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Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038429258 9783038429265 Year: Pages: X, 390 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 15:50:08
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This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts either describing original research or reviewing scientific literature related to salt reduction. Manuscripts should focus on population interventions for reducing dietary sodium and we are particularly interested in innovative approaches to changing the food environment and/or consumer behaviour. Manuscripts that discuss theoretical models informing the design of interventions for reducing dietary sodium are also welcome, as are studies from low or lower middle income countries.Potential topics may include, but are not limited to: Development/evaluation of regional or national strategies to reduce population salt intake Methodological issues related to measuring salt consumption patterns Use of policy or legislative approaches to reduce salt consumption Design and/or assessment of impact of behavioural change programs Modelling of the impact of interventions on salt intake and health outcomes.

Toxins in Drug Discovery and Pharmacology

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ISBN: 9783038428619 9783038428626 Year: Pages: XII, 304 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-04 11:37:49
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Venoms from marine and terrestrial animals (cone snails, scorpions, spiders, snakes, centipedes, cnidarian, etc.) can be seen as untapped cocktails of biologically active compounds that are being increasingly recognized as a new emerging source of peptide-based therapeutics. Venomous animals are considered to be specialized predators that have evolved the most sophisticated peptide chemistry and neuropharmacology for their own biological purposes by producing venoms that contain a structural and functional diversity of neurotoxins. These neurotoxins appear to be highly selective ligands for a wide range of ion channels and receptors. Therefore, they represent interesting lead compounds for the development of analgesics, anti-cancer drugs, drugs for neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson' s disease, Alzheimer' s disease, and other therapeutics.This Special Issue of Toxins aims to provide a comprehensive look at toxins and toxin-inspired leads and will focus on the mechanisms of action, structure–function relationships, and evolution of pharmacologically interesting venom components, including the most recent developments related to the emergence of venoms as an underutilized source of highly evolved bioactive peptides with clinical potential.

Modern Grinding Technology and Systems

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ISBN: 9783038429388 / 9783038429371 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-937-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This specialist edition features key innovations in the science and engineering of new grinding processes, abrasives, tools, machines, and systems for a range of important industrial applications. Topics written by invited, internationally recognized authors review the advances and present results of research over a range of well-known grinding processes. A significant introductory review chapter explores innovations to achieve high productivity and very high precision in grinding. The reviewed applications range from grinding systems for very large lenses and reflectors, through to medium size grinding machine processes, and down to grinding very small components used in MEMS . Early research chapters explore the influence of grinding wheel topography on surface integrity and wheel wear. A novel chapter on abrasive processes also addresses the finishing of parts produced by additive manufacturing through mass finishing. Materials to be ground range from conventional engineering steels to aerospace materials, ceramics, and composites. The research findings highlight important new results for avoiding material sub-surface damage. The papers compiled in this book include references to many source publications which will be found invaluable for further research, such as new features introduced into control systems to improve process efficiency. The papers also reflect significant improvements and research findings relating to many aspects of grinding processes, including machines, materials, abrasives, wheel preparation, coolants, lubricants, and fluid delivery. Finally, a definitive chapter summarizes the optimal settings for high precision and the achievement of centerless grinding stability.

Looking Forward to the Future of Heparin: New Sources, Developments and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038429494 / 9783038429500 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-950-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Looking Forward to the Future of Heparin: New Sources, Developments and Applications that was published in Molecules

Keywords

thrombin inhibition --- LMWH --- antithrombin --- heparin oligosaccharides --- ternary complex --- heparin --- hepcidin --- iron homeostasis --- anemia --- heparin-induced thrombocytopenia --- diagnosis --- functional assay --- platelets --- heparin --- heparan sulphate --- TGF-? --- bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) --- growth and differentiation factor (GDF) --- GDNF --- BMP antagonists --- noggin --- sclerostin --- gremlin --- heparin --- enoxaparin --- subarachnoid hemorrhage --- edema --- brain injury --- inflammation --- cisplatin --- low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) --- ovarian cancer --- resistance --- heparin --- glycosaminoglycans --- chondroitin sulfate --- perylene diimide dyes --- dermatan sulfate --- fluorescent probe --- Heparin Red --- assay --- dermatan sulfate --- human plasma --- heparin --- alginate --- sulfated alginate --- biomaterials --- heparin --- heparan sulfate --- serglycin --- proteoglycan --- recombinant expression --- bioreactor --- theranostics --- solid lipid nanoparticles --- iron oxide nanoparticles --- heparin coating --- intestinal lymphatic absorption --- heparin --- heparin process --- manufacturing methods --- industrial --- super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) --- hyaluronic acid (HA) --- bovine serum albumin (BSA) --- Fe3O4·DA-BSA/HA --- paclitaxel (PTX) --- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) --- low-molecular-weight heparin --- dalteparin --- NMR --- LC-MS --- affinity chromatography --- danaparoid sodium --- low molecular weight glycosaminoglycans --- orthogonal multi-analytical methods --- sequence and compositional investigations --- component quantitative analysis --- heparin --- crude heparin --- NMR --- quantitative NMR --- PCA --- chemometric --- HSQC --- bovine heparin --- porcine heparin --- molecular weight --- size exclusion chromatography --- pharmacopeia --- Fondaparinux sodium --- extended physicochemical characterization --- qNMR --- single crystal X-ray structure --- reference standard --- iduronic acid conformation --- Arixtra® --- n/a --- n/a --- n/a

Recent Advances in Water and Wastewater Treatment with Emphasis in Membrane Treatment Operations

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ISBN: 9783038976240 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-625-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The present Special Issue brings together recent research findings from renowned scientists in the field of water treatment and assembled contributions on advanced technologies applied to the treatment of wastewater and drinking water, with emphasis on novel membrane treatment technologies. 12 research contributions have highlighted various processes and technologies, which can achieve effective treatment and purification of wastewater and of drinking water, aiming (occasionally) for water reuse. The main topics which are analyzed are the use of novel type membranes in bioreactors, the use of modified membranes, for example using vacuum membrane distillation, the fouling of membranes, the problem of arsenic, antimony and chromium contamination in groundwaters and its removal and the use of novel technologies for more efficient ozonation.

TRP Channels in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783039210824 / 9783039210831 Year: Pages: 266 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-083-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Almost 25 years ago, the first mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel was cloned and published. TRP channels now represent an extended family of 28 members fulfilling multiple roles in the living organism. Identified functions include control of body temperature, transmitter release, mineral homeostasis, chemical sensing, and survival mechanisms in a challenging environment. The TRP channel superfamily covers six families: TRPC with C for “canonical”, TRPA with A for “ankyrin”, TRPM with M for “melastatin”, TRPML with ML for “mucolipidin”, TRPP with P for “polycystin”, and TRPV with V for “vanilloid”. Over the last few years, new findings on TRP channels have confirmed their exceptional function as cellular sensors and effectors. This Special Book features a collection of 8 reviews and 7 original articles published in “Cells” summarizing the current state-of-the-art on TRP channel research, with a main focus on TRP channel activation, their physiological and pathophysiological function, and their roles as pharmacological targets for future therapeutic options.

Keywords

ion channel --- TRPC --- small molecules --- calcium --- chemical probes --- TRPV1 --- TRPV2 --- TRPV3 --- TRPV4 --- mucosal epithelium --- ulcerative colitis --- inflammatory bowel disease --- TRPM4 channel --- cardiovascular system --- physiology --- pathophysiology --- TRPC6 --- elementary immunology --- inflammation --- calcium --- sodium --- neutrophils --- lymphocytes --- endothelium --- platelets --- human medulla oblongata --- cuneate nucleus --- dorsal column nuclei --- TRPV1 --- calcitonin gene-related peptide --- substance P --- TRP channels --- calcium signaling --- salivary glands --- xerostomia --- radiation --- inflammation --- transient receptor potential channels --- TRPC3 pharmacology --- channel structure --- lipid mediators --- photochromic ligands --- transient receptor potential --- TRPC3 --- mGluR1 --- GABAB --- EPSC --- Purkinje cell --- cerebellum --- toxicology --- TRP channels --- organ toxicity --- chemicals --- pollutants --- chemosensor --- TRPM7 --- kinase --- inflammation --- lymphocytes --- calcium signalling --- SMAD --- TH17 --- hypersensitivity --- regulatory T cells --- thrombosis --- graft versus host disease --- 2D gel electrophoresis --- AP18 --- HEK293 --- HSP70 --- MALDI-TOF MS(/MS) --- nanoHPLC-ESI MS/MS --- proteomics --- sulfur mustard --- TRPA1 --- TRPC channels --- diacylglycerol --- TRPC4 --- TRPC5 --- NHERF --- TRP channel --- TRPY1 --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- calcium --- manganese --- oxidative stress --- ion channels --- overproduction --- production platform --- protein purification --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- sensors --- transient receptor potential (TRP) channels --- yeast --- adipose tissue --- bioavailable --- menthol --- topical --- TRPM8 --- n/a

Recent Advances in Hydro- and Biohydrometallurgy

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ISBN: 9783039212996 / 9783039213009 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-300-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This Special Issue of Minerals presents recent, select studies that highlight advances in the fields of hydro- and biohydrometallurgy. It aims to attract the interest of readers and especially of young scientists and students in this fascinating scientific discipline.

Drinking Water Quality and Human Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977261 Year: Pages: 374 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-727-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The quality of drinking water is paramount for public health. Despite important improvements in the last decades, access to safe drinking water is not universal. The World Health Organization estimates that almost 10% of the population in the world do not have access to improved drinking water sources. Among other diseases, waterborne infections cause diarrhea, which kills nearly one million people every year, mostly children under 5 years of age. On the other hand, chemical pollution is a concern in high-income countries and an increasing problem in low- and middle-income countries. Exposure to chemicals in drinking water may lead to a range of chronic non-communicable diseases (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disease), adverse reproductive outcomes, and effects on children’s health (e.g., neurodevelopment), among other health effects. Although drinking water quality is regulated and monitored in many countries, increasing knowledge leads to the need for reviewing standards and guidelines on a nearly permanent basis, both for regulated and newly identified contaminants. Drinking water standards are mostly based on animal toxicity data, and more robust epidemiologic studies with accurate exposure assessment are needed. The current risk assessment paradigm dealing mostly with one-by-one chemicals dismisses the potential synergisms or interactions from exposures to mixtures of contaminants, particularly at the low-exposure range. Thus, evidence is needed on exposure and health effects of mixtures of contaminants in drinking water. Finally, water stress and water quality problems are expected to increase in the coming years due to climate change and increasing water demand by population growth, and new evidence is needed to design appropriate adaptation policies.This Special Issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) focuses on the current state of knowledge on the links between drinking water quality and human health.

Keywords

Vibrio pathogens --- rural water resources --- public health --- sub-Saharan Africa --- diarrhoeal disease --- HWTS implementation --- water and sanitation --- drinking water guidance --- infant exposure --- chemical risk assessment --- duration extrapolation --- acute gastroenteritis --- risk --- tap water --- time series study --- turbidity --- urban area --- water operation data --- THMs --- cancer --- effect measure modification --- drinking water --- drinking water --- exposure assessment --- sodium --- potassium --- magnesium --- calcium --- spatial variations --- Denmark --- water safety plans --- drinking water quality --- risk management --- impact assessment --- Asia-Pacific region --- diarrhea --- fever --- cough --- Nigeria --- infant health --- drinking water --- inorganic manganese --- health-based guideline --- infants --- pharmaceuticals --- human health --- environment --- drug labels --- screening method --- LTD --- uncertainty factors --- risk assessment --- risk context --- biomonitoring --- dental health --- drinking water --- fluoride --- pharmacokinetic modeling --- waterborne disease outbreak --- simulation study --- health insurance data --- space–time detection --- drinking water --- nitrate --- cancer --- adverse reproductive outcomes --- methemoglobinemia --- thyroid disease --- endogenous nitrosation --- N-nitroso compounds --- E. coli --- monitoring --- drinking water --- water safety plan --- sanitary inspection --- gravity-fed piped water scheme --- risk management --- chlorination by-product --- France --- environmental exposure --- organic matter --- tap water --- trihalomethanes --- private wells --- groundwater --- drinking water --- animal feeding operation --- fecal coliforms --- enterococci --- E. coli --- Maryland --- nitrite --- disinfection by-product --- drinking water distribution systems --- seasonality --- atrazine --- community water system --- low birth weight --- preterm birth --- small for gestational age --- water contamination --- endocrine disruptor --- drinking water --- radioactivity --- annual effective dose --- carcinogenic --- chronic kidney disease --- end-stage renal disease --- water contaminants --- zinc --- ammonia --- chemical oxygen demand --- dissolved oxygen --- arsenic

mTOR in Human Diseases

Author:
ISBN: 9783039210602 / 9783039210619 Year: Pages: 480 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-061-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a major signaling intermediary that coordinates favorable environmental conditions with cell growth. Indeed, as part of two functionally distinct protein complexes, named mTORC1 and mTORC2, mTOR regulates a variety of cellular processes, including protein, lipid, and nucleotide synthesis, as well as autophagy. Over the last two decades, major molecular advances have been made in mTOR signaling and have revealed the complexity of the events implicated in mTOR function and regulation. In parallel, the role of mTOR in diverse pathological conditions has also been identified, including in cancer, hamartoma, neurological, and metabolic diseases. Through a series of articles, this book focuses on the role played by mTOR in cellular processes, metabolism in particular, and highlights a panel of human diseases for which mTOR inhibition provides or might provide benefits. It also addresses future studies needed to further characterize the role of mTOR in selected disorders, which will help design novel therapeutic approaches. It is therefore intended for everyone who has an interest in mTOR biology and its application in human pathologies.

Keywords

acute myeloid leukemia --- metabolism --- mTOR --- PI3K --- phosphorylation --- epithelial to mesenchymal transition --- mTOR inhibitor --- pulmonary fibrosis --- transcriptomics --- miRNome --- everolimus --- mTOR --- thyroid cancer --- sodium iodide symporter (NIS)/SLC5A5 --- dopamine receptor --- autophagy --- AKT --- mTOR --- AMPK --- mTOR --- Medulloblastoma --- MBSCs --- mTOR --- T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia --- targeted therapy --- combination therapy --- mTOR --- metabolic diseases --- glucose and lipid metabolism --- anesthesia --- neurotoxicity --- synapse --- mTOR --- neurodevelopment --- mTOR --- rapamycin --- autophagy --- protein aggregation --- methamphetamine --- schizophrenia --- tumour cachexia --- mTOR --- signalling --- metabolism --- proteolysis --- lipolysis --- mTOR --- mTORC1 --- mTORC2 --- rapamycin --- rapalogues --- rapalogs --- mTOR inhibitors --- senescence --- ageing --- aging --- cancer --- neurodegeneration --- immunosenescence --- senolytics --- biomarkers --- leukemia --- cell signaling --- metabolism --- apoptosis --- miRNA --- mTOR inhibitors --- mTOR --- tumor microenvironment --- angiogenesis --- immunotherapy --- fluid shear stress --- melatonin --- chloral hydrate --- nocodazole --- MC3T3-E1 cells --- primary cilia --- mTOR complex --- metabolic reprogramming --- cancer --- microenvironment --- nutrient sensor --- oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) --- NVP-BEZ235 --- mTOR --- p70S6K --- mTOR --- advanced biliary tract cancers --- mTOR --- NGS --- illumina --- IonTorrent --- eIFs --- mTOR --- autophagy --- Parkinson’s disease --- mTOR --- PI3K --- cancer --- inhibitor --- therapy --- mTOR --- laminopathies --- lamin A/C --- Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) --- Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) --- autophagy --- cellular signaling --- metabolism --- bone remodeling --- ageing --- mTOR --- fructose --- glucose --- liver --- lipid metabolism --- gluconeogenesis --- Alzheimer’s disease --- autophagy --- mTOR signal pathway --- physical activity --- microRNA --- mTOR --- spermatogenesis --- male fertility --- Sertoli cells --- n/a

Amide Bond Activation

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ISBN: 9783039212033 / 9783039212040 Year: Pages: 466 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-204-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Abstract

The amide bond represents a privileged motif in chemistry. The recent years have witnessed an explosion of interest in the development of new chemical transformations of amides. These developments cover an impressive range of catalytic N–C bond activation in electrophilic, Lewis acid, radical, and nucleophilic reaction pathways, among other transformations. Equally relevant are structural and theoretical studies that provide the basis for chemoselective manipulation of amidic resonance. This monograph on amide bonds offers a broad survey of recent advances in activation of amides and addresses various approaches in the field.

Keywords

fumardiamide --- primaquine --- succindiamide --- Michael acceptor --- biofilm eradication --- antibacterial screening --- antiviral activity --- cytostatic activity --- N,N-dimethylformamide --- DMF --- N,N-dimethylacetamide --- DMAc --- amination --- amidation --- thioamidation --- formylation --- carbonylation --- cyanation --- insertion --- cyclization --- amide --- arynes --- insertion --- activation --- heterocycles --- organic synthesis --- multi-component coupling reaction --- aryl thioamides --- thiourea --- C-H/C-N activation --- C-S formation --- transition-metal-free --- rotational barrier energy --- amide bond --- nuclear magnetic resonance --- kinetic --- density functional theory --- non planar amide --- base-catalyed hydrolysis --- water solvation --- entropy --- transamidation --- amide --- amine --- catalyst --- catalysis --- acylative cross-coupling --- trialkylborane --- amide activation --- palladium --- N-heterocyclic carbene --- ruthenium (Ru) --- N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) --- homogeneous catalysis --- in situ --- amide bonds --- synthesis --- density functional theory --- cis/trans isomerization --- secondary amides --- dipeptides --- steric effects --- tert-butyl --- additivity principle --- amino acid transporters --- amide bond --- gemcitabine prodrug --- metabolic stability --- pancreatic cancer cells --- pharmacokinetics --- peptide bond cleavage --- amide bond resonance --- twisted amides --- enzymes --- metal complexes --- catalysts --- amide C–N bond activation --- nickel catalysis --- amidation --- DFT study --- reaction thermodynamics --- amide resonance --- anomeric effect --- HERON reaction --- pyramidal amides --- physical organic chemistry --- reaction mechanism --- amide --- activation --- amidicity --- carbonylicity --- transamidation --- acyl transfer --- excited state --- Suzuki-Miyaura --- cross-coupling --- aryl esters --- C–O activation --- Pd-catalysis --- amides --- carbanions --- C–H acidity --- nitro-aci tautomerism --- molecular dynamics --- density-functional theory --- alkynes --- C–H bond cleavage --- C–N bond cleavage --- cyclopentadienyl complexes --- N-(1-naphthyl)acetamide --- rhodium --- [2+2+2] annulation --- amide bond --- sulfonamide bond --- alkynes --- addition reaction --- aminoacylation --- aminosulfonylation --- pre-catalysts --- palladium catalysis --- amide bond activation --- ester bond activation --- cross-coupling --- amide bond --- bridged lactams --- twisted amides --- amides --- Winkler-Dunitz parameters --- N–C activation --- hypersensitivity --- nitrogen heterocycles --- distortion --- bridged sultams --- amides --- C-N ? bond cleavage --- sodium --- crown ether --- amide hydrolysis --- model compound --- intramolecular catalysis --- twisted amide --- protease --- intein --- C-H functionalization --- directing groups --- amides --- transition metals --- catalysis

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