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Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Pollution

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ISBN: 9783038426400 9783038426417 Year: Pages: 352 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-10 13:24:01
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This book edited by Drs. Yang Liu from Emory University, Jun Wang from the University of Iowa, and Omar Torres from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center recompiles the results of recently documented research work on Atmospheric Pollution published as a special issue of the MDPI Remote Sensing Journal. It includes twenty peer-reviewed scientific articles on Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Pollution by leading experts from research institutions and universities around the world. The quality and scientific relevance of the published material was carefully monitored by the guest editor team. Both modeling and observational aspects of particulate matter and trace gas pollutants are treated in great detail by the contributing experts. Many of the published articles explore the use of satellite observations by sensors such as MODIS, VIIRS, and OMI as a valuable research tool. Authors use these observations in combination with models and ground-based observations to enhance the resources available to improve our understanding of the physical and chemical processes driving the observed pollution levels near the ground and in the free troposphere that ultimately determine the quality of the air we all breathe. This is an important reference book for scientists, professors and students both graduate and undergraduate interested in up-to-date survey of remote sensing applications to Atmospheric Pollution.

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Remote Sensing

Active Touch Sensing

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192489 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-248-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Active touch can be described as the control of the position and movement of tactile sensing systems to facilitate information gain. In other words, it is finding out about the world by reaching out and exploring - sensing by ‘touching’ as opposed to ‘being touched’. In this Research Topic (with cross-posting in both Behavioural Neuroscience and Neurorobotics) we welcomed articles from junior researchers on any aspect of active touch. We were especially interested in articles on the behavioral, physiological and neuronal underpinnings of active touch in a range of species (including humans) for submission to Frontiers in Behavioural Neuroscience. We also welcomed articles describing robotic systems with biomimetic or bio-inspired tactile sensing systems for publication in Frontiers in Neurorobotics.

LuxR Solos are Becoming Major Players in Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199174 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-917-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The most common quorum sensing (QS) system in Gram-negative bacteria occurs via N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHLs) signals. An archetypical system consists of a LuxI-family protein synthesizing the AHL signal which binds at quorum concentrations to the cognate LuxR-family transcription factors which then control gene expression by binding to specific sequences in target gene promoters. QS LuxR-family proteins are approximately 250 amino acids long and made up of two domains; at the N-terminus there is an autoinducer-binding domain whereas the C-terminus contains a DNA-binding helix-turn-helix (HTH) domain. QS LuxRs display surprisingly low similarities (18-25%) even if they respond to structurally similar AHLs. 95% of LuxRs share 9 highly conserved amino acid residues; six of these are hydrophobic or aromatic and form the cavity of the AHL-binding domain and the remaining three are in the HTH domain. With only very few exceptions, the luxI/R cognate genes of AHL QS systems are located adjacent to each other. The sequencing of many bacterial genomes has revealed that many proteobacteria also possess LuxRs that do not have a cognate LuxI protein associated with them. These LuxRs have been called orphans and more recently solos. LuxR solos are widespread in proteobacterial species that possess a canonical complete AHL QS system as well as in species that do not. In many cases more than one LuxR solo is present in a bacterial genome. Scientists are beginning to investigate these solos. Are solos responding to AHL signals? If present in a bacterium which possesses a canonical AHL QS system are solos an integral part of the regulatory circuit? Are LuxR solos eavesdropping on AHLs produced by neighboring bacteria? Have they evolved to respond to different signals instead of AHLs, and are these signals endogenously produced or exogenously provided? Are they involved in interkingdom signaling by responding to eukaryotic signals? Recent studies have revealed that LuxR solos are involved in several mechanisms of cell-cell communication in bacteria implicating them in bacterial intraspecies and interspecies communication as well as in interkingdom signaling by responding to molecules produced by eukaryotes. LuxR solos are likely to become major players in signaling since they are widespread among proteobacterial genomes and because initial studies highlight their different roles in bacterial communication. This Research Topic allows scientists studying or interested in LuxR solos to report their data and/or express their hypotheses and thoughts on this important and currently understudied family of signaling proteins.

Keywords

AHL --- LuxR solos --- Quorum Sensing --- signaling --- Bacteria

Volatile Organic Compounds in Environment

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ISBN: 9783038425120 9783038425137 Year: Pages: VIII, 122 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-02 11:42:58
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Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from both static and mobile sources (e.g., industrial, transport, household, fossil fuels use, and many other sources). They are emitted into the atmosphere, taken up by plants, and ingested by animals to be bio accumulated along the food chain up to the apex predator. Many of these pollutants are classified as being toxic/carcinogenic by varying degrees and pose a worldwide risk to the environment and human health. Exposure (through different exposure pathways, i.e., inhalation, dermal absorption, ingestion, etc.) to those hazardous pollutants can damage the immune, neurological, reproductive (e.g., reduced fertility), developmental, and respiratory systems of humans and animals. More efforts are thus needed to improve the method of their detection and treatment. This Special Issue aims to present articles emphasizing more than one of all the available tools to monitor or treat VOCs: (1) measurement techniques for VOC; (2) treatment techniques for VOC; and (3) all important environmental issues associated with the management of VOCs.

Polarimetric SAR Techniques and Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038426165 9783038426172 Year: Pages: VI, 168 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-22 10:57:24
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Polarimetry allows sensitivity to the structural and geometric properties of the scene, making it possible a more accurate identification and classification than non-polarimetric systems. Then, polarimetry makes possible new applications, especially in quantitative extraction of bio and geophysical variables. Also, the combination of polarimetry and interferometry allows also to explore the vertical structure of semi-transparent media, like crops and forests. SAR polarimetry is an active field of research in Earth observation. Besides the development of applications, researchers have also focused in theory or physical modelling to make SAR polarimetry an operational technique. This book presents the state of the art in SAR polarimetry, from theory and physical modelling to final applications, but also the current and futures challenges. This book puts also the emphasis on studies for the exploitation of data provided by the new polarimetric space borne SAR sensors, which include additional frequency bands, interferometric capability, enlarged spatial coverage, high spatial resolution and/or shorter revisit times.

Piezoelektrische Self-sensing-Aktoren zur Korrektur statischer Verlagerungen

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Technische Mechanik, Universität Karlsruhe (TH) ISSN: 16143914 ISBN: 9783866442672 Year: Volume: 10 Pages: IV, 179 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000009042 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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In Kombination mit dem Funktionsprinzip einer Schwingsaitenwaage können piezoelektrische Wandler im Bereich kleiner Frequenzen gleichzeitig sensorisch und aktorisch betrieben werden. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden zunächst die hierfür erforderlichen Grundlagen untersucht. Darauf aufbauend werden anhand einer adaptronischen Strebe für Werkzeugmaschinen eine mögliche Umsetzung des Konzepts und ein Einsatzbeispiel vorgestellt.

Water Optics and Water Colour Remote Sensing

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038425083 9783038425090 Year: Pages: X, 425 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-27 13:24:09
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Water is irreplaceable natural resources on the planet for people to survival and develop. Declining water quality has become a global issue of significant concern as anthropogenic activities expand and climate change threatens to cause major alterations to the hydrological cycle. Thus, monitoring the physical, chemical, and biological status of rivers, reservoirs, lakes, coastal waters, and oceans is immensely important. Remote sensing has the potential to provide an invaluable complementary source of data at local to global scales. This book—Water Optics and Water Colour Remote Sensing—provides an overview of the current state of the science on water optical properties and water colour remote sensing monitoring. Overall, the book presents a variety of applications at the global scale (with case studies in Europe, Asia, South and North America, and the Antarctic), achieved with different remote sensing instruments, such as hyperspectral field and airborne sensors, ocean colour radiometry, geostationary platforms, and the multispectral Landsat and Sentinel-2 satellites.The book is aimed at a wide audience, ranging from the graduate students, university teachers and the working scientists to policy makers and managers. Efforts have been made to highlight general principles as well as the site-specific application in the field of water optics and water colour remote sensing.

Counteracting Urban Heat Island Effects in a Global Climate Change Scenario

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ISBN: 9783319104249 9783319104256 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-10425-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Heat
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-10 14:41:54
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Urban heat islands are a new type of microclimatic phenomenon that causes a significant increase in the temperature of cities compared to surrounding areas. The phenomenon has been enforced by the current trend towards climate change. Although experts consider urban heat islands an urgent European Union public health concern, there are too few policies that address it. The EU carried out a project to learn more about this phenomenon through pilot initiatives. The pilots included feasibility studies and strategies for appropriately altering planning rules and governance to tackle the problem of urban heat islands. The pilots were carried out in eight metropolitan areas: Bologna/Modena, Budapest, Ljubljana, Lodz, Prague, Stuttgart, Venice/Padova, and Vienna. The feasibility studies carried out in these pilot areas focused on the specific morphology of EU urban areas, which are often characterised by the presence of historical old towns.

 Ocean Remote Sensing with Synthetic Aperture Radar

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038427209 9783038427193 Year: Pages: 360 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-08 13:19:39
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The ocean covers approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface, 90% of the biosphere and contains 97% of Earth’s water. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can image the ocean surface in all weather conditions and day or night. SAR remote sensing on ocean and coastal monitoring has become a research hotspot in geoscience and remote sensing. This book—Progress in SAR Oceanography—provides an update of the current state of the science on ocean remote sensing with SAR. Overall, the book presents a variety of marine applications, such as, oceanic surface and internal waves, wind, bathymetry, oil spill, coastline and intertidal zone classification, ship and other man-made objects’ detection, as well as remotely sensed data assimilation. The book is aimed at a wide audience, ranging from graduate students, university teachers and working scientists to policy makers and managers. Efforts have been made to highlight general principles as well as the state-of-the-art technologies in the field of SAR Oceanography.

Remote Sensing of Environment - Integrated Approaches

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ISBN: 9789535111528 Year: Pages: 226 DOI: 10.5772/3337 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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This book covers the latest developments in remote sensing theory and applications by numerous researchers, experts and collaborators of the Remote Sensing and Geo-Environment Lab of the Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics of the Cyprus University of Technology. The main highlight of this book is combination of several techniques such as satellite remote sensing, field spectroscopy, smart sensors, ground techniques for achieving an integrated method for the systematic monitoring of the environment.

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