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ROS Regulation during Plant Abiotic Stress Responses

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450541 Year: Pages: 306 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-054-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Plants are continuously exposed to a wide range of environmental conditions, including cold, drought, salt, heat, which have major impact on plant growth and development. To survive, plants have evolved complex physiological and biochemical adaptations to cope with a variety of adverse environmental stresses. Among them, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key regulators and play pivotal roles during plant stress responses, which are thought to function as early signals during plant abiotic stress responses. ROS were long regarded as unwanted and toxic by-products of physiological metabolism. However, ROS are now recognized as central players in the complex signaling network of cells. Therefore, a fine-tuning control between ROS production and scavenging pathways is essential to maintain non-toxic levels in planta under stressful conditions through enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. We focus on the roles of ROS during plant abiotic stress responses in this Research Topic. Plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses and effects of hormones and chemicals on plant stress responses have been carefully studies. Although functions of several stress responsive genes have been characterized and possible interactions between hormones and ROS are discussed, future researches are needed to functionally characterize ROS regulatory and signaling transduction pathways.Plants are continuously exposed to a wide range of environmental conditions, including cold, drought, salt, heat, which have major impact on plant growth and development. To survive, plants have evolved complex physiological and biochemical adaptations to cope with a variety of adverse environmental stresses. Among them, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key regulators and play pivotal roles during plant stress responses, which are thought to function as early signals during plant abiotic stress responses. ROS were long regarded as unwanted and toxic by-products of physiological metabolism. However, ROS are now recognized as central players in the complex signaling network of cells. Therefore, a fine-tuning control between ROS production and scavenging pathways is essential to maintain non-toxic levels in planta under stressful conditions through enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. We focus on the roles of ROS during plant abiotic stress responses in this Research Topic. Plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses and effects of hormones and chemicals on plant stress responses have been carefully studies. Although functions of several stress responsive genes have been characterized and possible interactions between hormones and ROS are discussed, future researches are needed to functionally characterize ROS regulatory and signaling transduction pathways.

Genomic Approaches for Improvement of Understudied Grasses

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452422 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-242-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Grasses are diverse, spanning native prairies to high-yielding grain cropping systems. They are valued for their beauty and useful for soil stabilization, pollution mitigation, biofuel production, nutritional value, and forage quality; grasses encompass the most important grain crops in the world. There are thousands of distinct grass species and many have promiscuous hybridization patterns, blurring species boundaries. Resources for advancing the science and knowledgebase of individual grass species or their unique characteristics varies, often proportional to their perceived value to society. For many grasses, limited genetic information hinders research progress. Presented in this research topic is a brief snapshot of creative efforts to apply modern genomics research methodologies to the study of several minor grass species.

Plant Responses to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses: Lessons from Cell Signaling

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453566 Year: Pages: 298 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-356-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Facing stressful conditions imposed by their environment and affecting their growth and their development throughout their life cycle, plants must be able to perceive, to process and to translate different stimuli into adaptive responses. Understanding the organism-coordinated responses involves a fine description of the mechanisms occurring at the cellular and molecular level. A major challenge is also to understand how the large diversity of molecules identified as signals, sensors or effectors could drive a cell to the appropriate plant response and to finally cope with various environmental cues. In this Research Topic we aim to provide an overview of various signaling mechanisms or to present new molecular signals involved in stress response and to demonstrate how basic/fundamental research on cell signaling will help to understand stress responses at the whole plant level.

Amino Acids of the Glutamate Family: Functions beyond Primary Metabolism

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199365 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-936-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The life of proteins starts and ends as amino acids. In addition to the primary function as protein building blocks, amino acids serve multiple other purposes to make a plant's life worth living. This is true especially for the amino acids of the glutamate family, namely glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), proline (Pro) and arginine (Arg), as well as the product of Glu decarboxylation, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Synthesis, accumulation, interconversion and degradation of these five compounds contribute in many ways to the regulation of plant development and to responses to environmental challenges. Glu and Gln hold key positions as entry points and master regulators of nitrogen metabolism in plants, and have a pivotal role in the regulatory interplay between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Pro and GABA are among the best-studied compatible osmolytes that accumulate in response to water deficit, yet the full range of protective functions is still to be revealed. Arg, with its exceptionally high nitrogen-to-carbon ratio, has long been recognized as a major storage form of organic nitrogen. Most of the enzymes involved in metabolism of the amino acids of the glutamate family in plants have been identified or can be predicted according to similarity with animal or microbial homologues. However, for some of these enzymes the detailed biochemical properties still remain to be determined in order to understand activities in vivo. Additionally, uncertainties regarding the subcellular localization of proteins and especially the lack of knowledge about intracellular transport proteins leave significant gaps in our understanding of the metabolic network connecting Glu, Gln, Pro, GABA and Arg. While anabolic reactions are distributed between the cytosol and chloroplasts, catabolism of the amino acids of the glutamate family takes place in mitochondria and has been implicated in fueling energy-demanding physiological processes such as root elongation, recovery from stress, bolting and pollen tube elongation. Exceeding the metabolic functions, the amino acids of the glutamate family were recently identified as important signaling molecules in plants. Extracellular Glu, GABA and a range of other metabolites trigger responses in plant cells that resemble the actions of Glu and GABA as neurotransmitters in animals. Plant homologues of the Glu-gated ion channels from mammals and protein kinase signaling cascades have been implicated in these responses. Pollen tube growth and guidance depend on GABA signaling and the root architecture is specifically regulated by Glu. GABA and Pro signaling or metabolism were shown to contribute to the orchestration of defense and programmed cell death in response to pathogen attacks. Pro signaling was additionally proposed to regulate developmental processes and especially sexual reproduction. Arg is tightly linked to nitric oxide (NO) production and signaling in plants, although Arg-dependent NO-synthases could still not be identified. Potentially Arg-derived polyamines constitute the missing link between Arg and NO signaling in response to stress. Taken together, the amino acids of the glutamate family emerge as important signaling molecules that orchestrate plant growth and development by integrating the metabolic status of the plant with environmental signals, especially in stressful conditions. This research topic collects contributions from different facets of glutamate family amino acid signaling or metabolism to bring together, and integrate in a comprehensive view the latest advances in our understanding of the multiple functions of Glu-derived amino acids in plants.

Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses in Crop Plants

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ISBN: 9783038974635 / 9783038974642 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-464-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Plant Sciences --- Genetics --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-16 10:24:11
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While the demand for crop products continues to increase strongly, agricultural productivity is threatened by various stress factors, often associated with global warming. To sustain and improve yield, it is necessary to understand how plants respond to various stresses, and to use the generated knowledge in modern breeding programs. Most knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms associated with stress responses has been obtained from investigations using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Stress hormones, such as abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid, have been shown to play key roles in defense responses against abiotic and biotic stresses. More recently, evidence that growth-regulating plant hormones are also involved in stress responses has been accumulating. Epigenetic regulation at the DNA and histone level, and gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs appear to be important as well. Many approaches have used mutant screens and next generation sequencing approaches to identify key players and mechanisms how plants respond to their environment. However, it is often unclear to which extent the elucidated mechanisms also operate in crops.This Special Issue Book, therefore, aims to close this gap and contains a number of contributions from labs that work both, on Arabidopsis and crops. The book includes contributions reporting how crop plant species respond to various abiotic stresses, such as drought, heat, cold, flooding, and salinity, as well as biotic stimuli during microbial infections. It contains reviews, opinions, perspectives, and original articles, and its focus is on our molecular understanding of biotic and abiotic stress responses in crops, highlighting, among other aspects, the role of stress hormones, secondary metabolites, signaling mechanisms, and changes in gene expression patterns and their regulation. Approaches and ideas to achieve stress tolerance and to maintain yield stability of agricultural crops during stress periods can be found in most chapters. These include also perspectives on how knowledge from model plants can be utilized to facilitate crop-plant breeding and biotechnology.

Plant Genetics and Molecular Breeding

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ISBN: 9783039211753 / 9783039211760 Year: Pages: 628 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-176-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The development of new plant varieties is a long and tedious process involving the generation of large seedling populations for the selection of the best individuals. While the ability of breeders to generate large populations is almost unlimited, the selection of these seedlings is the main factor limiting the generation of new cultivars. Molecular studies for the development of marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategies are particularly useful when the evaluation of the character is expensive, time-consuming, or with long juvenile periods. The papers published in the Special Issue “Plant Genetics and Molecular Breeding” report highly novel results and testable new models for the integrative analysis of genetic (phenotyping and transmission of agronomic characters), physiology (flowering, ripening, organ development), genomic (DNA regions responsible for the different agronomic characters), transcriptomic (gene expression analysis of the characters), proteomic (proteins and enzymes involved in the expression of the characters), metabolomic (secondary metabolites), and epigenetic (DNA methylation and histone modifications) approaches for the development of new MAS strategies. These molecular approaches together with an increasingly accurate phenotyping will facilitate the breeding of new climate-resilient varieties resistant to abiotic and biotic stress, with suitable productivity and quality, to extend the adaptation and viability of the current varieties.

Keywords

sugarcane --- cry2A gene --- particle bombardment --- stem borer --- resistance --- NPK fertilizers --- agronomic traits --- molecular markers --- quantitative trait loci --- common wild rice --- Promoter --- Green tissue-specific expression --- light-induced --- transgenic chrysanthemum --- WRKY transcription factor --- salt stress --- gene expression --- DgWRKY2 --- Cucumis sativus L. --- RNA-Seq --- DEGs --- sucrose --- ABA --- drought stress --- Aechmea fasciata --- squamosa promoter binding protein-like --- flowering time --- plant architecture --- bromeliad --- Oryza sativa --- endosperm development --- rice quality --- WB1 --- the modified MutMap method --- abiotic stress --- Cicer arietinum --- candidate genes --- genetics --- heat-stress --- molecular breeding --- metallothionein --- Brassica --- Brassica napus --- As3+ stress --- broccoli --- cytoplasmic male sterile --- bud abortion --- gene expression --- transcriptome --- RNA-Seq --- sesame --- genome-wide association study --- yield --- QTL --- candidate gene --- cabbage --- yellow-green-leaf mutant --- recombination-suppressed region --- bulk segregant RNA-seq --- differentially expressed genes --- marker–trait association --- haplotype block --- genes --- root traits --- D-genome --- genotyping-by-sequencing --- single nucleotide polymorphism --- durum wheat --- bread wheat --- complex traits --- Brassica oleracea --- Ogura-CMS --- iTRAQ --- transcriptome --- pollen development --- rice --- OsCDPK1 --- seed development, starch biosynthesis --- endosperm appearance --- Chimonanthus praecox --- nectary --- floral scent --- gene expression --- Prunus --- flowering --- bisulfite sequencing --- genomics --- epigenetics --- breeding --- AP2/ERF genes --- Bryum argenteum --- transcriptome --- gene expression --- stress tolerance --- SmJMT --- transgenic --- Salvia miltiorrhiza --- overexpression --- transcriptome --- phenolic acids --- Idesia polycarpa var --- glycine --- FAD2 --- linoleic acid --- oleic acid --- anther wall --- tapetum --- pollen accumulation --- OsGPAT3 --- rice --- cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) --- phytohormones --- differentially expressed genes --- pollen development --- Brassica napus --- Rosa rugosa --- RrGT2 gene --- Clone --- VIGS --- Overexpression --- Tobacco --- Flower color --- Anthocyanin --- sugarcane --- WRKY --- subcellular localization --- gene expression pattern --- protein-protein interaction --- transient overexpression --- soybean --- branching --- genome-wide association study (GWAS) --- near-isogenic line (NIL) --- BRANCHED1 (BRC1) --- TCP transcription factor --- Zea mays L. --- MADS transcription factor --- ZmES22 --- starch --- flowering time --- gene-by-gene interaction --- Hd1 --- Ghd7 --- rice --- yield trait --- Oryza sativa L. --- leaf shape --- yield trait --- molecular breeding --- hybrid rice --- nutrient use efficiency --- quantitative trait loci (QTLs), molecular markers --- agronomic efficiency --- partial factor productivity --- P. suffruticosa --- R2R3-MYB --- overexpression --- anthocyanin --- transcriptional regulation --- ethylene-responsive factor --- Actinidia deliciosa --- AdRAP2.3 --- gene expression --- waterlogging stress --- regulation --- Chrysanthemum morifolium --- WUS --- CYC2 --- gynomonoecy --- reproductive organ --- flower symmetry --- Hs1pro-1 --- cZR3 --- gene pyramiding --- Heterodera schachtii --- resistance --- tomato --- Elongated Internode (EI) --- QTL --- GA2ox7 --- n/a

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