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Interaction of BCI with the underlying neurological conditions in patients: pros and cons

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194896 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-489-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The primary purpose of Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems is to help patients communicate with their environment or to aid in their recovery. A common denominator for all BCI patient groups is that they suffer from a neurological deficit. As a consequence, BCI systems in clinical and research settings operate with control signals (brain waves) that could be substantially altered compared to brain waves of able-bodied individuals. Most BCI systems are built and tested on able-bodied individuals, being insufficiently robust for clinical applications. The main reason for this is a lack of systematic analysis on how different neurological problems affect the BCI performance. Neurological problems interfering with BCI performance are either a direct cause of a disability (e.g. stroke, autism, epilepsy ) or secondary consequences of a disability, often overlooked in design of BCI systems (chronic pain, spasticity and antispastic drugs, loss of cognitive functions, drowsiness, medications which are increasing/decreasing brain activity in certain frequency range) . While some of these deficits may decrease the performance of a BCI, others may potentially improve its performance compared to BCI tested on a healthy population (e.g. overactivation of motor cortex in patients with Central neuropathic pain (CNP), increased alpha activity in some patient groups). Depending on the neurological condition, a prolonged modulation of brain waves through BCI might produce both positive or detrimental effects. Thus some BCI protocols might be more suitable for a short term use (e.g. rehabilitation of movement) while the others would be more suitable for a long term use. Prolonged self-regulation of brain oscillation through BCI could potentially be used as a treatment for aberrant brain connections for conditions ranging from motor deficits to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Currently, ASD is an increasingly prevalent condition in the U.S. with core deficits in imitation learning, language, empathy, theory of mind, and self-awareness. Understanding its neuroetiology is not only critical and necessary but should provide relevant insights into the relationship between neuroanatomy, physiology and behaviour. In this Research Topic we welcome studies of the highest scientific quality highlighting how BCI systems based on different principles (SSVEP, P300, slow cortical potential, auditory potential, operant conditioning, etc) interact with the underlying neurological problems and how performance of these BCI system differ compared to similar systems tested on healthy individuals. We also welcome studies defining signatures of neurological disorders and proposing BCI based treatments. We expect to generate a body of knowledge valuable both to researchers working with clinical populations, but also to a vast majority of BCI researchers testing new algorithms on able-bodied people. This should lead towards more robust or tailor-made BCI protocols, facilitating translation of research from laboratories to the end users.

Plasticity of primary afferent neurons and sensory processing after spinal cord injury

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193967 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-396-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Traumatic injury of the spinal cord affects the entire organism directly and indirectly. Primary injury destroys neurons and severs axons which participate in neural circuits. Secondary injuries and pathologies arise from numerous sources including systemic inflammation, consequential damage of cutaneous, muscular, and visceral tissues, and dysregulation of autonomic, endocrine and sensory- motor functions. Evidence is mounting that spinal cord injury (SCI) affects regions of the nervous system spatially remote from the injury site, as well as peripheral tissues, and alters some basic characteristics of primary afferent cell biology and physiology (cell number, size/frequency, electrophysiology, other). The degree of afferent input and processing above the lesion is generally intact, while that in the peri-lesion area is highly variable, though pathologies emerge in both regions, including a variety of pain syndromes. Primary afferent input to spinal regions below the injury and the processing of this information becomes even more important in the face of complete or partial loss of descending input because such spared sensory processing can lead to both adaptive and pathological outcomes. This issue hosts review and research articles considering mechanisms of plasticity of primary afferent neurons and sensory processing after SCI, and how such plasticity contributes to sparing and/or recovery of functions, as well as exacerbation of existing and/or emergent pathologies. A critical issue for the majority of the SCI community is chronic above-, peri-, and below-level neuropathic pain, much of which may arise, at least in part, from plasticity of afferent fibers and nociceptive circuitry. For example, autonomic dysreflexia is common hypertensive syndrome that often develops after SCI that is highly reliant on maladaptive nociceptive sensory input and processing below the lesion. Moreover, the loss of descending input leaves the reflexive components of bladder/bowel/sexual function uncoordinated and susceptible to a variety of effects through afferent fiber plasticity. Finally, proper afferent feedback is vital for the effectiveness of activity-dependent rehabilitative therapies, but aberrant nociceptive input may interfere with these approaches since they are often unchecked due to loss of descending modulation.

Karolinska Institutet 200-Year Anniversary Symposium on Injuries to the Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nervous System - An Update on Recent Advances in Regenerative Neuroscience

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453245 Year: Pages: 74 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-324-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The present E-book consists of original articles and reviews published in our Research Topic on injuries to the spinal cord and peripheral nerves and presents a wide array of novel findings and in depth discussions on topics within the field of nerve injury and repair. Our aim with this Research Topic is to bring together knowledge spanning from basic laboratory studies to clinical findings and strategies within the field of spinal cord and nerve injury and repair. We hope this publication will provide a basis for accelerated knowledge exchange within the field and hopefully a subsequent increase in research efforts and collaborations.

Therapeutic Strategies to Spinal Cord Injury

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ISBN: 9783038974062 9783038974079 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-407-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-12 10:33:09
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.This Special Issue gathers eight research articles covering a broad range of strategies on how to combat spinal cord injuries, from searching for therapeutic target molecules, tackling inflammatory reactions, utilizing cell therapy or cell-based products, combined strategies for axonal plasticity assessment, and prevention of post-surgical epidural adhesions. Moreover, four reviews cover recent findings about the role of stress-activated protein kinases in SCI; progress in stem cell therapies; the mechanisms and benefits of activity-based physical rehabilitation therapies with adjuvant testosterone; and, finally, translational regenerative therapies for chronic spinal cord injury.

Eating Disorders and Obesity: The Challenge for Our Times

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ISBN: 9783038979982 / 9783038979999 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-999-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Eating Disorders have traditionally been considered apart from public health concerns about increasing obesity. It is evident that these problems are, however, related in important ways. Comorbid obesity and eating disorder is increasing at a faster rate than either obesity or eating disorders alone and one in five people with obesity also presents with an Eating Disorder, commonly but not limited to Binge Eating Disorder. New disorders have emerged such as normal weight or Atypical Anorexia Nervosa. However research and practice too often occurs in parallel with a failure to understand the weight disorder spectrum and consequences of co-morbidity that then contributes to poorer outcomes for people living with a larger size and an Eating Disorder. Urgently needed are trials that will inform more effective assessment, treatment and care where body size and eating disorder symptoms are both key to the research question.

Keywords

obesity risk --- mothers --- women --- young children --- socioecological --- obesity --- eating disorders --- binge eating --- dieting --- treatment --- the Roma --- nurse --- overweight --- obesity --- health education --- lifestyle factors --- nutrition --- cultural features --- spinal cord injury --- athlete --- energy availability --- nutrient deficiency --- low energy availability --- bone mineral density --- para athlete --- menstrual dysfunction --- Female Athlete Triad --- Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports (RED-S) --- binge eating --- questionnaire --- psychometric --- eating disorders --- obesity --- obesity --- weight loss --- bariatric surgery --- eating behaviour --- psychology --- Bulimia Nervosa --- binge-eating disorder --- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders --- International Classification of Diseases --- biofeedback --- EEG-Neurofeedback --- fMRI-Neurofeedback --- eating disorders --- psychophysiology --- eating disorders-related symptoms --- loss of control eating --- obesity --- BMI --- adolescent --- females --- family functioning --- energy intake --- physical fitness --- visceral adipose tissue --- obesity --- eating disorders --- nutrition --- physical activity --- exercise --- bulimia --- binge eating disorder --- feeding behavior --- cognition --- obesity --- event-related potential --- P3 --- children --- eating disorders --- eating behavior --- feeding practices --- obesity --- EEG --- frequency bands --- obesity --- brain activity --- impulsivity --- children --- eating disorders --- obesity --- prevention --- food industry --- food environment --- food policy --- executive function --- obesity --- binge-eating disorder --- food addiction --- addictive-like eating --- dietary patterns --- body satisfaction --- orthorexia nervosa --- students --- binge-eating disorder --- BED --- obesity --- binge-type eating --- neuromedin U receptor 2 --- NMUR2 --- nucleus accumbens --- ventral tegmental area --- usability study --- online health intervention --- adolescents --- school setting --- eating disorders --- overweight --- prevention --- engagement --- E-Mental Health --- bulimia nervosa --- binge eating disorder --- weight --- dieting --- treatment

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