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Physics of the Earth’s Interior

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ISBN: 9782722602342 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Collège de France
Added to DOAB on : 2014-02-27 14:16:29
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions: the extent of certain recent natural disasters and their dramatic consequences have reminded us of the power of terrestrial phenomena and of the need for scientific research to understand the Earth’s dynamics more fully. Over the last twenty years the study of the Earth’s interior has witnessed a real revolution, owing in particular to the development of increasingly sophisticated seismic tomography techniques and the powerful computations made possi...

Seismic Wave Propagation in Stratified Media

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ISBN: 9781921536731 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459524 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2012-06-14 11:46:24
License: ANU Press

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Seismic Wave Propagation in Stratified Media presents a systematic treatment of the interaction of seismic waves with Earth structure. The theoretical development is physically based and is closely tied to the nature of the seismograms observed across a wide range of distance scales – from a few kilometres as in shallow reflection work for geophysical prospecting, to many thousands of kilometres for major earthquakes. A unified framework is presented for all classes of seismic phenomena, for both body waves and surface waves. Since its first publication in 1983 this book has been an important resource for understanding the way in which seismic waves can be understood in terms of reflection and transmission properties of Earth models, and how complete theoretical seismograms can be calculated. The methods allow the development of specific approximations that allow concentration on different seismic arrivals and hence provide a direct tie to seismic observations.

Earthquake Research and Analysis - Seismology, Seismotectonic and Earthquake Geology

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ISBN: 9789533079912 Year: Pages: 418 DOI: 10.5772/1117 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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This book is devoted to different aspects of earthquake research. Depending on their magnitude and the placement of the hypocenter, earthquakes have the potential to be very destructive. Given that they can cause significant losses and deaths, it is really important to understand the process and the physics of this phenomenon. This book does not focus on a unique problem in earthquake processes, but spans studies on historical earthquakes and seismology in different tectonic environments, to more applied studies on earthquake geology.

Earthquake Research and Analysis - Statistical Studies, Observations and Planning

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ISBN: 9789535101345 Year: Pages: 472 DOI: 10.5772/2461 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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The study of earthquakes plays a key role in order to minimize human and material losses when they inevitably occur. Chapters in this book will be devoted to various aspects of earthquake research and analysis. The different sections present in the book span from statistical seismology studies, the latest techniques and advances on earthquake precursors and forecasting, as well as, new methods for early detection, data acquisition and interpretation. The topics are tackled from theoretical advances to practical applications.

Tectonics - Recent Advances

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ISBN: 9789535106753 9789535142904 Year: Pages: 348 DOI: 10.5772/2620 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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This book is devoted to different aspects of tectonic researches, especially to modern geodynamic processes. Syntheses of recent and earlier works, combined with new results and interpretations, are presented here for diverse tectonic settings. Most of chapters include up-to-date materials of detailed geological-geophysical investigations, which can help more clearly understand the essence of mechanisms of different tectonic processes. Among general problems of tectonics are discussed processes in axes of slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges on example of central part of Mid-Atlantic Ridge and in continental collision zones. Formation of sedimentary basins are considered on examples of Niger Delta, Triassic Cuyana Basin (Argentina), and Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of the Alpine margin (Tunisia); neotectonic processes examined in Turkey and Morocco; tectonic evolution of the southern margin of Laurasia in the Paleozoic discussed as well as interrelation of western Troms-Lofoten and the Lewisian complexes in the Midle Paleoproterozoic.

Seismic and Sequence Stratigraphy and Integrated Stratigraphy - New Insights and Contributions

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ISBN: 9789535136750 9789535136767 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.5772/66242 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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This book contains six chapters dealing with the investigation of seismic and sequence stratigraphy and integrated stratigraphy, including the stratigraphic unconformities, in different geological settings and using several techniques and methods, including the seismostratigraphic and the sequence stratigraphic analysis, the field geological survey, the well log stratigraphic interpretation, and the lithologic and paleobotanical data. Book chapters are separated into two main sections: (i) seismic and sequence stratigraphy and (ii) integrated stratigraphy. There are three chapters in the first section, including the application of sequence and seismic stratigraphy to the fine-grained shales, to the fluvial facies and depositional environments, and to the Late Miocene geological structures offshore of Taiwan. In the second section, there are three chapters dealing with the integrated stratigraphic investigation of Jurassic deposits of the southern Siberian platform, with the stratigraphic unconformities, reviewing the related geological concepts and studying examples from Middle-Upper Paleozoic successions; and, finally, with the integrated stratigraphy of the Cenozoic deposits of the Andean foreland basin (northwestern Argentina).

Risk Assessment

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ISBN: 9789535137986 9789535137993 9789535140634 Year: Pages: 384 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68673 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Risk assessment is one of the main parts of complex systematic research of natural and man-made hazards and risks together with the concepts of risk analysis, risk management, acceptable risk, and risk reduction. It is considered as the process of making a recommendation on whether existing risks are acceptable and present risk control measures are adequate, and if they are not, whether alternative risk control measures are justified or will be implemented. Risk assessment incorporates the risk analysis and risk evaluation phases. Risk management is considered as the complete process of risk assessment, risk control, and risk reduction. The book reflects on the state-of-the-art problems and addresses the risk assessment to establish the criteria for ranking risk posed by different types of natural or man-made hazards and disasters, to quantify the impact that hazardous event or process has on population and structures, and to enhance the strategies for risk reduction and avoiding.

Polar Seismology - Advances and Impact

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ISBN: 9781789235685 9781789235692 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.78404 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Seismology in polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic) allows us to study the static condition and high-latitude dynamics of the Earth. This book covers the recent developments in seismology in polar regions; observations and networks; international collaboration; heterogeneous structure and dynamics of the lithosphere; deep Earth's interiors observed from high latitudes; characteristics of seismicity and seismic wave propagation; and global tectonics in terms of Earth's history, including the interdisciplinary studies on the interaction between Earth's spheres. Since the International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007/2008 was the most exciting campaign launched within contemporary polar studies, this book observes recent seismological achievements by the IPY, specifically focusing on the seismic signals near the surface associated with cryosphere dynamics and evolution. Topics on cryoseismology, such as glacial earthquake activities, are viewed in terms of global warming. Moreover, observational experiments and long-term monitoring under the extreme conditions in the polar environment are also discussed.

Applied Geophysics with Case Studies on Environmental, Exploration and Engineering Geophysics

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ISBN: 9781838807405 9781838807412 9781838807429 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.78490 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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This book provides a general introduction to the most important methods of applied geophysics with a variety of case studies. These methods represent a primary tool for investigation of the subsurface and are applicable to a very wide range of problems. Applied geophysics is based on physics principles that collect and interpret data on subsurface conditions for practical purposes, including oil and gas exploration, mineral prospecting, geothermal exploration, groundwater exploration, engineering applications, archeological interests, and environmental concerns. The depth of investigation into applied geophysics is shallow, typically from the ground surface to several kilometers deep, where economic, cultural, engineering, or environmental concerns often arise. Applied geophysics uses almost all of the current geophysical methods, including electrical, magnetic, electromagnetic, gravimetric, geothermal, seismic, seismoelectric, magnetotelluric, nuclear, and radioactive methods. In applied geophysics, geophysicists are usually required to have a good understanding of math and physics principles, knowledge of geology and computer skills, and hands-on experience of electronic instruments. A geophysicist's routine job includes survey designs, data acquisition, data processing, and data interpretation with detailed explanation of the study. Applied geophysics consists of three main subject and interest areas, which are exploration geophysics, engineering geophysics, and environmental geophysics.

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