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Soil Water Conservation. Dynamics and Impact

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038978527 9783038978534 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-853-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Abstract

Human needs like food and clean water are directly related to good maintenance of healthy and productive soils. A good understanding of human impact on the natural environment is therefore necessary to preserve and manage soil and water resources. This knowledge is particularly important in semi-arid and arid regions, where the increasing demands on limited water supplies require urgent efforts to improve water quality and water use efficiency. It is important to keep in mind that both soil and water are limited resources. Thus, wise use of these natural resources is a fundamental prerequisite for the sustainability of human societies. This book collects 15 original scientific contributions addressing the state of the art of soil and water conservation research. Contributions cover a wide range of topics, including (1) recovery of soil hydraulic properties; (2) erosion risk; (3) novel modeling, monitoring and experimental approaches for soil hydraulic characterization; (4) improvement of crop yields; (5) water availability; and (6) soil salinity. This collection provides more insights into conservation strategies for effective and sustainable soil and water management.

Keywords

soil moisture storage --- van Genuchten model --- distributed model --- Xin’anjiang model --- TOPMODEL --- bimsoils --- critical hydraulic gradient (CHG) --- response surface methodology --- multi-parameter evaluation --- laboratory experiment --- soil block --- subsurface flow --- macropore network --- spatial scale --- polyurethane foam --- hillslope --- soil water content --- field observation --- three-dimensional model --- numerical model --- delta plain --- shallow groundwater --- unsaturated soil --- Richards equation --- the Trefftz method --- transient --- the meshless method --- vineyards --- infiltration rate --- age of planting --- saturated hydraulic conductivity --- Malawi --- conservation agriculture --- peer effects --- decision tree modeling --- olive grove --- sap flow --- relative transpiration --- FDR sensor --- EM38 --- fraction transpiration soil water --- transdisciplinary research --- Follow-the-Innovation --- innovation development --- electromagnetic induction meter (EM) --- The Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) software --- AquaCrop --- cereals --- DSSAT --- field scattering --- food security --- microdose fertilization --- rainfall variability --- tied ridges --- upgrading strategies --- soil properties --- saturated soil hydraulic conductivity --- soil infiltration --- Beerkan method --- post-fire soil hydraulic characterization --- infiltration --- bottomless bucket method --- single-ring infiltrometer --- field-saturated soil hydraulic conductivity --- data analysis procedures --- environmental change --- local perception --- food security --- adaptation --- soil tillage --- tillage erosion --- seedbed preparation --- water infiltration --- nitrogen use efficiency --- specific leaf water content --- vegetable production --- soil --- yield --- water and soil conservation --- sustainable land management --- soil erosion --- soil water storage --- water infiltration --- water availability --- crop yields

Marine Geomorphometry

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038979548 / 9783038979555 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-955-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Abstract

Geomorphometry is the science of quantitative terrain characterization and analysis, and has traditionally focused on the investigation of terrestrial and planetary landscapes. However, applications of marine geomorphometry have now moved beyond the simple adoption of techniques developed for terrestrial studies, driven by the rise in the acquisition of high-resolution seafloor data and by the availability of user-friendly spatial analytical tools. Considering that the seafloor represents 71% of the surface of our planet, this is an important step towards understanding the Earth in its entirety.This volume is the first one dedicated to marine applications of geomorphometry. It showcases studies addressing the five steps of geomorphometry: sampling a surface (e.g., the seafloor), generating a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from samples, preprocessing the DTM for subsequent analyses (e.g., correcting for errors and artifacts), deriving terrain attributes and/or extracting terrain features from the DTM, and using and explaining those terrain attributes and features in a given context. Throughout these studies, authors address a range of challenges and issues associated with applying geomorphometric techniques to the complex marine environment, including issues related to spatial scale, data quality, and linking seafloor topography with physical, geological, biological, and ecological processes. As marine geomorphometry becomes increasingly recognized as a sub-discipline of geomorphometry, this volume brings together a collection of research articles that reflect the types of studies that are helping to chart the course for the future of marine geomorphometry.

Keywords

bedforms --- forage fish --- Pacific sand lance --- sediment habitats --- bathymetry --- currents --- seabed mapping --- marine geology --- submarine topography --- marine geomorphology --- terrain analysis --- multibeam echosounder --- bathymetry --- DEM --- satellite imagery --- multi beam echosounder --- filter --- geomorphology --- coral reefs --- Acoustic applications --- object segmentation --- seafloor --- underwater acoustics --- Cretaceous --- Cenomanian–Turonian --- paleobathymetry --- paleoclimate --- paleoceanography --- reconstruction --- simulation --- shelf-slope-rise --- geomorphometry --- GIS --- spatial scale --- spatial analysis --- terrain analysis --- seafloor geomorphometry --- domes --- volcanoes --- digital elevation models (DEMs) --- Canary Basin --- Atlantic Ocean --- cold-water coral --- carbonate mound --- habitat mapping --- spatial prediction --- image segmentation --- geographic object-based image analysis --- random forest --- accuracy --- confidence --- global bathymetry --- Seabed 2030 --- Nippon Foundation/GEBCO --- seafloor mapping technologies --- seafloor mapping standards and protocols --- benthic habitats --- shelf morphology --- eastern Brazilian shelf --- geomorphometry --- terrain analysis --- bathymetry --- surface roughness --- benthic habitat mapping --- python --- geomorphology --- submerged glacial bedforms --- deglaciation --- sedimentation --- multibeam --- acoustic-seismic profiling --- swath geometry --- multibeam spatial resolution --- integration artefacts --- Multibeam bathymetry --- benthic habitat mapping --- multiscale --- Random Forests --- pockmarks --- automated-mapping --- ArcGIS --- Glaciated Margin --- North Sea --- Malin Basin --- Barents Sea --- bathymetry --- thalwegs --- canyons --- Alaska --- Bering Sea --- multibeam sonar --- carbonate banks --- semi-automated mapping --- polychaete --- Northwestern Australia --- Oceanic Shoals Australian Marine Park --- Bonaparte Basin --- Timor Sea --- bathymetry --- digital terrain analysis --- geomorphometry --- geomorphology --- habitat mapping --- marine remote sensing

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eng (2)


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2019 (2)