Search results: Found 5

Listing 1 - 5 of 5
Sort by
Regulation by non-coding RNAs

ISBN: 9783038420057 9783038420101 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 844 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:03:39
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Regulatory non-protein-coding RNA genes and their transcripts were first found and characterized in bacteria but encompass all biological kingdoms. The complexity of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in terms of number and types increases with degree of biological development, whereby humans and other primates appear to have the largest number. Many regulatory ncRNAs base-pair to a target RNA or DNA and inhibit target function. Bacterial ncRNA genes largely respond to environmental stress conditions and help protect the organism from adverse conditions. The prokaryotic RNAs are for the most part small (<200 bp) and are commonly referred to as small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs). Eukaryotic RNAs consist of small <200 nt RNAs and large >200 nt (termed lncRNAs). The eukaryotic small RNAs include miRNAs, siRNAs, and piRNAs. miRNAs inhibit mRNA functions and may also be associated with cancer. lncRNAs functions are multifaceted and include epigenetic regulation and animal development. The bacterial and archeal immune system CRISPR, and the eukaryotic piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA) immune system that inhibits mobile elements in germ line cells both function by via RNA transcript/ target DNA heteroduplex base-pairing are a specific class of RNAs that protect cells from invading transposons/and or viruses. siRNAs function in plant and invertebrate immune systems and protect against viral infections. [...]

Regulation by non-coding RNAs

ISBN: 9783038420064 9783038420118 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 244 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:06:27
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Regulatory non-protein-coding RNA genes and their transcripts were first found and characterized in bacteria but encompass all biological kingdoms. The complexity of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in terms of number and types increases with degree of biological development, whereby humans and other primates appear to have the largest number. Many regulatory ncRNAs base-pair to a target RNA or DNA and inhibit target function. Bacterial ncRNA genes largely respond to environmental stress conditions and help protect the organism from adverse conditions. The prokaryotic RNAs are for the most part small (<200 bp) and are commonly referred to as small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs). Eukaryotic RNAs consist of small <200 nt RNAs and large >200 nt (termed lncRNAs). The eukaryotic small RNAs include miRNAs, siRNAs, and piRNAs. miRNAs inhibit mRNA functions and may also be associated with cancer. lncRNAs functions are multifaceted and include epigenetic regulation and animal development. The bacterial and archeal immune system CRISPR, and the eukaryotic piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA) immune system that inhibits mobile elements in germ line cells both function by via RNA transcript/ target DNA heteroduplex base-pairing are a specific class of RNAs that protect cells from invading transposons/and or viruses. siRNAs function in plant and invertebrate immune systems and protect against viral infections. [...]

Bioinformatics of Non-Coding RNAs with Applications to Biomedicine: Recent Advances and Open Challenges

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450961 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-096-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The recent discovery of small and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has represented a major breakthrough in the life sciences. These molecules add a new layer of complexity to biological processes and pathways by revealing a sophisticated and dynamic interconnected system whose structure is just beginning to be uncovered. Genetic and epigenetic aberrations affecting ncRNA gene sequences and their expression have been linked to a variety of pathological conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Latest advances in the development of high throughput analysis techniques may help to shed light on the complex regulatory mechanisms in which ncRNA molecules are involved. Bioinformatics tools constitute a unique and essential resource for non-coding RNA studies, providing a powerful technology to organize, integrate and analyze the huge amount of data produced daily by wet biology experiments in order to discover patterns, identify relationships among heterogeneous biological elements and formulate functional hypotheses. This Research Topic reviews current knowledge, introduces novel methods, and discusses open challenges of this exciting and innovative field in connection with the most important biomedical applications. It consists of four reviews and six original research and methods articles, spanning the full scope of the Research Topic.

Keywords

bioinformatics --- ncRNA --- microRNA --- RNA Editing --- isomiRs --- networks --- RNAseq --- CLIPseq --- siRNA --- CRISPR

Advances in Chitin/Chitosan Characterization and Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038978022 9783038978039 Year: Pages: 414 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-803-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Functional advanced biopolymers have received far less attention than renewable biomass (cellulose, rubber, etc.) used for energy production. Among the most advanced biopolymers known is chitosan. The term chitosan refers to a family of polysaccharides obtained by partial de-N-acetylation from chitin, one of the most abundant renewable resources in the biosphere. Chitosan has been firmly established as having unique material properties as well as biological activities. Either in its native form or as a chemical derivative, chitosan is amenable to being processed&mdash;typically under mild conditions&mdash;into soft materials such as hydrogels, colloidal nanoparticles, or nanofibers. Given its multiple biological properties, including biodegradability, antimicrobial effects, gene transfectability, and metal adsorption&mdash;to name but a few&mdash;chitosan is regarded as a widely versatile building block in various sectors (e.g., agriculture, food, cosmetics, pharmacy) and for various applications (medical devices, metal adsorption, catalysis, etc.). This Special Issue presents an updated account addressing some of the major applications, including also chemical and enzymatic modifications of oligos and polymers. A better understanding of the properties that underpin the use of chitin and chitosan in different fields is key for boosting their more extensive industrial utilization, as well as to aid regulatory agencies in establishing specifications, guidelines, and standards for the different types of products and applications.

Keywords

aerogels --- chitosan --- ionic liquids --- ionogels --- zinc–chitosan complexes --- characterization --- bio-sorbent --- phosphate --- adsorption --- mechanism --- thermodynamic --- chitosan --- hydrogel --- phase transition --- gelation mechanism --- chitosan --- defense responses --- fruits --- nanoparticles --- plant growth --- pesticides --- Boron --- chitosan --- iron(III) hydroxide --- neodymium --- sorption --- chitin --- chitosan --- chitosan derivative --- chitin derivative --- oral care --- skin care --- hear care --- marine resources --- over-the counter-drug --- polymer carrier --- chitin --- chitosan --- nanostructured biomaterial --- polymer --- self-masking nanosphere lithography --- cicada --- chitosan --- self-assembled --- polyelectrolyte complex --- nanoparticle --- drug delivery --- Citrobacter --- biosynthesis --- bioflocculant --- chitosan --- metabolic pathway --- PEO/chitosan blend --- swelling --- mechanical properties --- wet and dried states --- chitosan --- biological activity --- medical applications --- chitosan --- PCL --- strontium --- scaffolds --- craniofacial engineering --- chitin --- chitosan --- derivatization --- controlled functionalization --- click chemistry --- graft copolymer --- cyclodextrin --- dendrimer --- ionic liquids --- chitin deacetylases --- chitosan --- chitooligosaccharides --- carbohydrate esterases --- structure --- substrate specificity --- deacetylation pattern --- binary --- chitosan --- desorption --- iron --- lead --- mercury --- salt effects --- single --- sorption competition --- chitosan supported copper --- heterogeneous catalyst --- organosilicon compound --- easily recyclable --- chitosan --- papermaking --- wet-end --- coating --- wastewater --- ionic cross-linking --- eco-friendly formulations --- thermal transition sol-gel --- drug delivery systems --- MTDSC --- DSC --- gene delivery --- non-viral vectors --- chitosan structure --- pDNA --- siRNA --- TEOS --- methylene blue --- chitosan --- modelling --- cross-linking --- interpenetrating --- XRD --- FTIR

New Advances on Zika Virus Research

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977643 Year: Pages: 552 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-765-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne member of the Flaviviridae family that historically has been associated with mild febrile illness. However, the recent outbreaks in Brazil in 2015 and its rapid spread throughout South and Central America and the Caribbean, together with its association with severe neurological disorders—including fetal microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults—have changed the historic perspective of ZIKV. Currently, ZIKV is considered an important public health concern that has the potential to affect millions of people worldwide. The significance of ZIKV in human health and the lack of approved vaccines and/or antiviral drugs to combat ZIKV infection have triggered a global effort to develop effective countermeasures to prevent and/or treat ZIKV infection. In this Special Issue of Viruses, we have assembled a collection of 32 research and review articles that cover the more recent advances on ZIKV molecular biology, replication and transmission, virus–host interactions, pathogenesis, epidemiology, vaccine development, antivirals, and viral diagnosis.

Keywords

Ziks virus --- silvestrol --- antiviral --- eIF4A --- hepatocytes --- flavivirus --- arbovirus --- Zika --- sexual transmission --- testis --- prostate --- Zika virus --- ZIKV --- rhesus macaques --- Non-human primates --- NHP --- infection --- natural history --- Asian-lineage --- African-lineage --- zika virus --- ZIKV–host interactions --- viral pathogenesis --- cell surface receptors --- antiviral responses --- viral counteraction --- cytopathic effects --- microcephaly --- ZIKV-associated neurologic disorders --- Zika virus --- serology --- flavivirus --- microsphere immunoassay --- validated --- optimised --- dengue virus --- ZIKV --- reporter virus --- cryptic promoter silencing --- full-length molecular clone --- subgenomic replicon --- plasmid toxicity --- Zika virus --- dengue viruses --- flavivirus --- ELISA --- indirect immunofluorescence --- plaque reduction neutralization test --- polymerase chain reaction --- cross-reactions --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- infectious cDNA --- replication --- gene expression --- neuropathogenesis --- viral genetic variation --- host genetic variation --- flavivirus --- Zika virus --- therapy --- host-directed antivirals --- Aedes aegypti --- RNA-seq --- insecticide resistance --- Zika virus --- detoxification and immune system responses --- Zika virus --- mosquito-borne flavivirus --- emerging arbovirus --- outbreak control --- molecular diagnostics --- laboratory preparedness --- assay standardization --- external quality assessment --- EQA --- QCMD --- flavivirus --- eye --- zika virus --- blood-retinal barrier --- ocular --- innate response --- Zika virus --- pregnancy --- fetal infection --- congenital Zika syndrome --- Asian lineage --- Zika virus --- Full-length cDNA infectious clones --- Bacterial artificial chromosome --- NS2A protein --- Zika virus --- neural progenitor cells --- neurons --- Zika virus --- antivirals --- therapeutics --- research models and tools --- flavivirus --- Zika virus (ZIKV) --- reverse genetics --- infectious clone --- full-length molecular clone --- bacterial artificial chromosome --- replicon --- infectious RNA --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- arbovirus --- sexual transmission --- host genetic variation --- immune response --- Zika virus --- flaviviruses --- vaccines --- virus like particles --- clinical trials --- ZIKV --- NS1 protein --- Zika virus --- diagnosis --- monoclonal antibodies --- ELISA --- zika virus --- placenta cells --- microglia cells --- siRNA --- TLR7/8 --- Zika --- viral evolution --- genetic variability --- Bayesian analyses --- Zika virus --- reverse genetics --- infectious cDNA --- Tet-inducible --- MR766 --- FSS13025 --- flavivirus --- ZIKV --- NS5 --- type I IFN antagonist --- point-of-care diagnostics --- isothermal nucleic acid amplification --- nucleic acid computation --- nucleic acid strand exchange --- zika virus --- mosquito --- mosquito surveillance --- multiplex nucleic acid detection --- boolean logic-processing nucleic acid probes --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- astrocytomas --- dsRNA --- viral fitness --- antiviral --- heme-oxygenase 1 --- Zika virus --- viral replication --- Zika virus --- antiviral compounds --- neural cells --- viral replication --- flavivirus --- Zika virus --- viral persistence --- testicular cells --- testes --- Zika virus --- prM-E proteins --- viral pathogenicity --- virus attachment --- viral replication --- viral permissiveness --- viral survival --- apoptosis --- cytopathic effects --- mutagenesis --- chimeric viruses --- human brain glial cells --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- microRNAs --- neurons --- neuroinflammation --- anti-viral immunity --- Zika virus --- dengue virus --- secondary infections --- cross-reactions --- IgA --- IgG avidity tests

Listing 1 - 5 of 5
Sort by
Narrow your search