research activity and interest in the last years, due to the increased demand of accurate, dense and geo-referenced 3D data. Their main characteristic is the ability of acquiring 3D information of large areas dynamically. This versatility has expanded their application fields from the civil engineering to a broader range (industry, emergency response, cultural heritage...), which is constantly widening. This increased number of needs, some of them specially challenging, is pushing the Scientific Community, as well as companies, towards the development of innovative solutions, ranging from new hardware / open source software approaches and integration with other devices, up to the adoption of artificial intelligence methods for the automatic extraction of salient features and quality assessment for performance verification The aim of the present book is to cover the most relevant topics and trends in Mobile Mapping Technology, and also to introduce the new tendencies of this new paradigm of geospatial science.

Keywords

cultural heritage --- restoration --- indoor mapping --- laser scanning --- wearable mobile laser system --- 3D digitalization --- SLAM --- visual landmark sequence --- indoor topological localization --- convolutional neural network (CNN) --- second order hidden Markov model --- ORB-SLAM2 --- binary vocabulary --- small-scale vocabulary --- rapid relocation --- terrestrial laser scanning --- tunnel central axis --- tunnel cross section --- enhanced RANSAC --- quadric fitting --- constrained nonlinear least-squares problem --- visual simultaneous localization and mapping --- dynamic environment --- RGB-D camera --- encoder --- OctoMap --- IMMS --- indoor mapping --- MLS --- mobile laser scanning --- SLAM --- point clouds --- 2D laser scanner --- 2D laser range-finder --- LiDAR --- LRF --- sensors configurations --- Lidar localization system --- unmanned vehicle --- segmentation-based feature extraction --- category matching --- multi-group-step L-M optimization --- map management --- indoor mapping --- room type tagging --- semantic enrichment --- grammar --- Bayesian inference --- indoor localization --- crowdsourcing trajectory --- fingerprinting --- smartphone --- mobile mapping --- laser scanning --- self-calibration --- 3D point clouds --- geometric features --- motion estimation --- trajectory fusion --- mobile mapping --- sensor fusion --- optical sensors --- robust statistical analysis --- portable mobile mapping system --- handheld --- 3D processing --- point cloud --- Vitis vinifera --- terrestrial laser scanning --- plant vigor --- mobile mapping --- precision agriculture --- vine size --- visual positioning --- indoor scenes --- automated database construction --- image retrieval

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