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Biological and Biogenic Crystallization

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ISBN: 9783038975212 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-522-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Abstract

The intention of the Special Issue ""Biological and Biogenic Crystallization"" was to create an international platform aimed at covering a broad field of results involving the crystallization of biological molecules, including virus and protein crystallization, biogenic crystallization including physiological and pathological crystallization taking place in living organisms (human beings, animals, plants, bacteria, etc.), and bio-inspired crystallization. Despite many years of research on biological and biogenic crystals, there are still open questions as well as hot and timely topics. This Special Issue contains seven articles that present a cross-section of the current research activities in the of field of biological and biogenic crystals. The authors of the presented articles prove the vibrant and topical nature of this field. We hope that this Special Issue will serve as a source of inspiration for future investigations, and will be useful for scientists and researchers who work on the exploration of biological and biogenic crystals.

Gas Flows in Microsystems

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ISBN: 9783039215423 / 9783039215430 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-543-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The last two decades have witnessed a rapid development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) involving gas microflows in various technical fields. Gas microflows can, for example, be observed in microheat exchangers designed for chemical applications or for cooling of electronic components, in fluidic microactuators developed for active flow control purposes, in micronozzles used for the micropropulsion of nano and picosats, in microgas chromatographs, analyzers or separators, in vacuum generators and in Knudsen micropumps, as well as in some organs-on-a-chip, such as artificial lungs. These flows are rarefied due to the small MEMS dimensions, and the rarefaction can be increased by low-pressure conditions. The flows relate to the slip flow, transition or free molecular regimes and can involve monatomic or polyatomic gases and gas mixtures. Hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer are strongly impacted by rarefaction effects, and temperature-driven microflows offer new opportunities for designing original MEMS for gas pumping or separation. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on novel theoretical and numerical models or data, as well as on new experimental results and technics, for improving knowledge on heat and mass transfer in gas microflows. Papers dealing with the development of original gas MEMS are also welcome.

Keywords

pressure drop --- microchannels --- heat sinks --- slip flow --- electronic cooling --- Knudsen pump --- thermally induced flow --- gas mixtures --- direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) --- microfluidic --- rarefied gas flows --- micro-scale flows --- Knudsen layer --- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) --- OpenFOAM --- Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) --- Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS) --- backward facing step --- gaseous rarefaction effects --- fractal surface topography --- modified Reynolds equation --- aerodynamic effect --- bearing characteristics --- underexpansion --- Fanno flow --- flow choking --- compressibility --- binary gas mixing --- micro-mixer --- DSMC --- splitter --- mixing length --- control mixture composition --- preconcentrator --- microfluidics --- miniaturized gas chromatograph --- BTEX --- PID detector --- ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV LED) --- spectrophotometry --- UV absorption --- gas sensors --- Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) --- toluene --- hollow core waveguides --- capillary tubes --- gas mixing --- pulsed flow --- modular micromixer --- multi-stage micromixer --- modelling --- photoionization detector --- microfluidics --- microfabrication --- volatile organic compound (VOC) detection --- toluene --- supersonic microjets --- Pitot tube --- Knudsen pump --- thermal transpiration --- vacuum micropump --- rarefied gas flow --- kinetic theory --- microfabrication --- photolithography --- microfluidics --- resonant micro-electromechanical-systems (MEMS) --- micro-mirrors --- out-of-plane comb actuation --- fluid damping --- analytical solution --- FE analysis --- miniaturization --- gas flows in micro scale --- measurement and control --- integrated micro sensors --- advanced measurement technologies --- n/a

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eng (2)


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2019 (2)