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Modulators of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis for the control of spermatogenesis and sperm quality in vertebrates

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193585 Year: Pages: 159 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-358-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Abstract

Spermatogenesis is a process highly conserved throughout vertebrate species and is mainly under hypothalamic-pituitary control. It occurs in the testis in a stepwise fashion so that committed spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and enter meiosis to produce round spermatids. These undergo a morphological transformation (spermiogenesis) into mature spermatids (i.e.: spermatozoa), which are differentially released from Sertoli cells (spermiation) depending on the species. In mammals, further transformations are necessary to form mature spermatozoa, suitable for fertilization. Gonadotropins, mainly responsive to gonadotropin-releasing hormone, control spermatogenesis through specific receptors located at the gonadal level. However, besides the endocrine route, the chemical mediators may also act locally in the gonad. Indeed, it is documented that testis physiology, including steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, does not fully account for traditional endocrine control but an intragonadal network of autocrine and/or paracrine regulators also exists, whose activity, via cell-to-cell communication, regulates germ cell progression and development of qualitatively mature spermatozoa. Of note, a number of testicular modulators, such as gonadotropin releasing hormone, Kiss-peptin, endocannabinoids, has been early isolated in the brain and latest in the gonads. To fully understand precise mechanisms underlying the functional interaction of this intricate network, needless to say, it is crucially required to have detailed information about modulators and target cells. Through synergy between the respective specializations of all the authors, this topic reviewed emerging knowledge about neuroendocrine and local mediators controlling germ cell progression and maturation.

mTOR in Human Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039210602 / 9783039210619 Year: Pages: 480 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-061-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Abstract

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a major signaling intermediary that coordinates favorable environmental conditions with cell growth. Indeed, as part of two functionally distinct protein complexes, named mTORC1 and mTORC2, mTOR regulates a variety of cellular processes, including protein, lipid, and nucleotide synthesis, as well as autophagy. Over the last two decades, major molecular advances have been made in mTOR signaling and have revealed the complexity of the events implicated in mTOR function and regulation. In parallel, the role of mTOR in diverse pathological conditions has also been identified, including in cancer, hamartoma, neurological, and metabolic diseases. Through a series of articles, this book focuses on the role played by mTOR in cellular processes, metabolism in particular, and highlights a panel of human diseases for which mTOR inhibition provides or might provide benefits. It also addresses future studies needed to further characterize the role of mTOR in selected disorders, which will help design novel therapeutic approaches. It is therefore intended for everyone who has an interest in mTOR biology and its application in human pathologies.

Keywords

acute myeloid leukemia --- metabolism --- mTOR --- PI3K --- phosphorylation --- epithelial to mesenchymal transition --- mTOR inhibitor --- pulmonary fibrosis --- transcriptomics --- miRNome --- everolimus --- mTOR --- thyroid cancer --- sodium iodide symporter (NIS)/SLC5A5 --- dopamine receptor --- autophagy --- AKT --- mTOR --- AMPK --- mTOR --- Medulloblastoma --- MBSCs --- mTOR --- T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia --- targeted therapy --- combination therapy --- mTOR --- metabolic diseases --- glucose and lipid metabolism --- anesthesia --- neurotoxicity --- synapse --- mTOR --- neurodevelopment --- mTOR --- rapamycin --- autophagy --- protein aggregation --- methamphetamine --- schizophrenia --- tumour cachexia --- mTOR --- signalling --- metabolism --- proteolysis --- lipolysis --- mTOR --- mTORC1 --- mTORC2 --- rapamycin --- rapalogues --- rapalogs --- mTOR inhibitors --- senescence --- ageing --- aging --- cancer --- neurodegeneration --- immunosenescence --- senolytics --- biomarkers --- leukemia --- cell signaling --- metabolism --- apoptosis --- miRNA --- mTOR inhibitors --- mTOR --- tumor microenvironment --- angiogenesis --- immunotherapy --- fluid shear stress --- melatonin --- chloral hydrate --- nocodazole --- MC3T3-E1 cells --- primary cilia --- mTOR complex --- metabolic reprogramming --- cancer --- microenvironment --- nutrient sensor --- oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) --- NVP-BEZ235 --- mTOR --- p70S6K --- mTOR --- advanced biliary tract cancers --- mTOR --- NGS --- illumina --- IonTorrent --- eIFs --- mTOR --- autophagy --- Parkinson’s disease --- mTOR --- PI3K --- cancer --- inhibitor --- therapy --- mTOR --- laminopathies --- lamin A/C --- Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) --- Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) --- autophagy --- cellular signaling --- metabolism --- bone remodeling --- ageing --- mTOR --- fructose --- glucose --- liver --- lipid metabolism --- gluconeogenesis --- Alzheimer’s disease --- autophagy --- mTOR signal pathway --- physical activity --- microRNA --- mTOR --- spermatogenesis --- male fertility --- Sertoli cells --- n/a

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