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Macrophages Role in Integrating Tissue Signals and Biological Processes in Chronic Inflammation and Fibrosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453320 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-332-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Abstract

Macrophages comprehend a heterogeneous mononuclear phagocytic population with wide range phenotypes and roles in homeostasis maintenance and diseases, such as infections, autoimmunity and cancer. Technology improvements enable researchers to track different macrophage populations in different tissues and situations and hypothesize on their role in promoting inflammation or stimulating tissue repair. Through innate immune recognition system macrophages can launch several effector artilleries that culminate in the production of various types of inflammatory mediators as cytokines, chemokines, lipid mediators and oxygen reactive species, which in turn, influence the behavior of other cells. Furthermore, macrophages and interacting cells are also susceptible to metabolic changes that ultimately will define the outcome macrophage signaling and its effect in the tissue. Here, we present a concise series of discussions on the role of macrophages, its response to the microenvironment and effects on other cells during tissue injury and repair. Triggering of inflammasome in macrophage activation and function is of special interest in this issue. We will emphasize the role of different macrophage subpopulations and the plasticity of these cells during fibrotic process in different models of diseases.

Autism Spectrum Disorders: From genotypes to phenotypes

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196807 Year: Pages: 93 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-680-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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This Research Topic covers the pathogenetic processes in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) that underpin the translation of genetic vulnerability to clinically significant symptoms. Available research data in ASD suggests that it is a neural connectivity disorder and that the social communication and related neurobehavioural symptoms result from reduced synchronization between key "social brain" regions. These interconnected neural systems can be understood through the relationship between functionally relevant anatomic areas and neurochemical pathways, the programming of which are genetically modulated during neurodevelopment and mediated through a range of epigenetic and environmental modulators. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms can provide an invaluable window for understanding the neural wiring that regulates higher brain functions and consequent clinical phenotypes. In keeping with the multi modal and diverse origins of ASD, this Research Topic explores the genetic underpinnings and environmental modulation in the aetiology; neural substrates, biomarkers and endophenotypes that underlie clinical characteristics; as well as neurochemical pathways and pathophysiological mechanisms that pave the way for therapeutic interventions. Furthermore, since genetically mediated deficits and consequent functional impairments involve activity-dependent synapse development that depends on postnatal learning and experience, the trajectory towards the final clinical expression could be modulated by early interventions that exploit the neuronal maturation and brain plasticity. However, identifying these diverse pathogenetic processes and tailoring interventions would require subtyping ASD into homogeneous subgroups. In this regard, this topic covers the current state of evidence in the literature through topic reviews as well as ongoing original work that provides tangible hypotheses and directions for future research.

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