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Plant Silicon Interactions between Organisms and the Implications for Ecosystems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451029 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-102-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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In this Frontiers topic, we explore how the functions and fates of plant silicon interact with other organisms and ecosystem processes. By bringing together new data from multiple disciplines and scales, we present a cross-section of novel explorations into how plants use silicon and the implications for agriculture and ecosystems. Key aims in this field are to understand the determinants of plant silicon uptake and cycling, and the benefits that silicon uptake confers on plants, including reducing the impacts of stresses such as herbivory. Current research explores inter-specific interactions, including co-evolutionary relationships between plant silicon and animals, particularly morphological adaptations, behavioural responses and the potential for plant silicon to regulate mammal populations. Another emerging area of research is understanding silicon fluxes in soils and vegetation communities and scaling this up to better understand the global silicon cycle. New methods for measuring plant silicon are contributing to progress in this field. Silicon could help plants mitigate some effects of climate change through alleviation of biotic and abiotic stress and silicon is a component of some carbon sinks. Therefore, understanding the role of plant silicon across ecological, agricultural and biogeochemical disciplines is increasingly important in the context of global environmental change.

Ultrafast nonlinear silicon waveguides and quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

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Book Series: Karlsruhe Series in Photonics & Communications / Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics (IPQ) ISSN: 18651100 ISBN: 9783866447486 Year: Volume: 7 Pages: VII, 260 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000024381 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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In this book, nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid waveguides and quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers are investigated. Advantageous applications are identified, and corresponding proof-of-principle experiments are performed. Highly nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid waveguides show potential for all-optical signal processing based on fourwave mixing and cross-phase modulation. Quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers operate as linear amplifiers with a very large dynamic range.

Micromechanical finite element simulations of crack propagation in silicon nitride

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Kontinuumsmechanik im Maschinenbau / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Technische Mechanik - Bereich Kontinuumsmechanik ISSN: 2192693X ISBN: 9783866448186 Year: Volume: 3 Pages: 140 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000026004 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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Silicon nitride is used for challening applications like cutting inserts or forming rolls. The extreme strength and toughness of the material is achieved by an interaction between the microstructure and fracture behaviour on the microlevel. In order to understand these mechanisms, detailed unit cells have been defined and used for the determination of the effective fracture properties. The results have been used for the implementation of an effective continuum damage mechanics model.

Resonant Behaviour of Pulse Generators for the Efficient Drive of Optical Radiation Sources Based on Dielectric Barrier Discharges

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ISBN: 9783731500834 Year: Pages: 212 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000036098 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) excimer lamps emit vacuum-UV optical radiation. This work presents novel methods for efficiently operating DBDs with short, high-voltage pulses. Transformer-less systems utilising SiC power semiconductor switches are presented. Pulse frequencies of up to 3.1 MHz and peak inverter efficiencies of 92 % were achieved. The work encloses both mathematical backgrounds of pulsed resonant circuits and practical implementation of low-inductive power stages.

Role of Silicon in Plants

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453528 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-352-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Silicon (Si) is gaining increased attention in the farming sector because of its beneficial effects observed in several crop species, particularly under stress conditions. The magnitude of benefits is predominantly observed in plant species that can accumulate Si above a certain threshold. Therefore, deciphering the molecular mechanisms and genetic factors conferring a plant ability to take up silicon is necessary. Along these lines, several efforts have been made to identify the specific genes regulating Si uptake and distribution in plant tissues. This information finds its usefulness in identifying Si-competent species, and could eventually lead to improving this ability in low-accumulating species. The successful exploitation of Si in agriculture depends highly on the understanding of different Si properties including plant-available Si from the soil, transport within tissues, deposition in planta, and Si effect on different metabolic and physiological processes. In addition, a better comprehension of external factors influencing Si uptake and deposition in plant tissue remains important. A plant can take up Si efficiently only in the form of silicic acid and most soils, despite containing high concentrations of Si, are deficient in plant-available Si. Consequently, soil amendment with fertilizers rich in plant-available Si is now viewed as an affordable option to protect plants from the biotic and abiotic stresses and achieve more sustainable cropping management worldwide. Articles compiled in the present research topic touch upon several aspects of Si properties and functionality in plants. The information will be helpful to further our understanding of the role of Si and contribute to exploit the benefits plants derive from it.

Silicon-organic hybrid devices for high-speed electro-optic signal processing

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Book Series: Karlsruhe Series in Photonics and Communications / Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics (IPQ) ISSN: 18651100 ISBN: 9783731507697 Year: Volume: 22 Pages: XIV, 165 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000080658 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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Among the various elements of the silicon photonics platform, electro-optic IQ modulators play an important role. In this book, silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) integration is used to realize electro-optic IQ modulators for complex signal processing. Leveraging the high nonlinearity of organic materials, SOH IQ modulators provide low energy consumption for high-speed data transmission and frequency shifting. Furthermore, the device design is adapted for commercial foundry processes.

Slow-light photonic crystal devices for high-speed optical signal processing

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Book Series: Karlsruhe Series in Photonics & Communications / Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Institute of High-Frequency and Quantum Electronics (IHQ) ISSN: 18651100 ISBN: 9783866443136 Year: Volume: 4 Pages: X, 170 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000009905 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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This book discusses design, modeling, and the characterization of slow-light photonic crystal waveguides. Guidelines are developed to obtain slow-light waveguides with broadband characteristics and with low disorder-induced losses. Three functional devices are proposed and studied: A tunable dispersion compensator, a tunable optical delay line, and a high-speed electro-optic modulator. Optical and microwave measurements confirm the designs.

High-Speed, Low-Power and Mid-IR Silicon Photonics Applications

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Book Series: Karlsruhe Series in Photonics and Communications / Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics (IPQ) ISSN: 18651100 ISBN: 9783731500568 Year: Volume: 12 Pages: X, 92 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000035591 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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In this book, the first high-speed silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator is demonstrated by exploiting a highly-nonlinear polymer cladding and a silicon waveguide. By using a liquid crystal cladding instead, an ultra-low power phase shifter is obtained. A third type of device is proposed for achieving three-wave mixing on the silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) platform. Finally, new physical constants which describe the optical absorption in charge accumulation/inversion layers in silicon are determined.

New contributions to R-curves and bridging stresses - Applications of weight functions

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783866448360 Year: Volume: 3 Pages: VII, 231 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000027303 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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Most ceramics show an increase of the crack growth resistance during crack propagation (R-curve behaviour). Reasons for such behaviour are bridging effects between opposite crack surfaces, phase transformations around the tip of a crack, and development of micro-cracking zones. This booklet predominantly deals with the bridging behaviour and the discussion of the observed effects in terms of the fracture mechanics weight function procedure.

Silicon-Based Nanomaterials: Technology and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039210428 / 9783039210435 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-043-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Silicon has been proven to be remarkably resilient as a commercial electronic material. The microelectronics industry has harnessed nanotechnology to continually push the performance limits of silicon devices and integrated circuits. Rather than shrinking its market share, silicon is displacing “competitor” semiconductors in domains such as high-frequency electronics and integrated photonics. There are strong business drivers underlying these trends; however, an important contribution is also being made by research groups worldwide, who are developing new configurations, designs, and applications of silicon-based nanoscale and nanostructured materials. This Special Issue features a selection of papers which illustrate recent advances in the preparation of chemically or physically engineered silicon-based nanostructures and their application in electronic, photonic, and mechanical systems.

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