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Unity and diversity in grammaticalization scenarios

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Book Series: Studies in Diversity Linguistics ISBN: 9783946234999 9783961100200 Year: Pages: 342 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.823224 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-16 11:01:54
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The volume contains a selection of papers originally presented at the symposium on “Areal patterns of grammaticalization and cross-linguistic variation in grammaticalization scenarios” held on 12-14 March 2015 at Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz. The papers, written by leading scholars combining expertise in historical linguistics and grammaticalization research, study variation in grammaticalization scenarios in a variety of language families (Slavic, Indo-Aryan, Tibeto-Burman, Bantu, Mande, "Khoisan", Siouan, and Mayan). The volume stands out in the vast literature on grammaticalization by focusing on variation in grammaticalization scenarios and areal patterns in grammaticalization. Apart from documenting new grammaticalization paths, the volume makes a methodological contribution as it addresses an important question of how to reconcile universal outcomes of grammaticalization processes with the fact that the input to these processes is language-specific and construction-specific.

Enlarging the European Union

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Book Series: Schriften zur Wirtschaftstheorie und Wirtschaftspolitik ISBN: 9783631373293 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3726/b13694 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:36
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European politics has provided clear signals: the next round in the process of EU enlargement with the accession of the Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) will come. Since expectations concerning the costs and benefits of integration are varied, it is our aim to contribute to this discussion by undertaking an empirical assessment of integration. Firstly the extent of potential free labour mobility between the CEEC and the EU is assessed using an econometric model. On that basis, different integration scenarios, i.e. trade liberalisation, capital transfers and labour migration are simulated using a computable general equilibrium model. Our results suggest that migration flows will be moderate and that integration is likely to cause positive welfare effects in the CEEC and negligible effects in the EU.

Keywords

Assessment --- Central --- Computable --- Different --- Eastern --- Enlarging --- Equilibrium --- Europe --- European --- General --- Hille --- Integration --- Scenarios --- Union

Assessment of least-cost pathways for decarbonising Europe's power supply : a model-based long-term scenario analysis accounting for the characteristics of renewable energies

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ISBN: 9783731501336 Year: Pages: XVI, 223 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000037155 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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This work analyses technological least-cost pathways for deep emission reductions in the European power sector. It seeks a better understanding of the role renewable energies play in the transformation process up to 2050. Therefore, a model is developed which optimises capacity expansion and hourly dispatch of both conventional and renewable power generation, transmission grids and storage facilities in all hours of the analysed years. The model is applied to four long-term scenarios.

Detection and Tracking of Targets in Forward-Looking InfraRed (FLIR) Imagery

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038420521 9783038420538 Year: Pages: XIV, 228 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-053-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 07:34:37
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Detection and tracking of targets in forward looking infrared (FLIR) imagery are challenging tasks. IR sensors often provide low signal-to-noise ratio and heavy background cluttering images. Non-stationary cameras can introduce further challenges, because detection and tracking might make it necessary to properly deal with sensor ego-motion through suitable estimation and compensation techniques. Moreover, further issues are posed by imagery with multiple and possibly moving target and non-target objects, which can blend into the background, change their signature, size, shape, and even overlap during their motion. Finally, specific applications could introduce cumbersome real-time constraints, thus requiring tracking techniques with a reduced computational footprint.The objective of this Special Issue is to invite high state-of-the-art research contributions, tutorials, and position papers that address the broad challenges faced in analysis and processing of FLIR imagery. Original papers describing completed and unpublished work that are not currently under review by any other journal/magazine/conference/special issue are solicited.

Managing Socio-ecological Production Landscapes and Seascapes for Sustainable Communities in Asia

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Science for Sustainable Societies ISBN: 9789811511332 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-1133-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Botany --- Science (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-16 23:59:22
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This open access book presents up-to-date analyses of community-based approaches to sustainable resource management of SEPLS (socio-ecological production landscapes and seascapes) in areas where a harmonious relationship between the natural environment and the people who inhabit it is essential to ensure community and environmental well-being as well as to build resilience in the ecosystems that support this well-being. Understanding SEPLS and the forces of change that can weaken their resilience requires the integration of knowledge across a wide range of academic disciplines as well as from indigenous knowledge and experience. Moreover, given the wide variation in the socio-ecological makeup of SEPLS around the globe, as well as in their political and economic contexts, individual communities will be at the forefront of developing the measures appropriate for their unique circumstances. This in turn requires robust communication systems and broad participatory approaches. Sustainability science (SuS) research is highly integrated, participatory and solutions driven, and as such is well suited to the study of SEPLS. Through case studies, literature reviews and SuS analyses, the book explores various approaches to stakeholder participation, policy development and appropriate action for the future of SEPLS. It provides communities, researchers and decision-makers at various levels with new tools and strategies for exploring scenarios and creating future visions for sustainable societies.

Reducing the Seismic Vulnerability of Existing Buildings: Assessment and Retrofit

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039212576 9783039212583 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-258-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Devastating seismic events occurring all over the world keep raising the awareness of the scientific, technical and political communities to the need of identifying assets at risk and developing more effective and cost-efficient seismic risk mitigation strategies. Significant advances in earthquake engineering research have been achieved with the rise of new technologies and techniques with potential use in risk assessment, management and mitigation. Nevertheless, there is still much to be done, particularly with regard to existing buildings, most of them built without anti-seismic provisions. The wide variety of construction and structural systems, associated with the complex behaviour of their materials, greatly limit the application of current codes and building standards to the existing building stock. To tackle this issue, there is a fundamental need for developing multidisciplinary research that can lead to the development of more sophisticated and reliable methods of analysis, as well as to improved seismic retrofitting techniques compliant with buildings conservation principles. This book intends to contribute to the aforementioned goal by stimulating the exchange of ideas and knowledge on the assessment and reduction of the seismic vulnerability of existing buildings. 10 high quality contributions authored by international experts from Italy, Portugal, Morocco, Nepal, Czech Republic and Spain are included herein. All contributions pursue the protection of existing buildings by considering the most updated methods and advanced solutions emerging from different fields of expertise.

Scenarios and Indicators for Sustainable Development–Towards A Critical Assessment of Achievements and Challenges

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ISBN: 9783038976721 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-673-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Globalization and telecoupling are enhancing the complexity of the coupled socio-ecological system constituted by the interaction between the global ecosphere and the anthroposphere. As a result, the demand for tools to identify transformative innovations, assess future risks, and support precautionary decisions for sustainability is growing by the day in business and politics. Scenarios are a means of simplification, reducing the real-world complexity to a limited number of essential factors to analyze their interactions and support policy formulation, with indicators as communication and monitoring tools. In particular, in a time of fake news and alternative truths a critical reflection amongst producers and users of scenarios and indicators is overdue; the capability for critical self-reflection is what distinguishes science from pseudo-science, and is a condition of trust. The authors of this book test established measurement and modeling approaches against new challenges, assess the weaknesses of prevailing innovation theories and the political-ideological embedment of archetypical scenarios, highlight deficits in taking the physical basics into account, and the need to understand global interaction and the stepwise process of energy transitions, point out technical as well as conceptual weaknesses in data collection, harmonization and indicator generation, always with a view to solving problems.

Preservation of Cultural Heritage and Resources Threatened by Climate Change

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ISBN: 9783039211241 9783039211258 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-125-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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With its wide spectrum of data, case studies, monitoring, and experimental and numerical simulation techniques, the multidisciplinary approach of material, environmental, and computer science applied to the conservation of cultural heritage offers several opportunities for the heritage science and conservation community to map and monitor state-of-the-art knowledge on natural and human-induced climate change impacts on cultural heritage—mainly constituted by the built environment—in Europe and Latin America. Geosciences’ Special Issue titled “Preservation of Cultural Heritage and Resources Threatened by Climate Change” was launched to take stock of the existing but still fragmentary knowledge on this challenge, and to enable the community to respond to the implementation of the Paris agreement. These 10 papers exploit a broad range of data derived from preventive conservation monitoring conducted indoors in museums, churches, historical buildings, or outdoors in archeological sites and city centers. Case studies presented in the papers focus on a well-assorted sample of decay phenomena occurring on heritage materials (e.g., surface recession and biomass accumulation on limestone, depositions of pollutant on marble, salt weathering on inorganic building materials, and weathering processes on mortars in many local- to regional-scale study areas in the Scandinavian Peninsula, the United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Italy, Greece, and Panama). Besides monitoring, the methodological approaches showcased include, but are not limited to, original material characterization, decay product characterization, and climate and numerical modelling on material components for assessing environmental impact and climate change effects.

Advances in Food and Non-Food Biomass Production, Processing and Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: Towards a Basis for a Regional Bioeconomy

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039286683 / 9783039286690 Year: Pages: 446 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-669-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The bioeconomy concept aims to add sustainability to the production, transformation, and trade of biological goods. Though implemented around the world, the development of national bioeconomies is uneven, especially in the global South, where major challenges exist in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this context, the international BiomassWeb project aimed to underpin the bioeconomy concept by applying the value web approach, which seeks to uncover complex interlinked value webs instead of linear value chains. The project also aimed to develop intervention options to strengthen and optimize the synergies and trade-offs among different value chains. The Special Issue “Advances in Food and Non-Food Biomass Production, Processing and Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: Toward a Basis for a Regional Bioeconomy"" compiles 23 articles produced in this framework. The articles are grouped in four sections: the value web approach; the production side; processing, transformation and trade; and global views.

Keywords

contract farming --- contract design --- cassava --- bioeconomy --- Ghana --- adoption --- land-use --- deforestation --- food security --- renewable energy --- collaboration --- leadership --- push–pull technology --- sustainability --- transdisciplinary research --- Ethiopia --- demand-driven research --- Biomass --- innovation --- Ghana --- husk --- pulp --- parchment --- mucilage --- methane --- renewable energy --- bioeconomy --- green economy --- sustainable development --- bioproductivity --- high-tech bioeconomy --- knowledge-based bioeconomy --- primary sector --- typology --- cluster analysis --- food and non-food benefit --- homegarden --- multipurpose tree on farmland --- multistorey coffee system --- multi-functionality --- traditional agroforestry --- Yayu Biosphere Reserve --- yellow cassava --- sustainability --- cassava variants --- cassava processing --- carotenoids retention --- amylose --- bioeconomy --- governance --- development policy --- innovation --- technology --- bio-based --- mixed methods --- richness --- edible --- food bearing --- neighborhoods --- maize --- Policy Analysis Matrix --- comparative advantage --- probit --- Ghana --- cassava farmers --- value addition --- productivity differentials --- impact --- endogenous switching regression --- plantain residues --- fiber --- value web --- bioeconomy --- Ghana --- biochar --- crop residue --- corncob --- germination --- phytotoxicity --- self-purging pyrolysis --- soil amendment --- biomass --- value web --- bioeconomy --- bamboo --- Ethiopia --- sustainability --- intensification options --- maize --- groundnut --- crop residue --- crop model --- cassava processors --- smallholders --- solid waste --- pollution --- value-added --- willingness to pay --- biomass utilization --- intensity --- cassava smallholders --- Nigeria --- availability --- access --- Ghana --- Nigeria --- Ethiopia --- value chain --- CGE --- fertilizer-yield-response --- productivity --- welfare --- Ethiopia --- family farming --- farmland --- food security --- rural development --- biomass scenarios --- global biomass --- bioenergy --- sustainability --- food security --- basic needs --- intragenerational justice --- equity --- fairness --- development --- Biomass-based value web --- biological goods --- bio-based economy --- food and non-food --- circular economy

Recent Advances in Urban Ventilation Assessment and Flow Modelling

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038978060 9783038978077 Year: Pages: 448 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-807-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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This book contains twenty-one original papers and one review paper published by internationally recognized experts in the Atmosphere Special Issue ""Recent Advances in Urban Ventilation Assessment and Flow Modelling"", years 2017&ndash;2019. The Special Issue includes contributions on recent experimental and modelling works, techniques, and developments mainly tailored to the assessment of urban ventilation on flow and pollutant dispersion in cities. The study of ventilation is of critical importance, as it addresses the capacity with which a built urban structure is capable of replacing the polluted air with ambient fresh air. Here, ventilation is recognized as a transport process that improves local microclimate and air quality and closely relates to the term &ldquo;breathability&rdquo;. The efficiency with which street canyon ventilation occurs depends on the complex interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer flow and the local urban morphology.The individual contributions to this Issue are summarized and categorized into four broad topics: (1) outdoor ventilation efficiency and application/development of ventilation indices, (2) relationship between indoor and outdoor ventilation, (3) effects of urban morphology and obstacles to ventilation, and (4) ventilation modelling in realistic urban districts. The results and approaches presented and proposed will be of great interest to experimentalists and modelers, and may constitute a starting point for the improvement of numerical simulations of flow and pollutant dispersion in the urban environment, for the development of simulation tools, and for the implementation of mitigation strategies.

Keywords

street canyon --- seasonal variation --- air flow --- pollutant dispersion --- pollutant removal --- natural ventilation --- residential wind environments --- building arrangements --- space pattern --- ventilation efficiency --- CFD simulation --- air change rate (ACH) --- flow and turbulence profiles --- hypothetical urban areas --- street-level ventilation --- ventilation assessment --- wind-tunnel dataset --- street vegetation --- CFD --- aerodynamic and deposition --- tree scenarios --- urban planning --- indoor-outdoor --- mass concentration --- nanoparticles --- particle number concentration (PNC) --- PM10 --- PM2.5 --- sampling --- Total Suspended Particles (TSP) --- ultrafine particles (UFP) --- urban street canyon --- wind enhancement --- architectural intervention --- water channel experiment --- CFD simulation --- passive ventilation --- street canyon --- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) --- ventilation effectiveness --- the age of air --- convective boundary layer --- LES --- street-level ventilation --- small open space --- air change rate per hour (ACH) --- concentration decay method --- urban age of air --- computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation --- natural ventilation --- residential building --- climate zone --- thermal comfort --- natural ventilation hour --- Japan cities --- building energy use --- inter-building effect --- highly-reflective building envelope --- BEopt analysis --- source apportionment --- data assimilation --- urban air quality modelling --- wind environment --- Natural Ventilation Potential (NVP) --- PM2.5 --- building–tree grouping patterns --- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) --- LES --- ventilation --- urban planning --- dispersion --- air quality --- street canyon --- traffic tidal flow --- numerical simulation --- vehicular pollution --- non-uniform distribution of the pollution source --- on-road air quality --- traffic composition --- high emitting vehicles --- street canyon --- mobile laboratory --- CFD model --- heat loss --- optimisation --- residential building --- air quality --- carbon dioxide concentration --- ventilation system --- wind pressure coefficient --- airflow network --- multiple linear regression --- natural ventilation --- urban layout --- surrogate model --- schematic urban environment --- wind tunnel --- LES --- validation --- street canyon --- coherent structures --- road tunnel --- natural ventilation --- wind catcher --- intake fraction --- street canyon --- CFD --- Large Eddy Simulation (LES) --- urban air quality --- pedestrian exposure --- concentration fluctuation --- outdoor ventilation --- urban morphology --- building site coverage --- ventilation efficiency --- n/a

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