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The Coming of Age of Insulin-Signalling in Insects

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193141 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-314-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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The new millennium has seen a major paradigm shift in insect endocrinology. Great advancements are being made which establish that nutrition and growth play a central role in diverse cellular and physiological phenomena during insect development and reproduction. Nutrition affects rates of growth and is mainly regulated by the function of the pathway of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling. This pathway is highly conserved across species and ultimately regulates rates of cell growth and proliferation in growing organs. Insulin and insulin-like peptides (ILPs) are some of the best studied hormones in the animal kingdom and all share a common structural motif and initiate a wide range of closely similar physiological processes in higher organisms. In insects, nutrition, via circulating sugar, promotes release of ILPs from brain neurosecretory cells into the haemolymph, which act on peripheral tissues and stimulate protein synthesis and cell growth. Therefore, insect ILPs are common mediators between nutrition and growth in insects and are functionally analogous to mammalian insulin. The 1980s and 1990s witnessed great progress in elucidation of the physiological and molecular mechanism of action of numerous insect hormones involved in regulation of growth, development, reproduction and metabolism. But the signals for the initiation or termination of controlled events remained largely unknown. ILPs were first identified from the silkmoth Bombyx mori and were named bombyxins, but related peptides were soon found in numerous species and their functions elucidated. The insulin signalling pathway is now recognized as a central factor in the timing of cell proliferation, growth, longevity, reproduction, and reproductive diapause, as well as social behaviour. Recent work has revealed that the insulin signalling pathway is closely integrated with that of various other hormones, including ecdysteroids, the juvenile hormones and neuropeptide(s) such a prothoracicotropic hormone. In addition, the pathway is also linked with both circadian (daily) and photoperiodic (seasonal) clocks potentially providing a basis for its timing function. This Research Topic aims to provide the only current collection of recent advances on insect ILPs. We encouraged submissions on all areas related to identification, characterization, regulation and physiological functions of insect ILPs. We welcomed both full and short reviews and original research articles.

Signaling Pathways in Developing and Pathological Tissues and Organs of the Craniofacial Complex

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456116 Year: Pages: 281 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-611-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Head formation requires the well-orchestrated and harmonised development of various tissues and organs within the craniofacial complex. A big variety of signaling pathways are involved in this process by controlling cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, tissue morphogenesis, homeostasis and regeneration. Deregulation and malfunction of these signaling molecules may lead to mild or severe craniofacial pathologies. This eBook is a collection of articles dealing with a variety of important signals involved in the control of developmental and pathological events of craniofacial organs and tissues. These recent advances show the importance of signaling pathways in craniofacial physiology and pathology and generate important new knowledge aiming the development of new pharmaceutical products that mimic and/or block the actions of specific molecules.

Natural Killer Cells in Human Diseases: Friends or Foes?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454044 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-404-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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NK cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that share some features with adaptive immune cells like T cells. They are well known for their importance to control viral infections and tumor development, but also intracellular bacterial and parasitic infections. A balance between negative and positive signals transmitted via germ line-encoded inhibitory and activating receptors controls the function of NK cells. Activated NK cells respond by killing the infected or tumor cells without prior sensitization, and by producing cytokines and chemokines. It has been shown that NK cells cross-talk with other immune cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, can shape T cell and B cell immune responses through direct interactions as well as by virtue of their cytokine/chemokine production. NK cells can also regulate immune responses by killing other immune cells, including activated T cells, or by producing anti-inflammatory cytokines upon excessive inflammation. However, NK cells are not friends in all situations. Indeed, it has been shown in LCMV-infected murine models that, depending on the viral inoculation load, NK cells may either help fight infection or can promote chronic infection. Moreover in cancer models, it has been shown that NK cells can kill anti-tumoral T cells. Recent studies of NK cells in patients with cancer support the notion of detrimental roles of NK cells. Furthermore, studies implicate NK cells in contributing to both graft rejection and tolerance to an allograft. In some autoimmune diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis, NK cells may promote disease pathogenesis. The scope of this Research Topic is to present and discuss knowledge on the role of NK cells in various diseases settings: viral infections as well as other infections, cancer, transplantation, and autoimmunity. The aim is to discuss how NK cells respond during disease and specifically when, why and how NK cells can be harmful and if they exert different functions (production of specific cytokines, inhibition of other immune cells through other mechanisms beside cytotoxicity) in these situations. Which are the NK cell subsets that play beneficial or deleterious roles in these diseases? Are there different phenotypes associated with protective NK cells (e.g. antiviral, antitumoral) and NK cells involved in disease pathogenesis? How are these diverse NK cells activated and do they function primarily through direct cytotoxicity, ADCC or cytokine and chemokine production? What are the signals or interactions that can change and shape the NK cell response shifting them from protective to harmful? We thank the authors that submitted reviews and original research manuscripts that help to better understand these questions, with the aim that this will help the scientific community to determine what could be the main future research directions to better understand the role of NK cells in disease protection or development.

Roles of NF-κB in Cancer and Their Therapeutic Approaches

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ISBN: 9783038971177 9783038971184 Year: Pages: X, 330 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Oncology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 10:52:09
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Although mortality rates have declined in recent years, the majority of cancers are still difficult to treat and the medical need for better cancer treatment is evident. The current anticancer armamentarium includes many active agents that are applied across tumor types. However, most of these broadly-active anticancer drugs have a small therapeutic index and barely discriminate between malignant and normal cells. In recent years the focus has shifted to the development of rationally designed, molecularly-targeted therapy for the treatment of a specific cancer, therefore offering the promise of greater specificity coupled with reduced systemic toxicity. NF-kB transcription factor family as emerged as such a promising target for cancer therapy. This Special Issue will explore the routes from NF-kB basic research, cancer research and oncogenomics into the development of NF-kB-based cancer therapeutics and biomarkers.We invite research and review papers in any area of the NF-kB field that are related, but not limited to, fundamental understanding of NF-kB signaling pathways, gene expression profiling, epigenetic regulation, diagnostic, prognostic and pharmacogenomic biomarkers, molecular targets driving the progression of human cancers, cancer drug development on these targets, clinical trial with new agents, and validation in animal models.We hope that this Special Issue reflects the exciting era that we are living in with respect to the field of NF-kB and its applications in cancer research.

Plant Innate Immunity 2.0

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ISBN: 9783038975809 Year: Pages: 386 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-581-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Plants possess a rather complex and efficient immune system. During their evolutionary history, plants have developed various defense strategies in order to recognize and distinguishing between self and non-self, and face pathogens and animal pests. Accordingly, to study the plant innate immunity represents a new frontier in the plant pathology and crop protection fields. This book is structured in 6 sections. The first part introduces some basic and general aspects of the plant innate immunity and crop protection. Sections 2–5 focus on fungal and oomycete diseases (section 2), bacterial and phytoplasma diseases (section 3), virus diseases (section 4), and insect pests (section 5), with a number of case studies and plant–pathogen/pest interactions. The last section deals with plant disease detection and control. The book aims to highlight new trends in these relevant areas of plant sciences, providing a global perspective that is useful for future and innovative ideas.

Keywords

dieback --- disease management --- Lasiodiplodia theobromae --- mango --- pathogenicity --- Bromoviridae --- plant–virus interactions --- plant defense response --- Prune dwarf virus --- replication process --- systemic and local movement --- plant proteases --- plant immunity --- MTI --- ETI --- SAR --- ISR --- RNA silencing --- RTNLB --- Agrobacterium --- biotic stress responses --- calcium --- calcium signature --- calmodulin --- CMLs --- CDPKs --- plant immunity --- symbiosis --- cell wall --- cellulose synthase --- hypersensitive response --- pathogenesis related-protein 2 --- plant-virus interaction --- Potato virus Y --- ultrastructure --- aphid resistance --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- hydroperoxide lyase --- Macrosiphum euphorbiae --- Myzus persicae --- Solanum lycopersicum --- ?-3 fatty acid desaturase --- Arabidopsis --- azelaic acid --- glycerol-3-phosphate --- light dependent signalling --- methyl salicylate --- N-hydroxypipecolic acid --- pipecolic acid --- salicylic acid --- SAR signalling --- spectral distribution of light --- tobacco --- rice --- Chilo suppressalis --- mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 --- jasmonic acid --- salicylic acid --- ethylene --- herbivore-induced defense response --- downy mildew --- grapevine --- PRRs --- PTI --- VaHAESA --- bismerthiazol --- rice --- induced defense responses --- chemical elicitors --- Sogatella furcifera --- defense-related signaling pathways --- tomato gray mold --- tomato leaf mold --- Bacillus subtilis --- biological control --- Capsicum annuum --- Ralstonia solanacearum --- CaWRKY40b --- immunity --- negative regulator --- transcriptional modulation --- Capsicum annuum --- CaWRKY22 --- immunity --- Ralstonia Solanacearum --- WRKY networks --- metabolomics --- plant defence --- plant–microbe interactions --- priming --- pre-conditioning --- citrus decline disease --- Citrus sinensis --- Bakraee --- “Candidatus Liberibacter” --- “Candidatus Phytoplasma” --- microbiota --- innate immunity --- basal defense --- rice blast --- Magnaporthe oryzae --- proteomics --- iTRAQ --- candidate disease resistance gene --- disease resistance --- downy mildew --- garden impatiens --- leaf transcriptome --- New Guinea impatiens --- RNA-Seq --- polyphenol oxidase --- Camellia sinensis --- Ectropis obliqua --- wounding --- regurgitant --- rice --- OsGID1 --- gibberellin --- herbivore-induced plant defenses --- Nilaparvata lugens --- plant protection products --- agrochemicals --- sustainable crop protection --- food security

Marine Bioactive Peptides: Structure, Function, and Therapeutic Potential

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ISBN: 9783039215324 / 9783039215331 Year: Pages: 442 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-533-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Special Issue Book, “Marine Bioactive Peptides: Structure, Function, andTherapeutic Potential"" includes up-to-date information regarding bioactivepeptides isolated from marine organisms. Marine peptides have been found invarious phyla, and their numbers have grown in recent years. These peptidesare diverse in structure and possess broad-spectrum activities that have greatpotential for medical applications. Various marine peptides are evolutionaryancient molecular factors of innate immunity that play a key role in host defense.A plethora of biological activities, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral,anticancer, anticoagulant, endotoxin-binding, immune-modulating, etc., makemarine peptides an attractive molecular basis for drug design. This Special IssueBook presents new results in the isolation, structural elucidation, functionalcharacterization, and therapeutic potential evaluation of peptides found inmarine organisms. Chemical synthesis and biotechnological production of marinepeptides and their mimetics is also a focus of this Special Issue Book.

Keywords

sea cucumber --- ACE-inhibitory peptide --- molecular docking --- structure-activity relationship --- plastein reaction --- Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis --- ACE-inhibitory activity --- peptide --- molecular docking --- SHRs --- prostate cancer --- Anthopleura anjunae oligopeptide --- DU-145 cells --- PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway --- cod skin --- NA-inhibitory peptide --- influenza virus --- neuraminidase --- molecular docking --- adsorption --- host defense peptide --- antimicrobial peptide --- anti-LPS factor --- host?microbe relationship --- functional diversity --- invertebrate immunity --- crustacean --- antimicrobial activity --- antimicrobial peptide --- polychaeta --- innate immunity --- BRICHOS domain --- recombinant peptide --- ?-helix --- Rana-box --- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) --- antimicrobial peptide --- cytotoxicity --- ?-hairpin --- polyphemusins --- tachyplesins --- cell death --- signaling pathways --- Neptunea arthritica cumingii --- multi-functional peptides --- antioxidant activity --- ACE-inhibitory activity --- anti-diabetic activity --- Arenicola marina --- antimicrobial peptides --- arenicin --- complement --- C3a --- acid-sensing ion channel --- animal models --- pain relief --- toxin --- Ugr 9-1 --- APETx2 --- hairtail (Trichiurus japonicas) --- muscle --- peptide --- antioxidant activity --- half-fin anchovy hydrolysates --- Maillard reaction products --- antibacterial peptide --- identification --- self-production of hydrogen peroxide --- membrane damage --- Perinereis aibuhitensis --- decapeptide --- lung cancer --- cell proliferation --- apoptosis --- conotoxins --- conopeptides --- computational studies --- molecular dynamics --- machine learning --- docking --- review --- drug design --- ion channels --- Conus --- conotoxin --- transcriptome sequencing --- phylogeny --- venom duct --- abalone --- peptide --- vasculogenic mimicry --- metastasis --- MMPs --- HIF-1? --- dexamethasone --- myotube atrophy --- protein synthesis --- proteolytic system --- Pyropia yezoensis peptide --- PYP15 --- QAGLSPVR --- antihypertensive effect --- Caco-2 cell monolayer --- transport routes --- oyster zinc-binding peptide --- peptide-zinc complex --- caco-2 cells --- intestinal absorption --- zinc bioavailability --- Chlorella pyrenoidosa protein hydrolysate (CPPH) --- Chlorella pyrenoidosa protein hydrolysate-calcium chelate (CPPH-Ca) --- calcium absorption --- gene expression --- gut microbiota --- cone snails --- conotoxins --- ion channels --- function --- structure --- marine peptides --- arenicin-1 --- molecular symmetry --- structure–activity relationship --- antibacterial --- cytotoxic --- chemical synthesis --- molecular dynamics --- tilapia --- HUVEC --- angiotensin II --- NF-?B --- Nrf2 --- endothelial dysfunction --- conotoxin --- cone snail --- Conus --- Conus ateralbus --- Kalloconus --- n/a

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