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Interaction of BCI with the underlying neurological conditions in patients: pros and cons

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194896 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-489-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The primary purpose of Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems is to help patients communicate with their environment or to aid in their recovery. A common denominator for all BCI patient groups is that they suffer from a neurological deficit. As a consequence, BCI systems in clinical and research settings operate with control signals (brain waves) that could be substantially altered compared to brain waves of able-bodied individuals. Most BCI systems are built and tested on able-bodied individuals, being insufficiently robust for clinical applications. The main reason for this is a lack of systematic analysis on how different neurological problems affect the BCI performance. Neurological problems interfering with BCI performance are either a direct cause of a disability (e.g. stroke, autism, epilepsy ) or secondary consequences of a disability, often overlooked in design of BCI systems (chronic pain, spasticity and antispastic drugs, loss of cognitive functions, drowsiness, medications which are increasing/decreasing brain activity in certain frequency range) . While some of these deficits may decrease the performance of a BCI, others may potentially improve its performance compared to BCI tested on a healthy population (e.g. overactivation of motor cortex in patients with Central neuropathic pain (CNP), increased alpha activity in some patient groups). Depending on the neurological condition, a prolonged modulation of brain waves through BCI might produce both positive or detrimental effects. Thus some BCI protocols might be more suitable for a short term use (e.g. rehabilitation of movement) while the others would be more suitable for a long term use. Prolonged self-regulation of brain oscillation through BCI could potentially be used as a treatment for aberrant brain connections for conditions ranging from motor deficits to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Currently, ASD is an increasingly prevalent condition in the U.S. with core deficits in imitation learning, language, empathy, theory of mind, and self-awareness. Understanding its neuroetiology is not only critical and necessary but should provide relevant insights into the relationship between neuroanatomy, physiology and behaviour. In this Research Topic we welcome studies of the highest scientific quality highlighting how BCI systems based on different principles (SSVEP, P300, slow cortical potential, auditory potential, operant conditioning, etc) interact with the underlying neurological problems and how performance of these BCI system differ compared to similar systems tested on healthy individuals. We also welcome studies defining signatures of neurological disorders and proposing BCI based treatments. We expect to generate a body of knowledge valuable both to researchers working with clinical populations, but also to a vast majority of BCI researchers testing new algorithms on able-bodied people. This should lead towards more robust or tailor-made BCI protocols, facilitating translation of research from laboratories to the end users.

Cellular and molecular mechanisms of motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193769 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-376-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which was described since 1869 by Jean Martin Charcot, is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective and progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons of the cerebral cortex, brainstem and the spinal cord. The cognitive process is not affected and is not merely the result of aging because may occur at young ages. The only known cause of the disease is associated with genetic mutations, mainly in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (familial ALS), whereas there is no known cause of the sporadic form of ALS (SALS), which comprises >90% of cases. Both ALS types develop similar histopathological and clinical characteristics, and there is no treatment or prevention of the disease. Because effective treatments for ALS, as for other neurodegenerative diseases, can only result from the knowledge of their cellular and molecular pathophysiological mechanisms, research on such mechanisms is essential. Although progress in neurochemical, physiological and clinical investigations in the last decades has identified several mechanisms that seem to be involved in the cell death process, such as glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, alterations of inhibitory circuits, inflammatory events, axonal transport deficits, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and energy failure, the understanding of the origin and temporal progress of the disease is still incomplete and insufficient. Clearly, there is a need of further experimental models and approaches to discern the importance of such mechanisms and to discover the factors that determine the selective death of motor neurons characteristic of ALS, in contrast to other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. Whereas studies in vitro in cell cultures, tissue slices or organotypic preparations can give useful information regarding cellular and molecular mechanisms, the experiments in living animal models obviously reflect more closely the situation in the human disease, provided that the symptoms and their development during time mimics as close as possible those of the human disease. It is necessary to correlate the experimental findings in vitro with those in vivo, as well as those obtained in genetic models with those in non-genetic models, aiming at designing and testing therapeutic strategies based on the results obtained.

Plasticity of primary afferent neurons and sensory processing after spinal cord injury

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193967 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-396-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Traumatic injury of the spinal cord affects the entire organism directly and indirectly. Primary injury destroys neurons and severs axons which participate in neural circuits. Secondary injuries and pathologies arise from numerous sources including systemic inflammation, consequential damage of cutaneous, muscular, and visceral tissues, and dysregulation of autonomic, endocrine and sensory- motor functions. Evidence is mounting that spinal cord injury (SCI) affects regions of the nervous system spatially remote from the injury site, as well as peripheral tissues, and alters some basic characteristics of primary afferent cell biology and physiology (cell number, size/frequency, electrophysiology, other). The degree of afferent input and processing above the lesion is generally intact, while that in the peri-lesion area is highly variable, though pathologies emerge in both regions, including a variety of pain syndromes. Primary afferent input to spinal regions below the injury and the processing of this information becomes even more important in the face of complete or partial loss of descending input because such spared sensory processing can lead to both adaptive and pathological outcomes. This issue hosts review and research articles considering mechanisms of plasticity of primary afferent neurons and sensory processing after SCI, and how such plasticity contributes to sparing and/or recovery of functions, as well as exacerbation of existing and/or emergent pathologies. A critical issue for the majority of the SCI community is chronic above-, peri-, and below-level neuropathic pain, much of which may arise, at least in part, from plasticity of afferent fibers and nociceptive circuitry. For example, autonomic dysreflexia is common hypertensive syndrome that often develops after SCI that is highly reliant on maladaptive nociceptive sensory input and processing below the lesion. Moreover, the loss of descending input leaves the reflexive components of bladder/bowel/sexual function uncoordinated and susceptible to a variety of effects through afferent fiber plasticity. Finally, proper afferent feedback is vital for the effectiveness of activity-dependent rehabilitative therapies, but aberrant nociceptive input may interfere with these approaches since they are often unchecked due to loss of descending modulation.

Wheeled Mobility Biomechanics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199389 Year: Pages: 91 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-938-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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For the manual wheelchair (MWC) user, loss of lower extremity function often places the burden for mobility and activities of daily living on the upper extremities. This e-book on Wheeled Mobility Biomechanics contains current research that provides insights into the mechanical demands and performance techniques during tasks associated with MWC. Our intent was to contribute to advancing the knowledge regarding the variables that promote or hinder an individual’s capacity to handle the daily manual wheeled mobility demands and gain greater insights into upper extremity loading consequences, predictors of pain onset and injury, and ultimately identify strategies for preserving health and functional mobility for the MWC user.

Neuro-motor control and feed-forward models of locomotion in humans

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196142 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-614-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Locomotion involves many different muscles and the need of controlling several degrees of freedom. Despite the Central Nervous System can finely control the contraction of individual muscles, emerging evidences indicate that strategies for the reduction of the complexity of movement and for compensating the sensorimotor delays may be adopted. Experimental evidences in animal and lately human model led to the concept of a central pattern generator (CPG) which suggests that circuitry within the distal part of CNS, i.e. spinal cord, can generate the basic locomotor patterns, even in the absence of sensory information. Different studies pointed out the role of CPG in the control of locomotion as well as others investigated the neuroplasticity of CPG allowing for gait recovery after spinal cord lesion. Literature was also focused on muscle synergies, i.e. the combination of (locomotor) functional modules, implemented in neuronal networks of the spinal cord, generating specific motor output by imposing a specific timing structure and appropriate weightings to muscle activations. Despite the great interest that this approach generated in the last years in the Scientific Community, large areas of investigations remain available for further improvement (e.g. the influence of afferent feedback and environmental constrains) for both experimental and simulated models. However, also supraspinal structures are involved during locomotion, and it has been shown that they are responsible for initiating and modifying the features of this basic rhythm, for stabilising the upright walking, and for coordinating movements in a dynamic changing environment. Furthermore, specific damages into spinal and supraspinal structures result in specific alterations of human locomotion, as evident in subjects with brain injuries such as stroke, brain trauma, or people with cerebral palsy, in people with death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra due to Parkinson’s disease, or in subjects with cerebellar dysfunctions, such as patients with ataxia. The role of cerebellum during locomotion has been shown to be related to coordination and adaptation of movements. Cerebellum is the structure of CNS where are conceivably located the internal models, that are neural representations miming meaningful aspects of our body, such as input/output characteristics of sensorimotor system. Internal model control has been shown to be at the basis of motor strategies for compensating delays or lacks in sensorimotor feedbacks, and some aspects of locomotion need predictive internal control, especially for improving gait dynamic stability, for avoiding obstacles or when sensory feedback is altered or lacking. Furthermore, despite internal model concepts are widespread in neuroscience and neurocognitive science, neurorehabilitation paid far too little attention to the potential role of internal model control on gait recovery. Many important scientists have contributed to this Research Topic with original studies, computational studies, and review articles focused on neural circuits and internal models involved in the control of human locomotion, aiming at understanding the role played in control of locomotion of different neural circuits located at brain, cerebellum, and spinal cord levels.

Karolinska Institutet 200-Year Anniversary Symposium on Injuries to the Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nervous System - An Update on Recent Advances in Regenerative Neuroscience

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453245 Year: Pages: 74 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-324-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The present E-book consists of original articles and reviews published in our Research Topic on injuries to the spinal cord and peripheral nerves and presents a wide array of novel findings and in depth discussions on topics within the field of nerve injury and repair. Our aim with this Research Topic is to bring together knowledge spanning from basic laboratory studies to clinical findings and strategies within the field of spinal cord and nerve injury and repair. We hope this publication will provide a basis for accelerated knowledge exchange within the field and hopefully a subsequent increase in research efforts and collaborations.

Therapeutic Strategies to Spinal Cord Injury

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ISBN: 9783038974062 9783038974079 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-407-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-12 10:33:09
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.This Special Issue gathers eight research articles covering a broad range of strategies on how to combat spinal cord injuries, from searching for therapeutic target molecules, tackling inflammatory reactions, utilizing cell therapy or cell-based products, combined strategies for axonal plasticity assessment, and prevention of post-surgical epidural adhesions. Moreover, four reviews cover recent findings about the role of stress-activated protein kinases in SCI; progress in stem cell therapies; the mechanisms and benefits of activity-based physical rehabilitation therapies with adjuvant testosterone; and, finally, translational regenerative therapies for chronic spinal cord injury.

Surgery for Spine Disease and Intractable Pain

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ISBN: 9783039284788 9783039284795 Year: Pages: 88 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-479-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Siloxane-Based Polymers

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ISBN: 9783038971252 9783038971269 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-126-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book, a collection of 12 original contributions and 4 reviews, provides a selection of the most recent advances in the preparation, characterization, and applications of polymeric nanocomposites comprising nanoparticles. The concept of nanoparticle-reinforced polymers came about three decades ago, following the outstanding discovery of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. One of the main ideas behind this approach is to improve the matrix mechanical performance. The nanoparticles exhibit higher specific surface area, surface energy, and density compared to microparticles and, hence, lower nanofiller concentrations are needed to attain properties comparable to, or even better than, those obtained by conventional microfiller loadings, which facilitates processing and minimizes the increase in composite weight. The addition of nanoparticles into different polymer matrices opens up an important research area in the field of composite materials. Moreover, many different types of inorganic nanoparticles, such as quantum dots, metal oxides, and ceramic and metallic nanoparticles, have been incorporated into polymers for their application in a wide range of fields, ranging from medicine to photovoltaics, packaging, and structural applications.

Keywords

fabrication --- multielectrode array (MEA) --- PDMS --- PDMS etching --- plateau-shaped electrode --- recessed electrode --- spinal cord signal recording --- underexposure --- organosilane --- quartz microcrystal --- encapsulant --- refractive index --- thermal conductivity --- poly(dimethylsiloxanes) --- surface modification --- nanosilica --- diethyl carbonate --- carbon content --- morphology --- coatings --- fillers --- hybrid hydrogel --- MAPOSS --- mechanical properties --- swelling --- drug release --- dental resin --- methacryl POSS --- shrinkage --- hardness --- scratch resistance --- ceramizable silicone rubber --- borate --- halloysite --- composite --- ceramizable mechanism --- polysiloxanes --- mortar --- basalt fibre --- roughness --- surface free energy --- poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) --- hydrophilic --- non-releasable --- polydimethylsiloxane --- coatings --- cross-linking --- surface --- amphiphilic --- anti-bioadhesion --- hyperbranched poly(methylhydrosiloxanes) --- hydrolytic polycondensation --- 29Si-NMR --- topology of polysiloxane chains --- polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes --- high molecular weight --- nanoparticles --- PDMS --- sugar templating process --- 3D porous network --- thermal stability --- TG-FTIR --- X-ray (Micro-CT) microtomography --- sol-gel --- hybrids --- chlorogenic acid --- bioactivity --- FTIR --- TG --- polysiloxanes --- theranostics --- drug delivery --- nanomedicine --- PDMS --- silicon --- ultraviolet (UV) curable coatings --- low surface energy materials --- fluorinated siloxane resin

Nucleic Acid Architectures for Therapeutics, Diagnostics, Devices and Materials

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ISBN: 9783039212590 9783039212606 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-260-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and their chemical analogs have been utilized as building materials due to their biocompatibility and programmability. RNA, which naturally possesses a wide range of different functions, is now being widely investigated for its role as a responsive biomaterial which dynamically reacts to changes in the surrounding environment. It is now evident that artificially designed self-assembling RNAs, that can form programmable nanoparticles and supra-assemblies, will play an increasingly important part in a diverse range of applications, such as macromolecular therapies, drug delivery systems, biosensing, tissue engineering, programmable scaffolds for material organization, logic gates, and soft actuators, to name but a few. The current exciting Special Issue comprises research highlights, short communications, research articles, and reviews that all bring together the leading scientists who are exploring a wide range of the fundamental properties of RNA and DNA nanoassemblies suitable for biomedical applications.

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