Search results: Found 25

Listing 1 - 10 of 25 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by
Dietary Protein and Muscle in Aging People

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038974574 9783038974581 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-458-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-14 10:56:39
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Dietary Proteins and Muscle in Aging People”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts either reporting original research or reviewing the scientific literature. Manuscripts should focus on the mechanisms linking dietary protein with muscle quality and quantity. Articles presenting results from clinical trials testing protein interventions on muscle mass and function are welcome. The Special Issue aims at including articles spanning different disciplines to explore the topic of interest. Reports from basic to clinical and population research are suitable. Articles adopting a longitudinal approach or reporting data from life-long interventions/observations in the exploration of the theme will be given special consideration.Potential topics include, but are not limited to:•Description of patterns of dietary protein consumption across life•Influence of dietary protein intake on the functional status of older people•Preclinical and clinical studies describing the mechanisms through which protein intake modifies muscle mass and function•Protein/amino acid supplementation interventions against sarcopenia, cachexia, or disease conditions associated with muscle wasting in old age•Disease-specific alterations modifying the effects of dietary protein intake on skeletal muscles•Effects of the interactions of dietary protein intake and gut microbiota on skeletal muscles]

Frontiers in Skeletal Muscle Wasting, Regeneration and Stem Cells

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198320 Year: Pages: 259 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-832-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The search for knowledge on cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle mass homeostasis and regeneration is an exciting scientific area and extremely important to develop therapeutic strategies for neuromuscular disorders and conditions related to muscle wasting. The mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and regeneration consist of molecular signaling pathways modulating protein synthesis and degradation, bioenergetics alterations and preserved function of muscle stem cells. In the last years, different kinds of stem cells has been reported to be localized into skeletal muscle (satellite cells, mesoangioblasts, progenitor interstitial cells and others) or migrate from non-muscle sites, such as bone marrow, to muscle tissue in response to injury. In addition, myogenic progenitor cells are also activated in skeletal muscle wasting disorders. The goal of this research topic is to highlight the available knowledge regarding skeletal muscle and stem cell biology in the context of both physiological and pathological conditions. Our purpose herein is to facilitate better dissemination of research into skeletal muscle physiology field.

Myofilament Function in Health and Disease

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451869 Year: Pages: 161 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-186-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The present E-book, consisting of a compilation of original articles and reviews, presents how myofilaments are regulated in cardiac and skeletal muscles and trigger contraction. Additionally, this E-book gives insights into their dysregulation in a number of muscle disorders.

Keywords

Contraction --- Muscle --- Heart --- skeletal muscle --- sarcomere --- Myosin --- Actin --- Myopathy

Cellular and molecular mechanisms of motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193769 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-376-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which was described since 1869 by Jean Martin Charcot, is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective and progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons of the cerebral cortex, brainstem and the spinal cord. The cognitive process is not affected and is not merely the result of aging because may occur at young ages. The only known cause of the disease is associated with genetic mutations, mainly in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (familial ALS), whereas there is no known cause of the sporadic form of ALS (SALS), which comprises >90% of cases. Both ALS types develop similar histopathological and clinical characteristics, and there is no treatment or prevention of the disease. Because effective treatments for ALS, as for other neurodegenerative diseases, can only result from the knowledge of their cellular and molecular pathophysiological mechanisms, research on such mechanisms is essential. Although progress in neurochemical, physiological and clinical investigations in the last decades has identified several mechanisms that seem to be involved in the cell death process, such as glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, alterations of inhibitory circuits, inflammatory events, axonal transport deficits, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and energy failure, the understanding of the origin and temporal progress of the disease is still incomplete and insufficient. Clearly, there is a need of further experimental models and approaches to discern the importance of such mechanisms and to discover the factors that determine the selective death of motor neurons characteristic of ALS, in contrast to other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. Whereas studies in vitro in cell cultures, tissue slices or organotypic preparations can give useful information regarding cellular and molecular mechanisms, the experiments in living animal models obviously reflect more closely the situation in the human disease, provided that the symptoms and their development during time mimics as close as possible those of the human disease. It is necessary to correlate the experimental findings in vitro with those in vivo, as well as those obtained in genetic models with those in non-genetic models, aiming at designing and testing therapeutic strategies based on the results obtained.

Physiology and Pathophysiology of Musculoskeletal Aging

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193905 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-390-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

We live in a world with an ever-increasing aging population. This aging population is predicted to place a huge financial burden on healthcare systems around the world. Understanding healthy ageing is a key research priority, along with a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ageing that occurs in a number of age related diseases, such as arthritis. By gaining a better understanding of healthy musculoskeletal ageing we can provide better care and new therapies for common musculoskeletal problems. This Research Topic is intended to bring together basic researchers and clinicians working in the broad area of musculoskeletal ageing. The topic includes mechanisms of healthy ageing in the musculoskeletal system, which we define as skeletal muscle and the synovial joint, particularly constituent structures including articular cartilage, subchondral bone tendon and ligament. A particular focus of this Research Topic is dietary modulation of musculoskeletal ageing.

Biomaterials and Bioactive Molecules to Drive Differentiation in Striated Muscle Tissue Engineering

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198412 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-841-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Tissue engineering is an innovative, multidisciplinary approach which combines (bio)materials, cells and growth factors with the aim to obtain neo-organogenesis to repair or replenish damaged tissues and organs. The generation of engineered tissues and organs (e. g. skin and bladder) has entered into the clinical practice in response to the chronic lack of organ donors. In particular, for the skeletal and cardiac muscles the translational potential of tissue engineering approaches has clearly been shown, even though the construction of this tissue lags behind others given the hierarchical, highly organized architecture of striated muscles. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world, where the yearly incidence of Acute MI (AMI) is approx 2 million cases in Europe. Recovery from AMI and reperfusion is still less than ideal. Stem cell therapy may represent a valid treatment. However, delivery of stem cells alone to infarcted myocardium provides no structural support while the myocardium heals, and the injected stem cells do not properly integrate into the myocardium because they are not subjected to the mechanical forces that are known to drive myocardial cellular physiology. On the other hand, there are many clinical cases where the loss of skeletal muscle due to a traumatic injury, an aggressive tumour or prolonged denervation may be cured by the regeneration of this tissue. In vivo, stem or progenitor cells are sheltered in a specialized microenvironment (niche), which regulates their survival, proliferation and differentiation. The goal of this research topic is to highlight the available knowledge on biomaterials and bioactive molecules or a combination of them, which can be used successfully to differentiate stem or progenitor cells into beating cardiomyocytes or organized skeletal muscle in vivo. Innovations compared to the on-going trials may be: 1) the successful delivery of stem cells using sutural scaffolds instead of intracoronary or intramuscular injections; 2) protocols to use a limited number of autologous or allogeneic stem cells; 3) methods to drive their differentiation by modifying the chemical-physical properties of scaffolds or biomaterials, incorporating small molecules (i.e. miRNA) or growth factors; 4) methods to tailor the scaffolds to the elastic properties of the muscle; 5) studies which suggest how to realize scaffolds that optimize tissue functional integration, through the combination of the most up-to-date manufacturing technologies and use of bio-polymers with customized degradation properties.

Mitochondria in Skeletal Muscle Health, Aging and Diseases

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450732 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-073-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Skeletal muscle is the most abudant tissue of the human body, making up to 40 to 50% of the human body mass. While the importance of optimal muscle function is well recognized in the athletic field, its significance for general health is often underappreciated. In fact, the evidence that muscle mass, strength and metabolism are essential for our overall health is overwhelming. As the largest protein reservoir in the human body, muscles are essential in the acute response to critical illness such as sepsis, advanced cancer, and traumatic injury. Loss of skeletal muscle mass has also been associated with weakness, fatigue, insulin resistance, falls, fractures, frailty, disability, several chronic diseases and death. As a consequence, maintaining skeletal muscle mass, strength and metabolism throughout the lifespan is critical to the maintenance of whole body health. Mitochondria are fascinating organelles regulating many critical cellular processes for skeletal muscle physiology, including for instance energy supply, reactive oxygen species production, calcium homeostasis and the regulation of apoptosis. It is therefore not surprising that mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in a large number of adverse events/conditions and pathologies affecting skeletal muscle health. While the importance of normal mitochondrial function is well recognized for muscle physiology, there are important aspects of mitochondrial biology that are still poorly understood. These include mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission processes), morphology and processes involved in mitochondrial quality control (mitophagy). Defining the mechanisms regulating these different aspects of mitochondrial biology, their importance for muscle physiology, as well as the interrelations will be critical for expanding understanding of the role played by mitochondria in skeletal muscle physiology and health. The present research topic provides readers with novel experimental approaches, knowledge, hypotheses and findings related to all aspects of mitochondrial biology in healthy and diseased muscle cells.Skeletal muscle is the most abudant tissue of the human body, making up to 40 to 50% of the human body mass. While the importance of optimal muscle function is well recognized in the athletic field, its significance for general health is often underappreciated. In fact, the evidence that muscle mass, strength and metabolism are essential for our overall health is overwhelming. As the largest protein reservoir in the human body, muscles are essential in the acute response to critical illness such as sepsis, advanced cancer, and traumatic injury. Loss of skeletal muscle mass has also been associated with weakness, fatigue, insulin resistance, falls, fractures, frailty, disability, several chronic diseases and death. As a consequence, maintaining skeletal muscle mass, strength and metabolism throughout the lifespan is critical to the maintenance of whole body health. Mitochondria are fascinating organelles regulating many critical cellular processes for skeletal muscle physiology, including for instance energy supply, reactive oxygen species production, calcium homeostasis and the regulation of apoptosis. It is therefore not surprising that mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in a large number of adverse events/conditions and pathologies affecting skeletal muscle health. While the importance of normal mitochondrial function is well recognized for muscle physiology, there are important aspects of mitochondrial biology that are still poorly understood. These include mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission processes), morphology and processes involved in mitochondrial quality control (mitophagy). Defining the mechanisms regulating these different aspects of mitochondrial biology, their importance for muscle physiology, as well as the interrelations will be critical for expanding understanding of the role played by mitochondria in skeletal muscle physiology and health. The present research topic provides readers with novel experimental approaches, knowledge, hypotheses and findings related to all aspects of mitochondrial biology in healthy and diseased muscle cells.

Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Sarcopenia in Aging and in Muscular Dystrophy: A Translational Approach

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196845 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-684-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Loss of muscle mass and increased fibrosis characterize both sarcopenia of aging and muscular dystrophy. Research is increasingly showing that these two conditions also share several pathophysiological mechanisms, including mitochondrial dysfunction, increased apoptosis, abnormal modulation of autophagy, decline in satellite cells, increased generation of reactive oxygen species, and abnormal regulation of signaling and stress response pathways. This Research Topic will cover several mechanisms involved in aging and dystrophic sarcopenia and explore the therapeutic potential of various strategies for intervention.

Hormones, Metabolism and the Benefits of Exercise

Author:
Book Series: Research and Perspectives in Endocrine Interactions ISSN: 1861-2253 ISBN: 9783319727899 9783319727905 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-72790-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: Fondation Ipsen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 10:36:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The world is faced with an epidemic of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. This is due to changes in dietary habits and the decrease in physical activity. Exercise is usually part of the prescription, the first line of defense, to prevent or treat metabolic disorders. However, we are still learning how and why exercise provides metabolic benefits in human health. This open access volume focuses on the cellular and molecular pathways that link exercise, muscle biology, hormones and metabolism. This will include novel “myokines” that might act as new therapeutic agents in the future.

Vitamin D and Human Health

Author:
ISBN: 9783038975861 9783038975878 Year: Pages: 306 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-587-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-21 10:04:11
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Over the past decades, researchers have gathered data demonstrating that vitamin D and its metabolites possess activities far beyond the classic regulation of calcium–phosphate homeostasis. It is now well established that vitamin D is essential for the proper functioning of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous, and immune systems. Furthermore, vitamin D and its analogs were shown to regulate proliferation and differentiation of keratinocyte, immune cells, and numerous cancer-derived cells, both in vivo and in vitro. On the other hand, population base studies have provided evidence that global vitamin D deficiency is correlated with the occurrence and aggravation of symptoms of skeletal, cardiovascular autoimmune, and skin disease; infections; metabolic and cognitive disorders; multiple types of cancers; as well as overall mortality. This Special Issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences, entitled “Vitamin D and Human Health”, summarizes recent advances in our understanding of pleiotropic activity of vitamin D with a focus on its protective role against cancer, hypertension, viral infections, and neurological diseases, as well as its impact on the immune system and mitochondria. Furthermore, eight research papers provide new insight into vitamin D research and highlight new directions and targets in the prevention and treatment of human diseases.

Listing 1 - 10 of 25 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search