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Sustainable Consumer Behavior

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ISBN: 9783038425830 9783038425847 Year: Pages: VIII, 211 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-27 09:00:07
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Sustainability may be achieved through many different agents and institutions in society, including governments, new technologies, industries, and markets. In addition to these agents, consumers and households play a crucial role in the adoption of sustainable products and technologies. Additionally, households are responsible for substantial proportions of energy use and waste. In the European Union, the end use of total energy by households was about 25% in 2014 (Eurostat, 2016). Additionally, households generated 8% of total waste in the EU in 2012 (Eurostat, 2015). Moreover, ethical aspects of consumption are becoming more and more important. In order to gain understanding of sustainable consumer and household behavior, Sustainability has devoted an entire Special Issue to this topic. The Special Issue includes studies focusing on macro- and meso-issues, such as political parties’ positions, nationality, social dilemmas and collective consumer efforts. Others studies focus on micro-issues of consumer behaviour, such as consumer segmentation, consumer perceptions, opinions, and intentions. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, experiments, eye tracking, and contingent valuation. The collection of studies provide a balanced overview of consumer research in the field of sustainability.

The naïve language expert: How infants discover units and regularities in speech

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193295 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-329-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The advent of behavior-independent measures of cognition and major progress in experimental designs have led to substantial advances in the investigation of infant language learning mechanisms. Research in the last two decades has shown that infants are very efficient users of perceptual and statistical cues in order to extract linguistic units and regular patterns from the speech input. This has lent support for learning-based accounts of language acquisition that challenge traditional nativist views. Still, there are many open questions with respect to when and how specific patterns can be learned and the relevance of different types of input cues. For example, first steps have been made to identify the neural mechanisms supporting on-line extraction of words and statistical regularities from speech. Here, the temporal cortex seems to be a major player. How this region works in concert with other brain areas in order to detect and store new linguistic units is a question of broad interest. In this Research Topic of Frontiers in Language Sciences, we bring together experimental and review papers across linguistic domains, ranging from phonology to syntax that address on-line language learning in infancy. Specifically, we focused on papers that explore one of the following or related questions: How and when do infants start to segment linguistic units from the speech input and discover the regularities according to which they are related to each other? What is the role of different linguistic cues during these acquisition stages and how do different kinds of information interact? How are these processes reflected in children’s behavior, how are they represented in the brain and how do they unfold in time? What are the characteristics of the acquired representations as they are established, consolidated and stored in long-term memory?By bringing together behavioral and neurophysiological evidence on language learning mechanisms, we aim to contribute to a more complete picture of the expeditious and highly efficient early stages of language acquisition and their neural implementation.

Document Image Processing

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ISBN: 9783038971054 9783038971061 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-106-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-19 10:53:09
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Document Image Processing allows systems like OCR, writer identification, writer recognition, check processing, historical document processing, etc., to extract useful information from document images. What we call a document image ranges from images of historical documents written on various surfaces, to synthetic images (useful for creating datasets) and videos including text. In order to succeed, many preprocessing tasks can be required: document skew detection and correction, slant removal, binarization and segmentation procedures, as well as other normalization tasks. These low-level tasks are generally followed by high-level tasks such as the recognition or spotting of textual elements (characters, words, or text lines). The intent of this Special Issue is to collect the experiences of leading scientists of the field, but also to be an assessment tool for people who are new to the world of document image processing.

Image Processing Using FPGAs

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ISBN: 9783038979180 / 9783038979197 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-919-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This book presents a selection of papers representing current research on using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for realising image processing algorithms. These papers are reprints of papers selected for a Special Issue of the Journal of Imaging on image processing using FPGAs. A diverse range of topics is covered, including parallel soft processors, memory management, image filters, segmentation, clustering, image analysis, and image compression. Applications include traffic sign recognition for autonomous driving, cell detection for histopathology, and video compression. Collectively, they represent the current state-of-the-art on image processing using FPGAs.

Selected Papers from the 2018 41st International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP)

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ISBN: 9783039210404 / 9783039210411 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-041-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This Special Issue contains a series of excellent research works on telecommunications and signal processing, selected from the 2018 41st International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP) which was held on July 4–6, 2018, in Athens, Greece. The conference was organized in cooperation with the IEEE Region 8 (Europe, Middle East, and Africa), IEEE Greece Section, IEEE Czechoslovakia Section, and IEEE Czechoslovakia Section SP/CAS/COM Joint Chapter by seventeen universities from the Czech Republic, Hungary, Turkey, Taiwan, Japan, Slovak Republic, Spain, Bulgaria, France, Slovenia, Croatia, and Poland, for academics, researchers, and developers, and serves as a premier international forum for the annual exchange and promotion of the latest advances in telecommunication technology and signal processing. The aim of the conference is to bring together both novice and experienced scientists, developers, and specialists, to meet new colleagues, collect new ideas, and establish new cooperation between research groups from universities, research centers, and private sectors worldwide. This collection of 10 papers is highly recommended for researchers, and believed to be interesting, inspiring, and motivating for readers in their further research.

Entropy in Image Analysis

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ISBN: 9783039210923 / 9783039210930 Year: Pages: 456 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-093-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Image analysis is a fundamental task for extracting information from images acquired across a range of different devices. Since reliable quantitative results are requested, image analysis requires highly sophisticated numerical and analytical methods—particularly for applications in medicine, security, and remote sensing, where the results of the processing may consist of vitally important data. The contributions to this book provide a good overview of the most important demands and solutions concerning this research area. In particular, the reader will find image analysis applied for feature extraction, encryption and decryption of data, color segmentation, and in the support new technologies. In all the contributions, entropy plays a pivotal role.

Keywords

image retrieval --- multi-feature fusion --- entropy --- relevance feedback --- chaotic system --- image encryption --- permutation-diffusion --- SHA-256 hash value --- dynamic index --- entropy --- keyframes --- Shannon’s entropy --- sign languages --- video summarization --- video skimming --- image encryption --- multiple-image encryption --- two-dimensional chaotic economic map --- security analysis --- image encryption --- chaotic cryptography --- cryptanalysis --- chosen-plaintext attack --- image information entropy --- blind image quality assessment (BIQA) --- information entropy, natural scene statistics (NSS) --- Weibull statistics --- discrete cosine transform (DCT) --- ultrasound --- hepatic steatosis --- Shannon entropy --- fatty liver --- metabolic syndrome --- multi-exposure image fusion --- texture information entropy --- adaptive selection --- patch structure decomposition --- image encryption --- time-delay --- random insertion --- information entropy --- chaotic map --- uncertainty assessment --- deep neural network --- random forest --- Shannon entropy --- positron emission tomography --- reconstruction --- field of experts --- additive manufacturing --- 3D prints --- 3D scanning --- image entropy --- depth maps --- surface quality assessment --- machine vision --- image analysis --- Arimoto entropy --- free-form deformations --- normalized divergence measure --- gradient distributions --- nonextensive entropy --- non-rigid registration --- pavement --- macrotexture --- 3-D digital imaging --- entropy --- decay trend --- discrete entropy --- infrared images --- low contrast --- multiscale top-hat transform --- image encryption --- DNA encoding --- chaotic cryptography --- cryptanalysis --- image privacy --- computer aided diagnostics --- colonoscopy --- Rényi entropies --- structural entropy --- spatial filling factor --- binary image --- Cantor set --- Hénon map --- Minkowski island --- prime-indexed primes --- Ramanujan primes --- Kapur’s entropy --- color image segmentation --- whale optimization algorithm --- differential evolution --- hybrid algorithm --- Otsu method --- image encryption --- dynamic filtering --- DNA computing --- 3D Latin cube --- permutation --- diffusion --- fuzzy entropy --- electromagnetic field optimization --- chaotic strategy --- color image segmentation --- multilevel thresholding --- contrast enhancement --- sigmoid --- Tsallis statistics --- q-exponential --- q-sigmoid --- q-Gaussian --- ultra-sound images --- person re-identification --- image analysis --- hash layer --- quantization loss --- Hamming distance --- cross-entropy loss --- image entropy --- Shannon entropy --- generalized entropies --- image processing --- image segmentation --- medical imaging --- remote sensing --- security

UAV‐Based Remote Sensing Volume 1

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ISBN: 9783038427773 9783038427780 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: VIII, 388 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-27 15:10:10
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Active technological development has fuelled rapid growth in the number of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms being deployed around the globe. Novel UAV platforms, UAV-based sensors, robotic sensing and imaging techniques, the development of processing workflows, as well as the capacity of ultra-high temporal and spatial resolution data, provide both opportunities and challenges that will allow engineers and scientists to address novel and important scientific questions in UAV and sensor design, remote sensing and environmental monitoring.This work features papers on UAV sensor design, improvements in UAV sensor technology, obstacle detection, methods for measuring optical flow, target tracking, gimbal influence on the stability of UAV images, augmented reality tools, segmentation in digital surface models for 3D reconstruction, detection, location and grasping objects, multi-target localization, vision-based tracking in cooperative multi-UAV systems, noise suppression techniques , rectification for oblique images, two-UAV communication system, fuzzy-based hybrid control algorithms, pedestrian detection and tracking as well as a range of atmospheric, geological, , agricultural, ecological, reef, wildlife, building and construction, coastal area coverage, search and rescue (SAR), water plume temperature measurements, aeromagnetic and archaeological surveys applications

UAV‐Based Remote Sensing Volume 2

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ISBN: 9783038428558 9783038428565 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: VIII, 396 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-27 15:39:27
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ctive technological development has fuelled rapid growth in the number of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms being deployed around the globe. Novel UAV platforms, UAV-based sensors, robotic sensing and imaging techniques, the development of processing workflows, as well as the capacity of ultra-high temporal and spatial resolution data, provide both opportunities and challenges that will allow engineers and scientists to address novel and important scientific questions in UAV and sensor design, remote sensing and environmental monitoring.This work features papers on UAV sensor design, improvements in UAV sensor technology, obstacle detection, methods for measuring optical flow, target tracking, gimbal influence on the stability of UAV images, augmented reality tools, segmentation in digital surface models for 3D reconstruction, detection, location and grasping objects, multi-target localization, vision-based tracking in cooperative multi-UAV systems, noise suppression techniques , rectification for oblique images, two-UAV communication system, fuzzy-based hybrid control algorithms, pedestrian detection and tracking as well as a range of atmospheric, geological, , agricultural, ecological, reef, wildlife, building and construction, coastal area coverage, search and rescue (SAR), water plume temperature measurements, aeromagnetic and archaeological surveys applications

UAV or Drones for Remote Sensing Applications

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ISBN: 9783038970910 9783038970927 Year: Pages: 382 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-092-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-23 11:46:40
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The rapid development and growth of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a remote sensing platform, as well as advances in the miniaturization of instrumentation and data systems, have resulted in an increasing uptake of this technology in the environmental and remote sensing science communities.Although tough regulations across the globe may still limit the broader use of UAVs, their use in precision agriculture, ecology, atmospheric research, disaster response biosecurity, ecological and reef monitoring, forestry, fire monitoring, quick response measurements for emergency disaster, Earth science research, volcanic gas sampling, monitoring of gas pipelines, mining plumes, humanitarian observations and biological/chemo-sensing tasks continues to increase.This book provides a forum for high-quality peer-reviewed papers that broaden the awareness and understanding of UAV developments, applications of UAVs for remote sensing, and associated developments in sensor technology, data processing and communications, and UAV system design and sensing capabilities.The book covers the following topics:• improvements in UAV sensor technology;• UAV sensor design;• descriptions of processing algorithms applied to UAV-based imagery datasets;• the use of optical, multi-spectral, hyperspectral, laser, and optical SAR technologies onboard UAVs;• Artificial intelligence and data mining-based strategies from UAV-acquired datasets;• UAV onboard data storage, transmission, and retrieval;• multiple platform UAV, AUV, and ground robot networks;• UAV sensor applications including: precision agriculture, construction, mining, pest detection, forestry, wildlife tracking, atmosphere, wildfire monitoring and prevention, reef monitoring, Earth science research pollution monitoring, micro-climates, land use precision agriculture, ecology, atmospheric research, quick response measurements for emergency disaster.

UAV or Drones for Remote Sensing Applications

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ISBN: 9783038971115 9783038971122 Year: Pages: 346 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-112-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-23 11:49:36
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The rapid development and growth of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a remote sensing platform, as well as advances in the miniaturization of instrumentation and data systems, have resulted in an increasing uptake of this technology in the environmental and remote sensing science communities.Although tough regulations across the globe may still limit the broader use of UAVs, their use in precision agriculture, ecology, atmospheric research, disaster response biosecurity, ecological and reef monitoring, forestry, fire monitoring, quick response measurements for emergency disaster, Earth science research, volcanic gas sampling, monitoring of gas pipelines, mining plumes, humanitarian observations and biological/chemo-sensing tasks continues to increase.This book provides a forum for high-quality peer-reviewed papers that broaden the awareness and understanding of UAV developments, applications of UAVs for remote sensing, and associated developments in sensor technology, data processing and communications, and UAV system design and sensing capabilities.The book covers the following topics:• improvements in UAV sensor technology;• UAV sensor design;• descriptions of processing algorithms applied to UAV-based imagery datasets;• the use of optical, multi-spectral, hyperspectral, laser, and optical SAR technologies onboard UAVs;• Artificial intelligence and data mining-based strategies from UAV-acquired datasets;• UAV onboard data storage, transmission, and retrieval;• multiple platform UAV, AUV, and ground robot networks;• UAV sensor applications including: precision agriculture, construction, mining, pest detection, forestry, wildlife tracking, atmosphere, wildfire monitoring and prevention, reef monitoring, Earth science research pollution monitoring, micro-climates, land use precision agriculture, ecology, atmospheric research, quick response measurements for emergency disaster.

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