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Molecular Dynamics at the Immunological Synapse

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451333 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-133-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The immunological synapse (IS) is a specialised cell-cell adhesion that mediates antigen acquisition and regulates the activation of lymphocytes. Initial studies of the IS showed a structure composed of stable supra-molecular activation clusters (SMAC) organised during the interaction of helper T lymphocytes with B lymphocytes, working as antigen presenting cells. A central SMAC of coalesced T cell receptors (TCRs) and a peripheral SMAC for cell-cell adhesion were observed. IS with similar structure was later described during antigen acquisition by B cells and during the interaction of NK cells with target and healthy cells. More recent research developed with microscopy systems that improve the spatial and temporal resolution has showed the complex molecular dynamics at the IS that governs lymphocyte activation. Currently, the IS is seen as a three-dimensional structure where signalling networks for lymphocyte activation and endosomal and cytoskeleton machinery are polarised. A view has emerged in which dynamic microclusters of signalling complexes are composed of molecular components attached to the plasma membrane and other components conveyed on sub-synaptic vesicles transported to the membrane by cytoskeletal fibers and motor proteins. Much information is nonetheless missing about how the dynamics of the endosomal compartment, the cytoskeleton, and signalling complexes are reciprocally regulated to achieve the function of lymphocytes. Experimental evidence also suggests that the environment surrounding lymphocytes exposed to different antigenic challenge regulates IS assembly and functional output, making an even more complex scenario still far from being completely understood. Also, although some signalling molecular components for lymphocyte activation have been identified and thoroughly studied, the function of other molecules has not been yet uncovered or deeply characterised. This research topic aims to provide the reader with the latest information about the molecular dynamics governing lymphocyte activation. These molecular dynamics dictate cell decisions. Thus, we expect that understanding them will provide new avenues for cell manipulation in therapies to treat different immune-related pathologies.

Signalling Pathways in Embryonic Development

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453467 Year: Pages: 177 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-346-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Abstract

The formation of a complex multicellular organism from a single cell is one of the most amazing processes of biology. Embryonic development is characterised by the careful regulation of cellular behaviours such that cells proliferate, migrate, differentiate and form tissues at the correct place and time. These processes are genetically controlled and depend both on the history of cells, their lineage, and on the activities of signalling pathways, which coordinate the cell interactions leading to organogenesis. The aim of the Frontiers research topic “Signalling pathways in embryonic development” has been to provide a forum for experts in cell and developmental biology to share recent advances in the field of signalling during embryonic development. Sixteen articles in a variety of formats are united in this Topic, offering a valuable collection for researchers looking for an update in the knowledge of signalling pathways operating during embryogenesis. The works, focused mainly on vertebrates, explore different aspects of this theme from cell communication to organ formation and have implications for areas as distant as evolution or pathology. Understanding developmental signalling pathways is important for several reasons. It gives us information about basic mechanisms of cell function and interactions needed for morphogenesis and organogenesis. It uncovers the basis of congenital malformations, since errors at any step of cell signalling during development are a major cause of defects. This fundamental insight gives us clues to understand the mechanisms operating in evolution that explain diversity in form and function. And finally, it allows the identification of possible causes of disease in the adult organism (such as cancer or degenerative diseases) pinpointing possible targets for therapeutic approaches.

Keywords

Signalling --- embryo --- development --- organogenesis --- Notch --- Shh --- Fgf --- Wnt

Cellular and Phenotypic Plasticity in Cancer

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196623 Year: Pages: 77 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-662-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The process of Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT) is known to result in a phenotype change in cells from a proliferative state to a more invasive state. EMT has been reported to drive the metastatic spread of various cancers and has also been associated with drug resistance to cytotoxics and targeted therapeutics. Recently phenotype switching akin to EMT has been reported in non-epithelial cancers such as metastatic melanoma. This process involves changes in EMT-Transcription Factors (EMT-TFs), suggesting that phenotype-switching may be common to several tumour types. It remains unclear as to whether the presence of both Epilthelial-like and Mesenchymal-like cells are a pre-requisite for phenotype switching within a tumour, how this heterogeneity is regulated, and if alteration of cell phenotype is sufficient to mediate migratory changes, or whether drivers of cell migration result in an associated phenotype switch in cancer cells. Similarly it has yet to be clarified if cells in an altered phenotype can be refractory to drug therapy or whether mediators of drug resistance induce a concurrent phenotypic change. Little is known today about the underlying genetic, epigenetic and transient changes that accompany this phenotypic switch and about the role for the tumor micro-environment in influencing it. Hence this is currently an area of speculation and keen interest in the Oncology field with wide-ranging translational implications. In this Frontiers Research Topic, we discuss our current understanding of these concepts in various cancer types including breast cancer, colorectal cancer and metastatic melanoma. This topic covers how these processes of cellular and phenotypic plasticity are regulated and how they relate to cancer initiation, progression, dormancy, metastases and response to cytotoxics or targeted therapies.

Interplay between NO Signalling, ROS, and the Antioxidant System in Plants

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450695 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-069-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Over the last decades, nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as an essential player in redox signalling. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) also act as signals throughout all stages of plant life. Because they are potentially harmful for cellular integrity, ROS and NO levels must be tightly controlled, especially by the classical antioxidant system and additional redox-active metabolites and proteins. Recent work provided evidence that NO and ROS influence each other’s biosynthesis and removal. Moreover, novel signalling molecules resulting from the chemical reaction between NO, ROS and plant metabolites have been highlighted, including N2O3, ONOO-, NO2, S-nitrosoglutathione and 8-NO2 cGMP. They are involved in diverse plant physiological processes, the best characterized being stomata regulation and stress defense. Taken together, these new data demonstrate the complex interactions between NO, ROS signalling and the antioxidant system. This Frontiers in Plant Science Research Topic aims to provide an updated and complete overview of this important and rapidly expanding area through original article and detailed reviews.

Plant Responses to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses: Lessons from Cell Signaling

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453566 Year: Pages: 298 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-356-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Facing stressful conditions imposed by their environment and affecting their growth and their development throughout their life cycle, plants must be able to perceive, to process and to translate different stimuli into adaptive responses. Understanding the organism-coordinated responses involves a fine description of the mechanisms occurring at the cellular and molecular level. A major challenge is also to understand how the large diversity of molecules identified as signals, sensors or effectors could drive a cell to the appropriate plant response and to finally cope with various environmental cues. In this Research Topic we aim to provide an overview of various signaling mechanisms or to present new molecular signals involved in stress response and to demonstrate how basic/fundamental research on cell signaling will help to understand stress responses at the whole plant level.

Advances in Plastid Biology and Its Applications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450480 Year: Pages: 159 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-048-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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One of the distinguishing features of plants is the presence of membrane-bound organelles called plastids. Starting from proplastids (undifferentiated plastids) they readily develop into specialised types, which are involved in a range of cellular functions such as photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation, biosynthesis of sucrose, starch, chlorophyll, carotenoids, fatty acids, amino acids, and secondary metabolites as well as a number of metabolic reactions. The central role of plastids in many aspects of plant cell biology means an in-depth understanding is key for a holistic view of plant physiology. Despite the vast amount of research, the molecular details of many aspects of plastid biology remains limited. Plastids possess their own high-copy number genome known as the plastome. Manipulation of the plastid genome has been developed as an alternative way to developing transgenic plants for various biotechnological applications. High-copy number of the plastome, site-specific integration of transgenes through homologous recombination, and potential to express proteins at high levels (>70% of total soluble proteins has been reported in some cases) are some of the technologies being developed. Additionally, plastids are inherited maternally, providing a natural gene containment system, and do not follow Mendelian laws of inheritance, allowing each individual member of the progeny of a transplastomic line to uniformly express transgene(s). Both algal and higher plant chloroplast transformation has been demonstrated, and with the ability to be propagated either in bioreactors or in the field, both systems are well suited for scale up of production. The manipulation of chloroplast genes is also essential for many approaches that attempt to increase biomass accumulation or re-routing metabolic pathways for biofortification, food and fuel production. This includes metabolic engineering for lipid production, adapting the light harvesting apparatus to improve solar conversion efficiencies and engineering means of suppressing photorespiration in crop species, which range from the introduction of artificial carbon concentrating mechanisms, or those pre-existing elsewhere in nature, to bypassing ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase entirely. The purpose of this eBook is to provide a compilation of the latest research on various aspects of plastid biology including basic biology, biopharming, metabolic engineering, bio-fortification, stress physiology, and biofuel production.One of the distinguishing features of plants is the presence of membrane-bound organelles called plastids. Starting from proplastids (undifferentiated plastids) they readily develop into specialised types, which are involved in a range of cellular functions such as photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation, biosynthesis of sucrose, starch, chlorophyll, carotenoids, fatty acids, amino acids, and secondary metabolites as well as a number of metabolic reactions. The central role of plastids in many aspects of plant cell biology means an in-depth understanding is key for a holistic view of plant physiology. Despite the vast amount of research, the molecular details of many aspects of plastid biology remains limited. Plastids possess their own high-copy number genome known as the plastome. Manipulation of the plastid genome has been developed as an alternative way to developing transgenic plants for various biotechnological applications. High-copy number of the plastome, site-specific integration of transgenes through homologous recombination, and potential to express proteins at high levels (>70% of total soluble proteins has been reported in some cases) are some of the technologies being developed. Additionally, plastids are inherited maternally, providing a natural gene containment system, and do not follow Mendelian laws of inheritance, allowing each individual member of the progeny of a transplastomic line to uniformly express transgene(s). Both algal and higher plant chloroplast transformation has been demonstrated, and with the ability to be propagated either in bioreactors or in the field, both systems are well suited for scale up of production. The manipulation of chloroplast genes is also essential for many approaches that attempt to increase biomass accumulation or re-routing metabolic pathways for biofortification, food and fuel production. This includes metabolic engineering for lipid production, adapting the light harvesting apparatus to improve solar conversion efficiencies and engineering means of suppressing photorespiration in crop species, which range from the introduction of artificial carbon concentrating mechanisms, or those pre-existing elsewhere in nature, to bypassing ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase entirely. The purpose of this eBook is to provide a compilation of the latest research on various aspects of plastid biology including basic biology, biopharming, metabolic engineering, bio-fortification, stress physiology, and biofuel production.

Roots - The Hidden Provider

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452446 Year: Pages: 243 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-244-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Plant Innate Immunity 2.0

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ISBN: 9783038975809 Year: Pages: 386 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-581-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Plants possess a rather complex and efficient immune system. During their evolutionary history, plants have developed various defense strategies in order to recognize and distinguishing between self and non-self, and face pathogens and animal pests. Accordingly, to study the plant innate immunity represents a new frontier in the plant pathology and crop protection fields. This book is structured in 6 sections. The first part introduces some basic and general aspects of the plant innate immunity and crop protection. Sections 2–5 focus on fungal and oomycete diseases (section 2), bacterial and phytoplasma diseases (section 3), virus diseases (section 4), and insect pests (section 5), with a number of case studies and plant–pathogen/pest interactions. The last section deals with plant disease detection and control. The book aims to highlight new trends in these relevant areas of plant sciences, providing a global perspective that is useful for future and innovative ideas.

Keywords

dieback --- disease management --- Lasiodiplodia theobromae --- mango --- pathogenicity --- Bromoviridae --- plant–virus interactions --- plant defense response --- Prune dwarf virus --- replication process --- systemic and local movement --- plant proteases --- plant immunity --- MTI --- ETI --- SAR --- ISR --- RNA silencing --- RTNLB --- Agrobacterium --- biotic stress responses --- calcium --- calcium signature --- calmodulin --- CMLs --- CDPKs --- plant immunity --- symbiosis --- cell wall --- cellulose synthase --- hypersensitive response --- pathogenesis related-protein 2 --- plant-virus interaction --- Potato virus Y --- ultrastructure --- aphid resistance --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- hydroperoxide lyase --- Macrosiphum euphorbiae --- Myzus persicae --- Solanum lycopersicum --- ?-3 fatty acid desaturase --- Arabidopsis --- azelaic acid --- glycerol-3-phosphate --- light dependent signalling --- methyl salicylate --- N-hydroxypipecolic acid --- pipecolic acid --- salicylic acid --- SAR signalling --- spectral distribution of light --- tobacco --- rice --- Chilo suppressalis --- mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 --- jasmonic acid --- salicylic acid --- ethylene --- herbivore-induced defense response --- downy mildew --- grapevine --- PRRs --- PTI --- VaHAESA --- bismerthiazol --- rice --- induced defense responses --- chemical elicitors --- Sogatella furcifera --- defense-related signaling pathways --- tomato gray mold --- tomato leaf mold --- Bacillus subtilis --- biological control --- Capsicum annuum --- Ralstonia solanacearum --- CaWRKY40b --- immunity --- negative regulator --- transcriptional modulation --- Capsicum annuum --- CaWRKY22 --- immunity --- Ralstonia Solanacearum --- WRKY networks --- metabolomics --- plant defence --- plant–microbe interactions --- priming --- pre-conditioning --- citrus decline disease --- Citrus sinensis --- Bakraee --- “Candidatus Liberibacter” --- “Candidatus Phytoplasma” --- microbiota --- innate immunity --- basal defense --- rice blast --- Magnaporthe oryzae --- proteomics --- iTRAQ --- candidate disease resistance gene --- disease resistance --- downy mildew --- garden impatiens --- leaf transcriptome --- New Guinea impatiens --- RNA-Seq --- polyphenol oxidase --- Camellia sinensis --- Ectropis obliqua --- wounding --- regurgitant --- rice --- OsGID1 --- gibberellin --- herbivore-induced plant defenses --- Nilaparvata lugens --- plant protection products --- agrochemicals --- sustainable crop protection --- food security

Public-Private Partnerships for Sustainable Development

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ISBN: 9783038978329 9783038978336 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-833-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Voluntary sustainability standards (VSS) and other private governance instruments (e.g., Fair Trade, Forest Stewardship Council, Fair Wear Foundation, GLOBALGAP) are increasingly regulating global production processes and economic activities. VSS verify the compliance of products or production processes with sustainability standards. The importance of voluntary sustainability standards is now widely recognized. After being operational for more than two decades, they have established themselves as private governance instruments. This recognition is also exemplified by their integration in public regulatory approaches. Governments and international organizations are partnering with voluntary sustainability standards to pursue sustainable development policies. We witness the integration of VSS in the regulatory approaches of local and national governments in countries around the world, the integration of VSS in trade policies, the emergence of public&ndash;private initiatives to govern global supply chains, and the inclusion of private initiatives in experimentalist governance regimes. This Special Issue seeks to bring together research on the interface between private and public governance. We welcome contributions which analyze specific case studies on the emergence and development of these private&ndash;public interactions, the design of public&ndash;private governance, the effectiveness of these governance arrangements, and critical perspectives on the possibilities and limitations of such public&ndash;private forms of governance. We welcome multi-disciplinary perspectives including contributions from economics, political science, law, sociology, geography, and anthropology. Papers selected for this Special Issue are subject to a peer review procedure with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of research results, developments, and applications.

Thioredoxin and Glutaredoxin Systems

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ISBN: 9783038978367 / 9783038978374 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-837-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This Special Issue features recent data concerning thioredoxins and glutaredoxins from various biological systems, including bacteria, mammals, and plants. Four of the sixteen articles are review papers that deal with the regulation of development of the effect of hydrogen peroxide and the interactions between oxidants and reductants, the description of methionine sulfoxide reductases, detoxification enzymes that require thioredoxin or glutaredoxin, and the response of plants to cold stress, respectively. This is followed by eleven research articles that focus on a reductant of thioredoxin in bacteria, a thioredoxin reductase, and a variety of plant and bacterial thioredoxins, including the m, f, o, and h isoforms and their targets. Various parameters are studied, including genetic, structural, and physiological properties of these systems. The redox regulation of monodehydroascorbate reductase, aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, and cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase could have very important consequences in plant metabolism. Also, the properties of the mitochondrial o-type thioredoxins and their unexpected capacity to bind iron–sulfur center (ISC) structures open new developments concerning the redox mitochondrial function and possibly ISC assembly in mitochondria. The final paper discusses interesting biotechnological applications of thioredoxin for breadmaking.

Keywords

methionine --- methionine sulfoxide --- methionine sulfoxide reductase --- physiological function --- protein --- plant --- repair --- redox homeostasis --- signaling --- stress --- mitochondria --- thioredoxin --- iron–sulfur cluster --- redox regulation --- ALAD --- tetrapyrrole biosynthesis --- redox control --- thioredoxins --- posttranslational modification --- chlorophyll --- redox regulation --- thioredoxin --- ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase --- chloroplast --- H2O2 --- redox signalling --- development --- regeneration --- adult stem cells --- metazoan --- cyanobacteria --- thioredoxin --- photosynthesis --- redox active site --- thioredoxin --- disulfide --- flavin --- NADPH --- X-ray crystallography --- SAXS --- methanoarchaea --- chilling stress --- cold temperature --- posttranslational modification --- regulation --- ROS --- thiol redox network --- thioredoxin --- thioredoxin --- Calvin-Benson cycle --- photosynthesis --- carbon fixation --- chloroplast --- macromolecular crystallography --- protein-protein recognition --- electrostatic surface --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- thioredoxin --- glutaredoxin --- legume plant --- symbiosis --- redox homeostasis --- stress --- thioredoxin --- monodehydroascorbate reductase --- water stress --- protein oxidation --- antioxidants --- ascorbate --- glutathione --- wheat --- thioredoxin --- thioredoxin reductase --- baking --- redox --- dough rheology --- protein oxidation --- methionine oxidation --- methionine sulfoxide reductases --- oxidized protein repair --- ageing --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- cysteine alkylation --- cysteine reactivity --- MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry --- thioredoxin --- X-ray crystallography --- Isocitrate dehydrogenase --- glutathionylation --- nitrosylation --- glutaredoxin --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- thioredoxins --- plastidial --- specificity --- function --- proteomic --- photosynthesis --- Calvin cycle --- n/a

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