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Why Icebergs Float: Exploring Science in Everyday Life

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ISBN: 9781911307044 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781911307044 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-10-20 11:01:18
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From paintings and food to illness and icebergs, science is happening everywhere. Rather than follow the path of a syllabus or textbook, Andrew Morris takes examples from the science we see every day and uses them as entry points to explain a number of fundamental scientific concepts – from understanding colour to the nature of hormones – in ways that anyone can grasp. While each chapter offers a separate story, they are linked together by their fascinating relevance to our daily lives.

Keywords

atoms --- substances --- science --- compounds --- popular science

Recent Changes in Drug Abuse Scenario: The Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) Phenomenon

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ISBN: 9783038975076 9783038975083 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-508-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Neurology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 10:04:51
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In parallel with a decrease/stabilization in the use of internationally controlled drugs, the market of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) continues increasing, year after year, with the Internet playing a pivotal role in contributing to this complex scenario. At times, although misleading, the terms ‘legal highs’ or ’research chemicals’ have been used to describe these molecules. Overall, about 5% of 19–24-year-old European people have already experimented with them, because both NPS’ intense psychoactive effects and their virtual non-detectability in routine drug screenings. Although ‘novel’ typically refers to molecules that have recently become a reason of current/potential public health concern, at times, the NPS scenario may indeed focus on pharmaceutical molecules. These may have either not entered the market, or are currently prescribed, with their potential for misuse resulting from the relating high dosages/idiosyncratic ways of self-administration. A concurrent use of a range of different NPS, and/or medications, is frequently being reported and this may be a reason of further clinical complications. Given their complex pharmacodynamics, there are increasing levels of concern about the onset of acute/chronic psychopathological associated with NPS intake. This Special Issue aims at providing an overview of a range of NPS-related issues, e.g., preclinical, epidemiological, and clinical pharmacological; the medical and psychopathological consequences associated with their intake; and, finally, the analytical chemistry and forensic analysis challenges associated with the NPS phenomenon.

Flowing Matter

Authors: ---
Book Series: Soft and Biological Matter ISBN: 9783030233709 Year: Pages: 309 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-23370-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:10
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This open access book, published in the Soft and Biological Matter series, presents an introduction to selected research topics in the broad field of flowing matter, including the dynamics of fluids with a complex internal structure -from nematic fluids to soft glasses- as well as active matter and turbulent phenomena. Flowing matter is a subject at the crossroads between physics, mathematics, chemistry, engineering, biology and earth sciences, and relies on a multidisciplinary approach to describe the emergence of the macroscopic behaviours in a system from the coordinated dynamics of its microscopic constituents. Depending on the microscopic interactions, an assembly of molecules or of mesoscopic particles can flow like a simple Newtonian fluid, deform elastically like a solid or behave in a complex manner. When the internal constituents are active, as for biological entities, one generally observes complex large-scale collective motions. Phenomenology is further complicated by the invariable tendency of fluids to display chaos at the large scales or when stirred strongly enough. This volume presents several research topics that address these phenomena encompassing the traditional micro-, meso-, and macro-scales descriptions, and contributes to our understanding of the fundamentals of flowing matter. This book is the legacy of the COST Action MP1305 “Flowing Matter”.

Biofilms: Extracellular Bastions of Bacteria

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ISBN: 9783906980942 9783906980959 Year: Pages: 300 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-906980-95-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:42:46
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Biofilms are attached forms of bacteria and other microorganisms enclosed in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and comprise a microbial lifestyle that is quite different from that of free-living planktonic cells. The biofilm state is now universally-recognized for its complexity and resiliency to stresses, and importance in natural environments, as well its roles in comensal flora and infection processes. However, the EPS matrix, which occur just ‘outside of cells’, is poorly understood, and has been understated in the literature. Yet this extracellular milieu is crucial to the functioning and resiliency of the biofilm. Recently, exciting new advances have emerged that are helping to understand the EPS matrix, its processes, ultrastructure, and importance to cells in nature and disease.

Microbial Exopolymers: Sources, Chemico-Physiological Properties, and Ecosystem Effects in the Marine Environment

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456024 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-602-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, microeukaryotes) in marine environments secrete a diverse array of exopolymeric substances that facilitate attachment to surfaces, the formation of organic colloids and larger aggregations of cells (marine snow), and that can influence many ocean, as well as global, processes. The aim of this Research Topic is to highlight recent advances in the sources, chemistry and function of these microbial-produced macromolecules. We encouraged original research and reviews on exopolymeric substances, from their sources, chemico-physiological properties, functions and ecosystem effects, and including their role in the Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster.

Cultural Expertise: An Emergent Concept and Evolving Practices

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ISBN: 9783039280506 9783039280513 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-051-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Cultural expertise in the form of expert opinions formulated by social scientists appointed as experts in the legal process is not different from any other kind of expertise in court. In specialised fields of law, such as native land titles in America and in Australia, the appointment of social scientists as experts in court is a consolidated practice. This Special Issue focuses on the contemporary evolution and variation of cultural expertise as an emergent concept providing a conceptual umbrella for a variety of evolving practices, which all include use of the specialised knowledge of social sciences for the resolution of conflicts. It surveys the application of cultural expertise in the legal process with an unprecedented span of fields ranging from criminology and ethnopsychiatry to the recognition of the rights of autochthone minorities including linguistic expertise, and modern reformulation of cultural rights. In this Special Issue, the emphasis is on the development and change of culture-related expert witnessing over recent times, culture-related adjudication, and resolution of disputes, criminal litigation, and other kinds of court and out-of-court procedures. This Special Issue offers descriptions of judicial practices involving experts in local laws and customs and surveys of the most frequent fields of expert witnessing that are related with culture; interrogates who the experts are, their links with local communities, and also with the courts and the state power and politics; how cultural expert witnessing has been received by judges; how cultural expertise has developed across the sister disciplines of history and psychiatry; and eventually, it asks whether academic truth and legal truth are commensurable across time and space.

Novel Photoactive Materials

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ISBN: 9783038976509 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-651-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-05 14:29:32
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Photoactivity represents the ability of a material, generally speaking a semiconductor, to become active when interacting with light. It can be declined in many ways, and several functionalities arising from this behavior of materials can be exploited, all leading to positive repercussions on our environment. There are several classes of effects of photoactivity, all of which have been deeply investigated in the last few decades, allowing to develop more and more efficient materials and devices. All of them share a common point, that is, the interaction of a material with light, although many different materials are taken into account depending on the effect desired—from elemental semiconductors like silicon, to more complex compounds like CdTe or GaAs, to metal oxides like TiO2 and ZnO. Given the broadness of the field, a huge number of works fall within this topic, and new areas of discovery are constantly explored. The special issue “Novel Photoactive Materials” has been proposed as a means to present recent developments in the field, and for this reason the articles included touch different aspects of photoactivity, from photocatalysis to photovoltaics to light emitting materials.

Anti-Photoagaing and Photo-Protective Compounds from Marine Organisms

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039280445 9783039280452 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-045-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This Special Issue Book ""Anti-Photoagaing and Photo-Protective Compounds from Marine Organisms"" is aimed at collecting literature on the below-mentioned keyword topics, which can significantly increase our basic understanding of marine-derived compounds in cosmeceutical product development and increases the value of marine products at the industrial level.

Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health

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ISBN: 9783039286287 / 9783039286294 Year: Pages: 290 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-629-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The year 2019 has been prolific in terms of new evidence regarding the effects of coffee and caffeine consumption on diverse aspects of human functioning. This book collects 20 high-quality manuscripts published in Nutrients that include original investigation or systematic review studies of the effects of caffeine intake on human performance and health. The diversity of the articles published in this Special Issue highlights the extent of the effects of coffee and caffeine on human functioning, while underpinning the positive nature of most of these effects. This book will help with understanding why the natural sources of caffeine are so widely present in the nutrition behaviors of modern society.

Keywords

pharmacokinetics --- energy drink --- exercise --- elite athlete --- performance --- football --- RPE --- DOMS --- sport performance --- supplementation --- ergogenic aids --- consumer --- behavior --- perception --- coffee --- health --- consumption motives --- coffee/caffeine --- systematic review and meta-analysis --- prospective studies --- epidemiology --- cancer prevention --- colorectal cancer --- individual responses --- responders --- exercise performance --- ergogenic aids --- caffeine --- coffee --- tea --- energy drinks --- pregnancy --- newborn --- caffeine --- ergogenic aid --- resistance training --- isokinetic testing --- adrenal gland --- caffeine --- corticosterone --- puberty --- rat --- sex-difference --- caffeine --- energy drinks --- fatigue --- mood state --- exercise --- supplement --- resistance exercise --- speed --- repetition --- n/a --- metabolome --- skeletal muscle --- exercise --- muscle contraction --- ergogenic effect --- bench press --- upper limb --- resistance exercise --- ergogenic substances --- time under tension --- 1RM test --- caffeine --- metabolites --- phenotyping --- CYP450 --- NAT --- xanthine oxidase --- actigraphy --- athletic --- coffee --- ergogenic aid --- supplement --- anaerobic --- caffeine --- CMJ --- ergogenic aids --- exercise --- nutrition --- sport supplement --- Wingate --- electromyography --- efficiency --- sport --- exercise --- expectancy --- belief --- perceptions --- placebo effect --- recovery --- strength --- power --- sprint performance --- menstrual cycle --- fatigue --- placebo --- ergogenic --- EEG–EMG coherence --- n/a --- women --- resistance exercise --- exercise training --- velocity --- ergogenic aid --- muscle function --- n/a

Pesticidal Plants: From Smallholder Use to Commercialisation

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039287888 / 9783039287895 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-789-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The global biodiversity and climate emergencies demand transformative changes to human activities. For example, food production relies on synthetic, industrial and non-sustainable products for managing pests, weeds and diseases of crops. Sustainable farming requires approaches to managing these agricultural constraints that are more environmentally benign and work with rather than against nature. Increasing pressure on synthetic products has reinvigorated efforts to identify alternative pest management options, including plant-based solutions that are environmentally benign and can be tailored to different farmers’ needs, from commercial to small holder and subsistence farming. Botanical insecticides and pesticidal plants can offer a novel, effective and more sustainable alternative to synthetic products for controlling pests, diseases and weeds. This Special Issue reviews and reports the latest developments in plant-based pesticides from identification of bioactive plant chemicals, mechanisms of activity and validation of their use in horticulture and disease vector control. Other work reports applications in rice weeds, combination biopesticides and how chemistry varies spatially and influences the effectiveness of botanicals in different locations. Three reviews assess wider questions around the potential of plant-based pest management to address the global challenges of new, invasive and established crop pests and as-yet underexploited pesticidal plants.

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